Emsian fauna from the Kartal Fm, Istanbul, Turkey (Devonian to of Turkey)

Also known as Type section of the Kartal Fm

Where: Istanbul, Turkey (40.9° N, 29.2° E: paleocoordinates 18.4° S, 23.7° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Kartal Formation (Pendik Group), Pragian to Pragian (410.8 - 393.3 Ma)

• "Bivalves give this formation a Coblencian age. The bivalves identified here are often found in other countries spanning the Siegenian and Emsian. Nevertheless, a certain preponderance of Emsian species seems to exsist. Carls (1972) dated the strophomenids as Late Early Emsian. Gandl (1972) considered the trilobites to have ranged from Late Early Emsian to Middle Late Emsian."

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: transition zone or lower shoreface; pebbly, gray, yellow, argillaceous, calcareous sandstone and micaceous, pebbly, gray, yellow, calcareous shale

• Carls (1973) states that the strophomenids indicate moderate sedimentation rate, very moderate water agitation, and a water depth of 50 to 100 m, based on comparable faunas in Spain.
• "shales and graywacke. The shales are dark gray to bluish gray, but when weathered are olive gray to grayish yellow, patchily colored, earthy and micaceous on the splitting surfaces. Persistent intercalations, and, in places alternations of laminar to medium bedded graywackes and bioclastic limestones are characteristic. The graywackes are within the same color ranges, fine grained, poorly sorted, micaceous, and mostly poor in organic fragments. Both the shales and graywackes are calcareous in different grades. They show rapid lateral changes in the content of organic fragments and contain mostly disarticulated but not eroded fossils. Small scale tool and current marks, convolutions, and pebbly horizons occur locally. The limestones are dark gray, range in composition from packed biomicrite to well sorted, angular biosparite, and have locally suffered from strong recrystalization and dolomitization. The minimum thickness is 325 m and estimated thickness is 400 m."

Collection methods: Stratigraphy and fossil collections were by Kaya (1973), Babin (1973) studied the bivalves, Carls (1973) studied the strophomenids, Gandl (1973) studied the trilobites, and Kullmann (1973) studied the corals and goniatites.

Primary reference: O. Kaya. 1973. The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Istinye, Bostanci, and Buyukada subareas. Paleozoic of Istanbul Ege universitesi, Fen fakultesi, Kitaplar Serisi, Jeol 40:1-36 [A. Miller/J. Sessa/J. Sessa]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 32470: authorized by Arnold Miller, entered by Jocelyn Sessa on 01.07.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Phacopida - Acastidae
Acastoides sp.3 Delo 1935 trilobite
Acastoides n. sp. ?
 Phacopida - Homalonotidae
 Strophomenida - Leptostrophiidae
 Strophomenida - Rafinesquinidae
Leptaenopyxis sp.2 HavlĂ­cek 1963
 Strophomenida - Strophodontidae
"? Strophodonta clausa" = Strophomena (Strophodonta)2
"? Strophodonta clausa" = Strophomena (Strophodonta)2
 Strophomenida - Amphistrophiidae
Mesodouvillina sp.2 Williams 1950
 Strophomenida - Strophonellidae
 Pectinida - Pterinopectinidae
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
"Leiopteria gervillei" = Leptodesma (Leiopteria)1, "Leiopteria cf. globosa" = Leptodesma (Leiopteria)1, "Leiopteria sp." = Leptodesma (Leiopteria)1, Actinopteria costata1
"Leiopteria gervillei" = Leptodesma (Leiopteria)1 oyster
"Leiopteria cf. globosa" = Leptodesma (Leiopteria)1 oyster
"Leiopteria sp." = Leptodesma (Leiopteria)1 Hall 1883 oyster
 Carditida - Cardiniidae
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
Grammysia sp.1 de Verneuil 1847 clam
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
"Pterinea concentrica" = Modiomorpha concentrica1, Goniophora sp.1
"Pterinea concentrica" = Modiomorpha concentrica1 Conrad 1838 clam
Goniophora sp.1 Phillips 1848 clam
 Solenida - Orthonotidae
Orthonota sp.1 Conrad 1841 clam
 Pholadomyida -
 Lucinida - Mactromyidae
 Trigoniida -
 Trigoniida - Eoschizodidae
Eoschizodus sp.1 Cox 1951 clam
May be a new species of Eoschizodus
 Trigoniida -
Hefteria sp.1 clam
May be a new species
 Protobranchia - Ctenodontidae
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Nuculoidea grandaeva1 nut clam
Nuculoidea grandaeva var. elongata
 Protobranchia -
? Palaeoneilo cf. beushauseni1 clam
[entered as Paleoneilo beushauseni]
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Phestia securiformis1 pointed nut clam
 Agoniatitida - Teicherticeratidae
"Convoluticeras buluti" = Teicherticeras buluti4
"Convoluticeras buluti" = Teicherticeras buluti4 Erben 1965 ammonite
 Agoniatitida - Mimosphinctidae
"Anetoceras (Erbenoceras) solitarium" = Erbenoceras solitarium4
"Anetoceras (Erbenoceras) solitarium" = Erbenoceras solitarium4 Barrande 1865 ammonite
 Favositida - Micheliniidae