N.V.P. Blue No. 3892 - Cantaure Formation (Miocene of Venezuela)

Where: Falcon, Venezuela (11.9° N, 69.8° W: paleocoordinates 11.2° N, 66.6° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Cantaure Formation, Burdigalian (20.4 - 16.0 Ma)

• Clays, sandstone, and limestones of up to 75, thick, although no single section is completely exposed. Collection apparently derived from near middle part of that thickness. Overlies unconformably Cretaceous rocks and is conformably overlain by limestones on middle to upper Miocene. Jung (1965) regarded the collection as early Middle Miocene, though more recent authors, including Vermeij (2001) indicate an Early Miocene (Burdigalian) age. Formation formerly referred to as "Cerro Pelado". Díaz de Gamero (1974), based on planktic forams, assigned a Lower Miocene age to the Cantaure Formation, placing it in the Globigerinatella insueta and Praeorbulina glomerosa Zones of Bolli (1966) and Zones N7-N8 of Blow (1969). Rey (1996) confirmed this age based on the nannofossil assemblage, and placing it in the Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromorphus Zones, NN4-NN5.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: transition zone or lower shoreface; unlithified, micaceous, shelly/skeletal, silty claystone

• Tropical shallow-water assemblage, neritic, no deep-water genera present, normal salinity, perhaps nearby brackish source. Cantaure Formation consists predominantly of siltstones with some muddy sandstones and bioturbated sandstones. The crustacean, foram, mollusk, otolith, and chondrichthyan faunas all support shallow depths (< 50 m), but the relatively fine grain size may indicate offshore-transition rather than shoreface environments.
• Clay, massive, micaceous, slightly silty, and locally containing abundant fossils.

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the BMNH, NMB, PRI, USNM

Collection methods: quarrying,

• All material is reposited in the Natural History Museum (NMB), Basel, Switzerland, with some voucher specimens in the British Museum, PRI, and USNM.

Primary reference: P. Jung. 1965. Miocene Mollusca from the Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela. Bulletins of American Paleontology 49(223):389-652 [A. Miller/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 60144: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 03.05.2006

