NMVPL425, Koonwarra (Cretaceous of Australia)

Where: Victoria, Australia (38.6° S, 146.0° E: paleocoordinates 77.0° S, 118.6° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Strzelecki Group, Late/Upper Aptian (122.5 - 112.0 Ma)

• THE KOONWARRA FOSSIL BED of South Gippsland, Australia, is =8 m thick, and the invertebrate fossils occur mainly on the lower strata just above an apatite layer dated 118 ± 5 million yr old and below a layer dated 115 ± 5 million yr old (Drinnan & Chambers 1986, Jell & Duncan 1986). Orig. assigned to Korumburra Group.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: pond; lithified claystone and lithified siltstone

• "Numerous aquatic and semiaquatic insects in this bed, and the finely stratified mudstone that contains them, indicate a shallow pond with marshy edges that received periodic muddy influx from a larger adjacent lake." Hamilton, 1992
• "siltstone"; "finely banded claystones and subordinate feldspathic siltstones"

Size class: mesofossils

Preservation: adpression

Collected by Talent, Duncan, Handby in 1961; 1962–1967, 1973, 1981, 1985

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, mechanical, sieve,

• Repository: Palaeontological Collection, Museum of Victoria, Melbourne (NMVP), Palaeontological Collection of the Department of Geology, University of Melbourne (MUGD), Australian Museum, Sydney (AMF)

