Gryphaea (Crassostrea) gryphoides crassissima assemblage zone, Crete (Miocene of Greece)

Where: Greece (35.3° N, 24.6° E: paleocoordinates 34.9° N, 24.2° E)

• coordinate based on political unit

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Apostoli Formation, Tortonian (11.6 - 7.2 Ma)

• N 16: Neogloboquadrina acostaensis zone

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: shallow subtidal; lithified limestone and lithified marl

• The basal parts are composed of conglomerates and sands. The middle and upper parts consist of organic limestones alternating with clays and marls.

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: M. Dermitzakis and E. Georgiades-Dikeoulia. 1987. Biozonation of the Neogene invertebrate megafauna of the Hellenic area. Annales Instituti Geologici Publici Hungarici 70:125-136 [W. Kiessling/U. Merkel]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 72310: authorized by Wolfgang Kiessling, entered by Uta Merkel on 01.06.2007, edited by Wolfgang Kiessling

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula (Corbula) carinata Dujardin 1837 clam
subsp. hoernesi
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium echinatum" = Acanthocardia (Acanthocardia) echinata Linnaeus 1767 cockle
subsp. mucronata
Cardium tuberculatum Linnaeus 1758 cockle
Cardium (Ringicardium) hians Spengler 1799 cockle
subsp. danubianum
"Cardium (Cerastoderma) edule" = Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus (Ventricola) multilamella, "Dosinia (Orbiculus) lupinus" = Dosinia lupina
Venus (Ventricola) multilamella Lamarck 1818 venus clam
"Dosinia (Orbiculus) lupinus" = Dosinia lupina Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
subsp. austriaca
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama gryphoides Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Cardiida - Mactridae
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
 Carditida - Carditidae
"Beguina (Glans) rhomboidea" = Glans clam
"Beguina (Glans) rudista" = Glans clam
Cardita jouanneti clam
subsp. ponderosa
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
"Pycnodonta germanitala" = Pycnodonte, "Pycnodonta navicularis" = Neopycnodonte navicularis
"Pycnodonta germanitala" = Pycnodonte oyster
"Pycnodonta navicularis" = Neopycnodonte navicularis Brocchi 1814 oyster
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Gryphaea (Crassostrea) gryphoides, "Ostrea (Ostrea) digitalina" = Cubitostrea digitalina, Ostrea fimbriata, Ostrea gingensis, "Ostrea (Ostrea) edulis" = Ostrea edulis, "Ostrea (Ostrea) lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis, "Ostrea lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis, Ostrea (Ostrea) fimbriata
Gryphaea (Crassostrea) gryphoides Schlotheim 1813 oyster
subsp. crassissima
"Ostrea (Ostrea) digitalina" = Cubitostrea digitalina Eichwald 1830 oyster
Ostrea gingensis Schlotheim 1813 oyster
"Ostrea (Ostrea) edulis" = Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
subsp. adriatica
"Ostrea (Ostrea) lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
"Ostrea lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
subsp. boblayei
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten (Flabellipecten) ugolini" = Flabellipecten, "Flabellipecten incrassatus" = Flabellipecten, Flabellipecten fraterculus, Pecten praebenedictus, Pecten revolutus, Pecten benedictus, Pecten dunkeri, Pecten aduncus, "Chlamys multistriata" = Talochlamys multistriata, Hinnites brassonii, "Pecten (Flabellipecten) besseri" = Camptonectes virgatus, Chlamys (Manupecten) jakloweciana, Chlamys (Macrochlamys) latissima, Chlamys solarium, Chlamys angelonii, Chlamys bollenensis, Chlamys haueri, Chlamys (Macrochlamys) tournali, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) scabrella" = Chlamys scabrellus, "Chlamys varia" = Chlamys (Chlamys) varia, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) spinulosa" = Aequipecten, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis, "Chlamys opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis, "Amussium cristatum" = Amusium, Spondylus gaederopus, Spondylus crassicosta, Spondylus concentricus