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Exhaustive for Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Balanus, corals, numerous otoliths, and Calianassa fragments are commonly found, though not listed.
Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Arca (Arca) umbonata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata Bruguière 1789 ark
Anadara (Scapharca) veatchi Olsson 1922 ark
Subspecies: A. (S.) veatchi matarucana
"Anadara (Scapharca) aff. cornellana" = Anadara (Rasia) cornellana Hodson et al. 1927 ark
"Anadara (Scapharca) tirantensis" = Anadara (Rasia) tirantensis Hodson et al. 1927 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Glycymeris (Glycymeris) aff. democraciana" = Tucetona democraciana, Glycymeris (Glycymeris) aff. jamaicensis
"Glycymeris (Glycymeris) aff. democraciana" = Tucetona democraciana Hodson et al. 1927 clam
 Arcida - Noetiidae
Noetia dauleana, "Eontia aff. centrota" = Noetia (Eontia) centrota
Noetia dauleana Marks 1951 clam
Subspecies: N. daueana paraguanensis
"Eontia aff. centrota" = Noetia (Eontia) centrota Guppy 1867 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Spondylus aff. lucasi Maury 1920 scallop
 Pectinida - Plicatulidae
"Plicatula cf. guppyi" = Plicatula gibbosa
"Plicatula cf. guppyi" = Plicatula gibbosa Lamarck 1801 scallop
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
"Ostrea aff. aguaclarensis" = Hyotissa aguaclarensis
"Ostrea aff. aguaclarensis" = Hyotissa aguaclarensis Hodson et al. 1927 oyster
Subspecies: O. aff. aguaclarensis
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea cf. portoricoensis Hubbard 1920 oyster
Ostrea aff. vaughani Dall 1915 oyster
Subspecies: O. aff. vaughani insularis
 Ostreida - Pinnidae
Atrina sp. Gray 1842 oyster
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
"Eucrassatella trinitaria" = Eucrassatella (Hybolophus) trinitaria
"Eucrassatella trinitaria" = Eucrassatella (Hybolophus) trinitaria Maury 1925 clam
Subspecies: E. trinitaria venezuelana
 Carditida - Carditidae
"Cardita paraguanensis" = Glyptoactis paraguanensis
"Cardita paraguanensis" = Glyptoactis paraguanensis Hodson 1931 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula (Caryocorbula) fortis" = Caryocorbula fortis, "Corbula (Caryocorbula) quirosana" = Caryocorbula quirosana, "Corbula (Tenuicorbula) aff. tenuis" = Tenuicorbula tenuis
"Corbula (Caryocorbula) fortis" = Caryocorbula fortis Jung 1965 clam
"Corbula (Caryocorbula) quirosana" = Caryocorbula quirosana Hodson 1931 clam
"Corbula (Tenuicorbula) aff. tenuis" = Tenuicorbula tenuis Sowerby 1833 clam
Subspecies: C. (T.) tenuis lupina
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama aff. berjadinensis Hodson 1927 jewel box
Arcinella arcinella7 Linnaeus 1767 jewel box
 Cardiida - Mactridae
"Mactra (Mactrotoma) ? quirosana" = Mactrotoma quirosana, "Mactra (Micromactra) maracaibensis" = Mactrotoma
"Mactra (Mactrotoma) ? quirosana" = Mactrotoma quirosana Hodson 1931 surfclam
"Mactra (Micromactra) maracaibensis" = Mactrotoma surfclam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Chione (Chionopsis) paraguanensis" = Chione (Chionopsis) tegulum Brown and Pilsbry 1911 venus clam
"Antigona (Ventricolaria) palmerae" = Ventricolaria harrisiana Olsson 1922 venus clam
Macrocallista maculata Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Clementia (Clementia) dariena Conrad 1855 venus clam
Pleiorytis caroniana Maury 1925 venus clam
"Cyclinella venezuelana" = Cyclinella cyclica Guppy 1866 venus clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
? Psammacoma sp. Dall 1900 tellin clam
"? Psammacoma cf. falconensis" = Psammacoma gatunensis Toula 1909 tellin clam
Tellina (Eurytellina) paraguanensis Hodson 1931 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Semele sp. Schumacher 1817 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana (Saccella) gnonom" = Saccella, "Nuculana (Saccella) aff. gnonom" = Saccella, Nuculana (Saccella) parva, Nuculana (? Saccella) gracillima, Nuculana (? Politoleda) forcati
"Nuculana (Saccella) gnonom" = Saccella pointed nut clam
"Nuculana (Saccella) aff. gnonom" = Saccella pointed nut clam
Nuculana (Saccella) parva Jung 1965 pointed nut clam
Nuculana (? Saccella) gracillima Jung 1965 pointed nut clam
Gastropoda
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
Scalina pseudoleroyi Maury 1925 wentletrap
 Patellogastropoda - Lottiidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
"Oliva (Oliva) cylindrica" = Oliva cylindrica
"Oliva (Oliva) cylindrica" = Oliva cylindrica Sowerby 1850 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Olivellidae
Agaronia testacea Lamarck 1811 snail
Subspecies: A. testacea costaricensis
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Cymatophos paraguanensis Hodson and Hodson 1931 true whelk
? Antillophos "sp. A" Woodring 1928 true whelk
"Antillophos candei" = Antillophos candeanus d'Orbigny 1842 true whelk
Subspecies: A. candei gatunensis
Antillophos aff. landesi Marks 1951 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Melongena melongena Linnaeus 1758 snail
Subspecies: M. melongena consors
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Trigonostoma woodringi, "Cancellaria (Euclia) werenfelsi" = Euclia werenfelsi, "Cancellaria (Bivetiella) beata" = Bivetiella, Bivetiella dariena5, Cancellaria paraguanensis, Cancellaria (? Cancellaria) lavelana, Cancellaria (Cancellaria) sp.2, "Cancellaria (Characolleria) terryi" = Massyla terryi
Trigonostoma woodringi Jung 1965 snail
"Cancellaria (Euclia) werenfelsi" = Euclia werenfelsi Jung 1965 snail
"Cancellaria (Bivetiella) beata" = Bivetiella snail
Bivetiella dariena5 Toula 1908 snail
Cancellaria (Cancellaria) sp.2 Lamarck 1799 snail