Primary reference: J. A. Talent, P. M. Duncan, and P. L. Handry. 1966. Early Cretaceous feathers from Victoria. The Emu 64(2):81-86 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 77192: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 28.12.2007, edited by Matthew Carrano, Jered Karr and Matthew Clapham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "fish" and "plants" also present; avian feathers apparently described by Talent et al. 1966
Reptilia
 Theropoda -
Paraves indet.9 Sereno 1997 maniraptoran
NMV P160550,, P231783, P250595
Aves
  -
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758 bird
Geol. Surv. Victoria 61831A, B; 61832; NMV P26059, P32192, P165474, P186879, P250594
 Aves -
? Aves indet.9 Linnaeus 1758 bird
NMV P162963, P250624
Osteichthyes
 Dipnoi - Ceratodontidae
Ceratodus sp.13 Agassiz 1838 lungfish
Actinopteri
 Leptolepidiformes - Leptolepididae
Leptolepis koonwarri13 Waldman 1971
 Pachycormiformes -
Wadeichthys oxyops13 Waldman 1971
Koonwarria manifrons13 Waldman 1971
Osteichthyes
 Actinopterygii -
Coccolepis woodwardi13 Waldman 1971 ray-finned fish
Bivalvia
 Unionida -
Unionoidea indet.7 Fleming 1828 clam
NMVP109468
Clitellata
 Oligochaeta -
Oligochaeta "indet. 1"7
NMVP109469, MUGD3744
? Oligochaeta "indet. 2"7
NMVP109458, 109460, 109461, 109463
Phylactolaemata
  -
Phylactolaemata indet.7 Allman 1856 freshwater bryozoan
NMVP110530-7
Arachnida
 Araneae -
Araneae "indet. 1"7 Clerck 1757 spider
NMVP102516
Araneae "indet. 2"7 Clerck 1757 spider
NMVP102515
 Opiliones -
Opiliones indet.7 Sundevall 1833 harvestman
NMVP102709
Xiphosura
 Xiphosurida - Limulidae
Victalimulus mcqueeni n. gen. n. sp.15
Victalimulus mcqueeni n. gen. n. sp.15 Riek and Gill 1971 horseshoe crab
Branchiopoda
 Anostraca -
Anostraca indet.14 Sars 1867 branchiopod
 Diplostraca -
Conchostraca indet.14 Sars 1867 clam shrimp
 Cladocera - Daphniidae
Daphniidae indet.7 Strauss 1820 water flea
Malacostraca
 Syncarida - Anaspididae
Koonaspides indistinctus n. gen. n. sp.7
Koonaspides indistinctus n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986
NMVP102799
Ostracoda
 Podocopida -
Cypridoidea indet.7 Baird 1845 ostracod
NMVP103346
Insecta
 Siphonaptera - Tarwiniidae
Tarwinia australis n. gen. n. sp.7
Tarwinia australis n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 flea
"primitive"
 Siphonaptera -
Niwratia elongata n. gen. n. sp.7
Niwratia elongata n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 flea
NMVP102517
 Siphonaptera - Pulicidae
Pulicidae "indet. 2"7 flea
NMVP102520
Pulicidae "indet. 1"7 flea
"normal pulcid.. ancestral to Echidnophaga"
 Mecoptera - Parachoristidae
Neoparachorista clarkae n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 scorpionfly
NMV P102529
 Mecoptera - Nannochoristidae
Nannochorista sp.7 Tillyard 1917 scorpionfly
 Mecoptera - Australochoristidae
"Prochoristella leongatha n. sp." = Australochorista leongatha7
"Prochoristella leongatha n. sp." = Australochorista leongatha7 Jell and Duncan 1986 scorpionfly
NMVP102512
 Mecoptera - Orthophlebiidae
Orthophlebiidae indet.8 Handlirsch 1906 scorpionfly
NMVP103336 (one of Limoniinae indet. in Jell & Duncan 1986)
Choristopanorpa drinnani n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 scorpionfly
NMV P102506
Cretacochorista parva n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 scorpionfly
NMVP103248
 Trichoptera - Calamoceratidae
Calamoceratidae "pupa indet."7 Ulmer 1905 caddisfly
NMVP102632
 Trichoptera - Leptoceridae
? Oecetis sp.7 McLachlan 1877 long-horned caddisfly
NMVP103184
 Dicondylia -
Coleoptera indet.14 Linnaeus 1758 beetle
NMV P102521, 102523, 102525, 102528, 102802, 102806, 103170-2, 103175, 103312, 103314, 103316-8, 103326, 103329
Coleoptera indet.10 Linnaeus 1758 beetle
