Port Sudan (Pleistocene of Sudan)

Where: Sudan (19.6° N, 37.2° E: paleocoordinates 19.6° N, 37.1° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.0 Ma)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: perireef or subreef; lithified limestone

• limestone, sandy limestone, marly limestone, coral limestone, lumachelles

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: S. Nardini. 1934. Molluschi delle spiagge emerse del Mar Rosso e dell'Oceano Indiano, introduzione e parte I (gasteropodi) [Mollusks from raised beaches bordering the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, introduction and part I (gastropods)]. Palaeontographia Italica 34:171-267 [W. Kiessling/U. Merkel]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 101414: authorized by Wolfgang Kiessling, entered by Uta Merkel on 22.12.2010, edited by Mihaela Krause

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Arca plicata" = Acar plicata2, Arca nivea2, "Arca imbricata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata2, "Barbatia fusca" = Barbatia (Ustularca) fusca2, Barbatia lacerata2, "Anadara antiquata" = Anadara (Anadara) antiquata2
"Arca plicata" = Acar plicata2 Dillwyn 1817 miniature ark
"Arca imbricata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata2 Bruguière 1789 ark
var. arabica
"Barbatia fusca" = Barbatia (Ustularca) fusca2 Bruguiére 1792 clam
Barbatia lacerata2 Linnaeus 1758 clam
"Anadara antiquata" = Anadara (Anadara) antiquata2 Linnaeus 1758 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Pectunculus pectunculus" = Glycymeris pectunculus2
"Pectunculus pectunculus" = Glycymeris pectunculus2 Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Spondylus sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
Spondylus ciliatus2 Sowerby 1847 scallop
Spondylus regius2 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
Chlamys sanguinolenta2 Gmelin 1791 scallop
"Chlamys senatoria" = Mimachlamys senatoria2 Gmelin 1791 scallop
 Pectinida - Limidae
Lima bullifera2 file clam
 Pectinida - Plicatulidae
Plicatula plicata2 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
"Ostrea hyotis" = Hyotissa hyotis2, "Ostrea virleti" = Hyotissa virleti2
"Ostrea hyotis" = Hyotissa hyotis2 Linnaeus 1758 Honeycomb Oyster
"Ostrea virleti" = Hyotissa virleti2 Deshayes 1832 oyster
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
"Ostrea cucullata" = Saccostrea cuccullata2
"Ostrea cucullata" = Saccostrea cuccullata2 Born 1778 oyster
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cardita variegata2 Bruguière 1792 clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama corbierei2 jewel box
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Antigona puerpera" = Periglypta puerpera2, "Antigona reticulata" = Periglypta reticulata2, Gafrarium pectinatum2, Circe pectinata2
"Antigona puerpera" = Periglypta puerpera2 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
"Antigona reticulata" = Periglypta reticulata2 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Gafrarium pectinatum2 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Circe pectinata2 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
 Cardiida - Psammobiidae
Asaphis deflorata2 Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium rugosum" = Vasticardium pectiniforme2, "Cardium australe" = Fulvia australis2, Tridacna elongata2, "Tridacna gigas" = Tridacna (Tridacna) gigas2
"Cardium rugosum" = Vasticardium pectiniforme2 Born 1780 cockle
and var. gortanii
"Cardium australe" = Fulvia australis2 Sowerby 1834 cockle
"Tridacna gigas" = Tridacna (Tridacna) gigas2 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Codakia tigerina2 Linnaeus 1758 clam
Gastropoda
 Ptenoglossa - Thaididae
"Ricinula ochrostoma" = Drupa
"Ricinula ochrostoma" = Drupa snail
var. heptagonalis
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Nassa nodifera true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa arcularia" = Nassarius (Nassarius) arcularia, "Nassa kieneri" = Nassarius (Niotha) kieneri
"Nassa arcularia" = Nassarius (Nassarius) arcularia Linnaeus 1758 snail
"Nassa kieneri" = Nassarius (Niotha) kieneri Deshayes 1863 snail
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
"Pyrula paradisiaca" = Melongena (Pyrula)
"Pyrula paradisiaca" = Melongena (Pyrula) snail
var. nodosa
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
"Fusus polygonoides" = Latirus polygonoides
"Fusus polygonoides" = Latirus polygonoides Lamarck 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra variegata mitre shell
Mitra stefaninii n. sp. Nardini 1934 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Purpura hippocastanum" = Mancinella aculeata Deshayes and Milne-Edwards 1844 murex snail
Murex anguliferus murex snail
Murex laciniatus murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
"Mangilia stromboides" = Cythara (Mangelia)
"Mangilia stromboides" = Cythara (Mangelia) snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Pleurotoma sp." = Turris, "Pleurotoma neglecta" = Turris
"Pleurotoma sp." = Turris Röding 1798 turrid
"Pleurotoma neglecta" = Turris turrid