"Pecten (Flabellipecten) ugolini" = Flabellipecten scallop
"Flabellipecten incrassatus" = Flabellipecten scallop
Flabellipecten fraterculus Sowerby in Smith 1841 scallop
Pecten aduncus Eichwald 1830 scallop
"Chlamys multistriata" = Talochlamys multistriata Poli 1795 scallop
Hinnites brassonii scallop
subsp. calligens
"Pecten (Flabellipecten) besseri" = Camptonectes virgatus Nilsson 1827 scallop
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) scabrella" = Chlamys scabrellus Lamarck 1819 scallop
"Chlamys varia" = Chlamys (Chlamys) varia Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) spinulosa" = Aequipecten scallop
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Chlamys opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus 1758 scallop
subsp. audouini
"Amussium cristatum" = Amusium scallop
Spondylus gaederopus Linnaeus 1758 scallop
Spondylus crassicosta Lamarck 1819 scallop
Spondylus concentricus Bronn 1831 scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia (Anomia) ephippium Linnaeus 1758 jingle
 Arcida - Arcidae
Barbatia (Barbatia) barbata, "Arca (Anadara) diluvii" = Scapharca (Scapharca) diluvii, "Arca (Anadara) girondica" = Anadara, "Arca (Anadara) fichteli" = Anadara fichteli, Arca turoniensis, Arca turonica, Arca (Anadara) noae
Barbatia (Barbatia) barbata Linnaeus 1758 clam
"Arca (Anadara) diluvii" = Scapharca (Scapharca) diluvii Lamarck 1805 clam
"Arca (Anadara) girondica" = Anadara ark
"Arca (Anadara) fichteli" = Anadara fichteli Deshayes 1850 ark
Arca turonica ark
subsp. taurangulosa
Arca (Anadara) noae Linnaeus 1758 ark
 Arcida - Noetiidae
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Arca (Pectinarca) pectinata" = Tucetona pectinata Gmelin 1791 clam
Glycymeris (Glycymeris) cor Lamarck 1805 clam
Glycymeris (Glycymeris) pilosa Linnaeus 1767 clam
subsp. deshayesi
Gastropoda
 Trochoidea - Turbinidae
"Astraea (Bolma) meynardi" = Bolma, "Astraea (Bolma) rugosa" = Bolma rugosus
"Astraea (Bolma) meynardi" = Bolma snail
"Astraea (Bolma) rugosa" = Bolma rugosus Linnaeus 1767 snail
 Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
Diodora (Lucapina) italica Defrance 1820 snail
 Cerithioidea - Potamididae
"Potamides tricinctus" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus, "Terebralia bidentata" = Terebralia bidentata, "Terebralia lignitarum" = Terebralia bidentata, "Potamides (Tympanotomus) trochlearispina" = Tympanotonos
"Potamides tricinctus" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus Brocchi 1814 horn snail
subsp. scalaritina
"Terebralia bidentata" = Terebralia bidentata Defrance 1832 horn snail
subsp. cingulatior, vignali, prolignitarium and bidentata
"Terebralia lignitarum" = Terebralia bidentata Defrance 1832 horn snail
subsp. lignitarum
"Potamides (Tympanotomus) trochlearispina" = Tympanotonos horn snail
subsp. subfenestrata
 Cerithioidea - Turritellidae
Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata, Turritella (Haustator) tricincta, Turritella (Turritella) turris, "Turritella (Torculoidella) bicarinata" = Turritella bicarinata, Turritella (Zaria) subangulata, "Turritella (Archimediella) dertonensis" = Archimediella, "Turritella (Archimediella) archimedis" = Archimediella, "Turritella (Archimediella) pythagoraica" = Archimediella, "Turritella (Torculoidella) triplicata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella), "Archimediella (Torculoidella) spirata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) spiratus, "Turritella (Haustator) hoernesi" = Haustator, "Turritella (Haustator) partschi" = Haustator, "Turritella (Haustator) eryna" = Haustator eryna
Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata Brocchi 1814 turret shell
subsp. communis
Turritella (Haustator) tricincta Münster 1841 turret shell
Turritella (Turritella) turris Basterot 1825 turret shell
subsp. capriciosa
"Turritella (Torculoidella) bicarinata" = Turritella bicarinata Elchwald 1830 turret shell
subsp. bicarinata and subunocincta
"Turritella (Archimediella) dertonensis" = Archimediella turret shell
subsp. dertonensis, persulcata and subconica
"Turritella (Archimediella) archimedis" = Archimediella turret shell