NMV P103221
 Coleoptera - Cantharidae
Chauliognathus koonwarra n. sp.3 Fanti 2022 soldier beetle
NMV P103331
 Coleoptera - Mordellidae
Mordellidae indet.7 Latreille 1802 tumbling flower beetle
NMV P103158
 Coleoptera - Hydraenidae
Hydraenidae indet.7 Mulsant 1844 minute moss beetle
NMV P103319
 Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
Staphylinidae "indet. 1"7 Latreille 1802 rove beetle
NMV P103322, MUGD3737
Staphylinidae "indet. 2"7 Latreille 1802 rove beetle
NMV P103154
 Coleoptera - Hydrophilidae
Hydrophilidae indet.7 Latreille 1802 water scavenger beetle
NMV P102522, 102526, 102768, 103156, 103310, 103313, 103315
Hydrophilidae "larva indet."7 Latreille 1802 water scavenger beetle
NMV P32284, 103037, 103309
Cretoxenus australis n. gen. n. sp.4 Fikáček et al. 2014 water scavenger beetle
NMVP103312 (one of Coleoptera indet. in Jell & Duncan, 1986; fig. 40I-K)
 Coleoptera - Scirtidae
Scirtidae indet.16 Fleming 1821 marsh beetle
NMV P27051-3, 102644, 103303-8, 103327; 102645 in Watts & Hamon 2023
 Coleoptera - Gyrinidae
? Gyrinidae indet.7 Latreille 1810 whirligig beetle
NMV P103173, 103311
 Coleoptera - Dytiscidae
Dytiscidae "indet. 2"7 Leach 1815 predaceous diving beetle
NMV P102603, 102669, 103149-103153, 103177, 103296, 103298-103302, 103330, 32288, 103155, 103159, 103162, 103169
Dytiscidae "indet. 3"7 Leach 1815 predaceous diving beetle
NMV P102527
Dytiscidae "indet. 1"7 Leach 1815 predaceous diving beetle
NMV P103295, 103297, 103225, MUGD3749
 Hymenoptera -
Koonwarrus katya n. gen. n. sp.12
Koonwarrus katya n. gen. n. sp.12 Rasnitsyn and Öhm-Kühnle 2019 wasp
NMVP 103324 (one paratype of Westratia nana)
 Hymenoptera - Trupochalcididae
Cretacoformica explicata n. gen. n. sp.7
Cretacoformica explicata n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 wasp
NMVP102501
 Hymenoptera - Proctotrupidae
Proctotrupidae indet.7 Latreille 1802 wasp
NMVP103106
Proctotrupidae "indet. 2"11 Latreille 1802 wasp
NMVP 103348 (one paratype of Westratia nana)
 Hymenoptera - Braconidae
Eoichneumon duncanae n. gen. n. sp.7
Eoichneumon duncanae n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 wasp
NMVP103104
 Hymenoptera - Praeaulacidae
Westratia nana n. gen. n. sp.7
Westratia nana n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 wasp
NMVP103105
 Hymenoptera - Aulacidae
Aulacidae indet.7 Shuckard 1841 wasp
NMVP103168
 Hymenoptera - Pemphredonidae
"? Pemphredoninae indet." = Pemphredonidae7
"? Pemphredoninae indet." = Pemphredonidae7 Dahlbom 1835 aphid wasp
NMVP102740, 103009
 Hymenoptera -
"? Bethyloidea indet." = Chrysidoidea7
"? Bethyloidea indet." = Chrysidoidea7 Latreille 1802 wasp
NMVP103320
 Plecoptera - Gripopterygidae
Eodinotoperla duncanae n. gen. n. sp.7
Eodinotoperla duncanae n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 stonefly
 Blattodea - Blattidae
? Methana sp.7 Stal 1877 cockroach
NMV P22658, 27046, 102514, 102532, 103121, 103122, 103160, 103161, 103174, 103225-103230, 103231, 27045
 Orthoptera -
"? Gryllacridoidea indet." = Stenopelmatoidea7
"? Gryllacridoidea indet." = Stenopelmatoidea7 Burmeister 1838 grasshopper
NMV P32281
 Orthoptera - Tridactylidae
Tridactylidae indet.7 Brullé 1835 pygmy mole cricket
NMV P103232
 Lophioneurida - Lophioneuridae
"Edgariekia una n. gen. n. sp." = Undacypha una7
"Edgariekia una n. gen. n. sp." = Undacypha una7 Jell and Duncan 1986 winged insect
NMV P103242
 Hemiptera - Anthocoridae
Anthocoridae indet.7 Fieber 1837 minute pirate bug
NMV P103163
 Hemiptera -
Duncanovelia extensa n. gen. n. sp.7
Duncanovelia extensa n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 true bug
NMV P27044, 103237
 Hemiptera - Gelastocoridae
Gelastocoridae indet.7 Kirkaldy 1897 toad bug
NMV P102519, 103176, 103233
 Hemiptera - Veliidae