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguiére 1792 cone shell
"Conus amadis" = Conus (Leptoconus) amadis Martini 1773 cone shell
Conus miles Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra duplicata" = Terebra (Duplicaria) duplicata Lamarck 1822 auger snail
Terebra cumingi auger snail
var. ragazzii
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
"Rostellaria curvirostris" = Tibia, "Strombus terebellatus" = Terestrombus terebellatus, Strombus tricornis, Strombus muricatus, "Strombus gibberulus" = Strombus (Gibberulus) gibberulus, Strombus fasciatus
"Rostellaria curvirostris" = Tibia true conch
"Strombus terebellatus" = Terestrombus terebellatus Sowerby 1842 true conch
"Strombus gibberulus" = Strombus (Gibberulus) gibberulus Linnaeus 1758 conch
Strombus fasciatus Born 1778 conch
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica mammilla moon snail
Natica melanostoma moon snail
Natica marochiensis Gmelin 1791 moon snail
"Natica powisiana" = Polinices peselephanti Link 1807 moon snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
"Cypraea lynx" = Cypraea (Lyncina) lynx, "Cypraea carneola" = Lyncina carneola, Cypraea sp., "Cypraea erosa" = Naria erosa, "Cypraea moneta" = Monetaria moneta, "Cypraea turdus" = Erosaria turdus, "Cypraea eburnea" = Erosaria eburnea
"Cypraea lynx" = Cypraea (Lyncina) lynx Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea carneola" = Lyncina carneola Linnaeus 1758 purple-mouthed cowry
Cypraea sp. Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea erosa" = Naria erosa Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea moneta" = Monetaria moneta Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea turdus" = Erosaria turdus Lamarck 1810 cowry
"Cypraea eburnea" = Erosaria eburnea Barnes 1824 Ivory Cowry
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Triton aquatilis" = Monoplex aquatilis, Ranella pusilla
"Triton aquatilis" = Monoplex aquatilis Reeve 1844 triton shell
Ranella pusilla triton shell
 Tonnoidea - Bursidae
"Ranella affinis" = Bursa granularis
"Ranella affinis" = Bursa granularis Röding 1798 frog shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
"Cerithium inflatum" = Clypeomorus inflata Quoy and Gaimard 1834 cerith snail
Cerithium clypeomorus cerith snail
Cerithium vertagus cerith snail
Cerithium rueppelli cerith snail
var. savignyi
Cerithium cailliaudi cerith snail
Cerithium sp. Bruguière 1789 cerith snail
Cerithium erythraeonense Lamarck 1822 cerith snail
Cerithium caeruleum Sowerby 1855 cerith snail
"Cerithium asperum" = Rhinoclavis (Rhinoclavis) aspera Linnaeus 1758 cerith snail
"Cerithium fasciatum" = Rhinoclavis (Rhinoclavis) fasciata Bruguiere 1792 cerith snail
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
"Nerita albicilla" = Nerita (Theliostyla) albicilla
"Nerita albicilla" = Nerita (Theliostyla) albicilla Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
Turbo sp. Linnaeus 1758 snail
"Turbo radiatus" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) radiatus Gmelin 1791 snail
"Turbo petholatus" = Turbo (Turbo) petholatus Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Trochus maculatus Linnaeus 1758 top snail
Trochus dentatus Forskal 1775 top snail
Anthozoa
 Scleractinia - Poritidae
Porites sp.1 Link 1807 stony coral
Porites compressa1 Dana 1846 stony coral
Porites columnaris1 Klunzinger 1879 stony coral
Porites cylindrica1 Dana 1846 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Fungiidae
Fungia repanda1 Dana 1846 stony coral
Cycloseris sinensis1 Milne-Edwards and Haime 1851 stony coral
Cycloseris vaughani1 Boschma 1923 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Montastraeidae
Montastraea cylindrica1 Duncan 1863 stony coral
Montastraea faveolata1 Ellis and Solander 1786 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Acroporidae
Acropora salundensis1 Vaughan 1919 stony coral
Acropora pharaonis1 Milne-Edwards and Haime 1860 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Pocilloporidae
Stylophora pistillata1 Esper 1797 stony coral
Stylophora affinis1 Duncan 1863 stony coral
Stylophora portbellensis1 Vaughan 1919 stony coral
Stylophora granulate1 Duncan 1864 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Dendrophylliidae
Turbinaria reniformis1 Bernard 1896 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Merulinidae
"Goniastrea aspera" = Coelastrea aspera1 Verrill 1866 stony coral
Caulastrea connata1 Ortmann 1892 stony coral
Hydnophora microconos1 Lamarck 1816 stony coral
Favites acuticollis1 Ortmann 1889 stony coral
Favites chinensis1 Verrill 1866 stony coral
Echinopora gemmacea1 Lamarck 1816 stony coral
Platygyra acuta1 Veron 2000 stony coral
"Favia pallida" = Dipsastraea pallida1 Dana 1846 stony coral
"Favia rotumana" = Dipsastraea rotumana1 Gardiner 1899 stony coral
"Favia speciosa" = Dipsastraea speciosa1 Dana 1846 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Faviidae
Solenastrea fairbanksi1 Vaughan 1900 stony coral
Favia leptophylla1 Verrill 1868 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Oculinidae
Galaxea fascicularis1 Linnaeus 1767 stony coral