"Cancellaria (Characolleria) terryi" = Massyla terryi Olsson 1942 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cystiscidae
Persicula lavelana4 Hodson 1927 snail
Subspecies: P. (R.) venezuelana lavelana
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Prunum (Prunum) quirosense Hodson 1927 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Falsilyria sp. Pilsbry and Olsson 1954 volute
 Neogastropoda - Turbinellidae
Turbinella falconensis Hodson 1931 snail
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Eupleura kugleri, Cymia buchivacoana, Cymia cocoditana, "Typhis (Laevityphis) sawkinsi" = Siphonochelus (Laevityphis) sawkinsi, "Murex (Subpterynotus) textilis" = Murexiella (Subpterynotus) textilis, Chicoreus (Triplex) cornurectus4, "Paziella (? Panamurex) cf. gatunensis" = Poirieria (Panamurex) gatunensis, "Murex (Murex) polynematicus" = Vokesimurex polynematicus, Murex (? Siratus) triangularis
Eupleura kugleri Jung 1965 murex snail
Cymia buchivacoana murex snail
Subspecies: C. buchivacoana cantaurana
Cymia cocoditana Hodson 1931 murex snail
"Typhis (Laevityphis) sawkinsi" = Siphonochelus (Laevityphis) sawkinsi Mansfield 1925 murex snail
"Murex (Subpterynotus) textilis" = Murexiella (Subpterynotus) textilis Gabb 1873 murex snail
Chicoreus (Triplex) cornurectus4 Guppy 1876 murex snail
"Paziella (? Panamurex) cf. gatunensis" = Poirieria (Panamurex) gatunensis Brown and Pilsbry 1911 murex snail
"Murex (Murex) polynematicus" = Vokesimurex polynematicus Brown and Pilsbry 1911 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Clathrodrillia puertocolombiana Weisbord 1929 snail
"Crassispira aff. consors" = Hindsiclava consors Sowerby 1850 snail
"Crassispira henekeni" = Hindsiclava henekeni Sowerby 1850 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Knefastia aff. lavinoides" = Knefastia limonensis Olsson 1922 turrid
Fusiturricula cf. jaquensis Sowerby 1850 turrid
Crassispira conica Jung 1965 turrid
Polystira barretti Guppy 1866 turrid
 Neogastropoda -
"Glyphostoma dentiferum" = Glyphostoma (Glyphostoma) dentiferum
"Glyphostoma dentiferum" = Glyphostoma (Glyphostoma) dentiferum Gabb 1872 snail
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
"Borsonia (Paraborsonia) cantaurana" = Paraborsonia
"Borsonia (Paraborsonia) cantaurana" = Paraborsonia snail
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus aristos cone shell
Conus talis Jung 1965 cone shell
Conus trajectionis Maury 1910 cone shell
Conus aff. molis Brown and Pilsbry 1911 cone shell
Conus aff. imitator Brown and Pilsbry 1911 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) "sp. A"" = Strioterebrum, "Terebra (Strioterebrum) ulloa" = Strioterebrum ulloa, Terebra (Paraterebra) inaequalis, Terebra (Paraterebra) sulcifera, Hastula lissa
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) "sp. A"" = Strioterebrum Sacco 1891 auger snail
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) ulloa" = Strioterebrum ulloa Olsson 1932 auger snail
Terebra (Paraterebra) inaequalis Sowerby 1849 auger snail
Terebra (Paraterebra) sulcifera Sowerby 1849 auger snail
Hastula lissa auger snail
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
Ficus carbasea Guppy 1866 fig shell
Subspecies: F. carbesea carbesea
 Vanikoroidea - Hipponicidae
Hipponix ceras hoof shell
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Natica (Naticarius) canrena" = Naticarius canrena Linnaeus 1758 moon snail
Subspecies: N. (N.) canrena antinacca
Sinum dodoneum moon snail
Sinum gabbi Brown and Pilsbry 1913 moon snail
Polinices nelsoni moon snail
Neverita paraguanensis Hodson 1927 moon snail
 Cypraeoidea - Eocypraeidae
"Marginocypraea wegeneri" = Sphaerocypraea wegeneri
"Marginocypraea wegeneri" = Sphaerocypraea wegeneri Schilder 1939 snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
"Cypraea aff. isabella" = Luria isabella
"Cypraea aff. isabella" = Luria isabella Linnaeus 1758 Isabell cowry
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
"? Crepidula (? Crepipatella) insculpta" = Crucibulum (Dispotaea) insculpta Jung 1965 slipper shell
Crucibulum (Dispotaea) waltonense Gardner 1947 slipper shell
Crepidula cantaurana slipper shell
Calyptraea (Trochita) cf. radians Lamarck 1816 slipper shell
 Tonnoidea - Personidae
Distorsio jungi1 snail
Subspecies: D. (R.) decussata gatunensis
 Tonnoidea - Bursidae
Bursa rugosa4 Sowerby 1835 frog shell
Subspecies: B. (C.) caelata amphitrites
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
Sconsia laevigata Guppy 1850 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Potamididae
Potamides suprasulcatus Gabb 1873 horn snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella machapoorensis Maury 1925 turret shell
Subspecies: T. machapoorensis paraguanensis and T. machapoorensis wiedenmayeri
Turritella cocoditana Hodson 1926 turret shell
Turritella matarucana Hodson 1926 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
Neritina seani3, "Nerita (Nerita) fulgurans" = Nerita (Theliostyla) fulgurans
Neritina seani3 Landau et al. 2016 snail
"Nerita (Nerita) fulgurans" = Nerita (Theliostyla) fulgurans Gmelin 1791 snail
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
Architectonica kartseni4 sundial
Subspecies: A. (A.) nobilis nobilis and A. (A.) nobilis karsteni
Scaphopoda
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium (Dentalium) bocasense Olsson 1922 tusk shell
 Gadilida - Gadilidae
"Cadulus (Cadulus) aff. phenax" = Cadulus (Gadila) phenax
"Cadulus (Cadulus) aff. phenax" = Cadulus (Gadila) phenax Pilsbry and Sharp 1898 tusk shell
Cephalopoda
 Nautilida - Aturiidae
"Aturia curvilineata n. sp." = Aturia cubaensis6
"Aturia curvilineata n. sp." = Aturia cubaensis6 Lea 1841 nautiloid