Veliidae indet.7 Amyot and Audinet-Serville 1843 riffle bug
NMV P103235, 103236
 Hemiptera - Cicadellidae
"Scarites femoratus n. gen. n. sp." = Austroscarites femoratus6
"Scarites femoratus n. gen. n. sp." = Austroscarites femoratus6 Hamilton 1992 leafhopper
MUGD 3578, NMV P32283 (Cicadelloidea indet. 1 in Jell & Duncan, 1986)
 Hemiptera - Archijassidae
Homopterulum jelli n. sp.6 Hamilton 1992 true bug
NMV P102676, 103234, 103238, 103239, 103103, 27043, 103338 (not 32283)
Homopterulum jelli n. sp.6 Hamilton 1992 true bug
NMV P103059
 Hemiptera - Ligavenidae
Ligavena gracilipes n. gen. n. sp.6
Ligavena gracilipes n. gen. n. sp.6 Hamilton 1992 true bug
NMV P103350
 Hemiptera - Psyllidae
Psyllidae indet.7 Latreille 1807 jumping plant louse
NMV P103240
 Ephemeroptera - Siphlonuridae
Dulcimanna sculptor n. gen. n. sp.7, Australurus plexus n. gen. n. sp.7, Promirara cephalota n. gen. n. sp.7
Dulcimanna sculptor n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 mayfly
NMV P102507, 103341
Australurus plexus n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 mayfly
NMV P102450, 22398, 48610, 52550, 102455-7, 102465, 102475-6, 102478-9, 102492, 102538, 102619, 102893, 103120, 103222, MUGD3747, 3748, 3754, further 100 or more
Promirara cephalota n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 mayfly
 Ephemeroptera - Baetiscidae
Koonwarrabaetisca duncani n. sp.5 Godunko and Sroka 2024 armored mayfly
NMVP103209 (part of ?Siphlonuridae indet. in Jell & Duncan)
Koonwarrabaetisca jelli n. gen. n. sp.5 Godunko and Sroka 2024 armored mayfly
NMV P103209, 103210
 Odonata -
Peraphlebia tetrastichia n. gen. n. sp.7
Peraphlebia tetrastichia n. gen. n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 dragonfly
 Odonata - Coenagrionidae
Coenagrionidae indet.7 Kirby 1890 narrow-winged damselfly
NMV P27039, 102508, 102509, 102510, 103019, 103047, 103211, MUGD3738
 Diptera -
Brachycera "larvae indet."7 Zetterstedt 1842 fly
NMVP103293, 103294
Acalyptratae indet.7 Macquart 1835 fly
NMVP103147, 104138
 Diptera - Rhagionidae
Atherimorpha festuca n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 snipe fly
NMVP102498
 Diptera - Canthyloscelidae
Synneuron jelli n. sp.1 Amorim and Greenwalt 2020 fly
NMVP103286
 Diptera - Ceratopogonidae
? Leptoconops sp.2 Skuse 1889 biting midge
MEM.AAP.3 MVNH P103203
 Diptera - Simuliidae
Simuliidae "indet. 1"7 Newman 1834 black fly
NMVP103050, 103131, 103132, 103178-81, 103183, 103189, 103194, 103270-4
? Simuliidae "indet. 2"7 Newman 1834 black fly
NMVP103203
 Diptera - Chaoboridae
Chironomaptera collessi n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 phantom midge
NMVP103207, 27047, 102678, 103139, 103185, 103191, 103253, 103255-7, 103349 (pupae), 103258, 103262-3, 103265-7, 103269 (larvae)
 Diptera - Dixidae
Dixidae indet.7 Van der Wulp 1877 meniscus midge
NMVP102499
 Diptera - Limoniidae
Limoniinae "indet. 1"7 Speiser 1909 crane fly
NMVP103202 (not 103336)
Limoniinae "indet. 2"7 Speiser 1909 crane fly
NMVP103287
 Diptera - Tipulidae
Tipulidae "larva indet."7 Latreille 1802 crane fly
NMVP103251
Tipulidae "pupa indet. 2"7 Latreille 1802 crane fly
NMVP103254
? Tipulidae indet.7 Latreille 1802 crane fly
NMVP103289
Tipulidae "pupa indet. 1"7 Latreille 1802 crane fly
 Diptera - Mesosciophilidae
Pseudalysiinia fragmenta n. sp.7 Jell and Duncan 1986 fly
NMVP103290
 Diptera - Chironomidae
Tanypodinae indet.7 Skuse 1889 non biting midge
NMVP103282, 103283, 103285, 103288, 103292
Tanypodinae "pupa indet. 1"7 Skuse 1889 non biting midge
NMVP102496, 103137, 103138, 103187, 27048, 103140, 103141, 103143, 103144, 103146, 103186, 103195-201, 103278-80, MUGD3733
Tanypodinae "pupa indet. 2"7 Skuse 1889 non biting midge
NMVP103134-6, 103192, 103193, 103275-7