subsp. dertonatior
"Turritella (Archimediella) pythagoraica" = Archimediella turret shell
subsp. pythagoraica
"Turritella (Torculoidella) triplicata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) turret shell
and subsp. crasseplicata, dertosimplex and superneaplicata
"Archimediella (Torculoidella) spirata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) spiratus Brocchi 1814 turret shell
"Turritella (Haustator) hoernesi" = Haustator turret shell
"Turritella (Haustator) partschi" = Haustator turret shell
subsp. quatricincta
"Turritella (Haustator) eryna" = Haustator eryna d'Orbigny 1852 turret shell
subsp. rotundata
 Cerithioidea - Cerithiidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Vermetidae
Petaloconchus intortus Lamarck 1818 worm shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Xenophoridae
Xenophora deshayesi Michelotti 1847 carrier shell
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus (Rhijoconus) ponterosus, Conus (Rhijoconus) pyrula, Conus (Dendroconus) betulinoides, Conus (Conolithus) dujardini, Conus (Lithoconus) mercati, "Conus (Lithoconus) antiquus" = Lithoconus antiquus, "Conus (Chelyconus) enjesfeldensis" = Conus (Chelyoconus), "Conus (Chelyconus) fuscocingulatus" = Conus (Chelyoconus), "Conus (Chelyconus) pelagicus" = Conus (Chelyoconus), "Conus (Rhijoconus) puschi" = Plagioconus puschi
Conus (Rhijoconus) ponterosus cone shell
subsp. ponterosus
Conus (Rhijoconus) pyrula cone shell
subsp. mucronata
Conus (Conolithus) dujardini Deshayes 1845 cone shell
Conus (Lithoconus) mercati cone shell
subsp. miocaenicus
"Conus (Lithoconus) antiquus" = Lithoconus antiquus Lamarck 1810 cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) enjesfeldensis" = Conus (Chelyoconus) cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) fuscocingulatus" = Conus (Chelyoconus) cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) pelagicus" = Conus (Chelyoconus) cone shell
"Conus (Rhijoconus) puschi" = Plagioconus puschi Michelotti 1857 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
"Genota (Genota) ramosa" = Genota valeriae
"Genota (Genota) ramosa" = Genota valeriae Hoernes and Auinger 1891 snail
subsp. ramosa
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Turris (Turris) rotata, Turris (Turris) aquensis, Gemmula (Hemipleurotoma) annae, Gemmula (Hemipleurotoma) contigua, "Clavatula (Perrona) inedita" = Perrona, "Clavatula (Perrona) jouanneti" = Perrona, "Clavatula (Perrona) saubrigiana" = Perrona, "Clavatula (Perrona) taurinensis" = Perrona
"Clavatula (Perrona) inedita" = Perrona turrid
"Clavatula (Perrona) jouanneti" = Perrona turrid
"Clavatula (Perrona) saubrigiana" = Perrona turrid
"Clavatula (Perrona) taurinensis" = Perrona turrid
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra (Terebra) acuminata auger snail
subsp. acuminata
Subula (Oxymeris) fuscata auger snail
subsp. modesta and plicaria
 Neogastropoda - Clavatulidae
"Turricula (Surcula) reevei" = Turricula snail
Clavatula (Clavatula) asperulata snail
subsp. gracilis and ernesti
Clavatula (Clavatula) theodori snail
subsp. calcaratiformis
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
"Clavus (Drillia) bellardii" = Drillia, "Clavus (Drillia) pustulatus" = Drillia, Clavus (Drillia) allionii
"Clavus (Drillia) bellardii" = Drillia snail
"Clavus (Drillia) pustulatus" = Drillia snail
Clavus (Drillia) allionii Bellardi 1877 snail
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
Vexillum (Vexillum) plicatulum Brocchi 1814 ribbed mitre
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Galeodes (Galeodes) cornutus Agassiz 1843 snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa (Hinia) incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus, "Hinia (Uzita) limata" = Nassarius (Uzita)
"Nassa (Hinia) incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus Müller 1773 snail
"Hinia (Uzita) limata" = Nassarius (Uzita) snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Latirus (Latirus) lynchi, Latirus (Latirus) valenciennesi, "Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca) fimbriata" = Pleuroploca
"Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca) fimbriata" = Pleuroploca snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Columbella (Alia) curta" = Pyrene (Alia) dovesnail
subsp. curta
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Typhis (Typhinellus) tetrapterus" = Typhinellus murex snail
Ocinebrina sublavata murex snail
subsp. sublavata
Purpura (Tritonalia) delbosiana murex snail
subsp. friedbergi
Thais (Stramonita) exilis Parsch in Hörnes 1856 murex snail
Hadriania craticulata Brocchi 1814 murex snail
"Hexaplex (Muricanthus) subasperrimus" = Muricanthus murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Athleta (Athleta) ficulina Lamarck 1811 volute
subsp. rarispina
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra (Tiara) substriatula d'Orbigny 1852 mitre shell
Mitraria (Mitraria) ambigua mitre shell
subsp. ambigua
"Mitra (Tiara) scrobiculata" = Cancilla scrobiculata Brocchi 1814 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Ancillariidae
"Ancilla (Baryspira) glandiformis" = Amalda glandiformis
"Ancilla (Baryspira) glandiformis" = Amalda glandiformis Lamarck 1810 snail
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
 Sorbeoconcha - Aporrhaidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Strombidae
"Strombus (Strombus) coronatus" = Persististrombus coronatus, "Strombus (Canarium) bonellii" = Persististrombus bonellii
"Strombus (Strombus) coronatus" = Persististrombus coronatus Defrance 1827 true conch
"Strombus (Canarium) bonellii" = Persististrombus bonellii Brongniart 1823 true conch
 Sorbeoconcha - Ficidae
"Pyrula lainaei" = Ficus
"Pyrula lainaei" = Ficus fig shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
"Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata, Cassis (Cassis) postmamillaris
"Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata Sacco 1890 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Tonnidae
"Dolium (Cadium) orbiculatum" = Tonna
"Dolium (Cadium) orbiculatum" = Tonna tun shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Ranellidae
"Charonia (Sassia) tarbelliana" = Sassia, "Charonia (Sassia) apenninica" = Sassia apenninica, Gyrineum (Aspa) marginatum, "Cymatium (Lampusia) affine" = Monoplex
"Charonia (Sassia) tarbelliana" = Sassia triton shell
"Charonia (Sassia) apenninica" = Sassia apenninica Sassi 1827 triton shell
"Cymatium (Lampusia) affine" = Monoplex triton shell
subsp. friedbergi
 Sorbeoconcha - Cypraeidae
"Schilderia annularia" = Zonarina annularia
"Schilderia annularia" = Zonarina annularia Brongniart 1823 cowry
subsp. hoernesiana
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
Natica (Nacca) millepunctata, "Polinices (Polinices) dertomamilla" = Tectonatica dertomamilla, Polinices (Polinices) redemptus, "Natica (Neverita) josephinia" = Neverita josephinia, Neverita olla, "Sigaretus (Sigaretus) striatus" = Sinum, Lunatia catena
Natica (Nacca) millepunctata Sacco 1890 moon snail
"Polinices (Polinices) dertomamilla" = Tectonatica dertomamilla Sacco 1890 moon snail
Polinices (Polinices) redemptus Michelotti 1847 moon snail
"Natica (Neverita) josephinia" = Neverita josephinia Risso 1826 moon snail
Neverita olla De Serres 1829 moon snail
"Sigaretus (Sigaretus) striatus" = Sinum moon snail
Lunatia catena moon snail
subsp. helicina
 Sorbeoconcha - Campanilidae
"Cerithium (Vulgocerithium) crenatum" = Thericium, "Cerithium (Thericium) italicum" = Thericium italicum, Cerithium (Thericium) vulgatum, "Cerithium (Thericium) europaeum" = Thericium europaeum
"Cerithium (Vulgocerithium) crenatum" = Thericium snail
"Cerithium (Thericium) italicum" = Thericium italicum Mayer 1878 snail
subsp. dertonensis
Cerithium (Thericium) vulgatum Bruguière 1789 snail
subsp. miospina
"Cerithium (Thericium) europaeum" = Thericium europaeum Mayer 1878 snail
subsp. europaeum
 Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula (Jamachus) crepidula Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
subsp. unguis
 Patellogastropoda - Patellidae
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
"Ringicula (Ringiculella) auriculata" = Ringicula minor
"Ringicula (Ringiculella) auriculata" = Ringicula minor Grateloup 1838 snail
subsp. pauluciae