Swatara Gap, 3 km north of Lickdale (Ordovician of the United States)

Where: Lebanon County, Pennsylvania (40.5° N, 76.5° W: paleocoordinates 29.2° S, 55.9° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Climacograptus spiniferus graptolite zone, Reedsville Member (Martinsburg Formation), Edenian (451.0 - 450.2 Ma)

• Wright et al. (1977) and Lehmann (1986) assigned these rocks to the Climacograptus spiniferus Zone

•Blake notes that this is now Edenian, not Chatfieldian-Edenian.

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: offshore; lithified, argillaceous siltstone and lithified, silty mudstone

• may also include some transition zone environments
• facies also includes claystone that contains a sparse, low-diversity fossil fauna

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: cast, mold/impression

Collection methods: surface (float),

Primary reference: D. Lehman and J.K. Pope. 1989. Upper Ordovician tempestites from Swatara Gap, Pennsylvania: depositional processes affecting the sediments and paleoecology of the fossil faunas. Palaios 4:553-564 [S. Holland/S. Holland/R. Plotnick]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34895: authorized by Steven Holland, entered by Steven Holland on 13.10.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Lehman & Pope's list, compiled from Wright et al., 1977; Busch, 1981; Lehmann, 1986
unclassified
  -
Chlorophyceae
 Dasycladales - Dasycladaceae
Dasycladacea indet. Radoicic 1969
Bivalvia
 Pholadomyida - Pholadomyidae
Rhytimya sp. Ulrich 1893 clam
Rhytimya radiata Ulrich 1893 clam
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
Colpomya faba Hall 1847 clam
Colpomya faba intermedia
Modiolopsis sp. Hall 1847 clam
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
Cuneamya sp. Hall and Whitfield 1875 clam
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
Pterinea sp. Goldfuss 1832 oyster
 Myalinida - Ambonychiidae
? Byssonychia cf. vera Ulrich 1893 clam
 Nuculida - Praenuculidae
"Ctenodonta filistriata" = Homilodonta filistriata
"Ctenodonta filistriata" = Homilodonta filistriata Ulrich 1894 clam
 Nuculanida - Cucullellidae
"Cleidophorus planulatus" = Nuculites planulatus
"Cleidophorus planulatus" = Nuculites planulatus Conrad 1841 clam
Cephalopoda
 Nautiloidea -
Nautiloidea indet. Agassiz 1847 nautiloid
indeterminate orthocone [originally entered as "informal nautiloid indet."]
Gastropoda
  -
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1795 snail
several undetermined forms [originally entered as "gastropod indet."]
 Murchisoniina - Lophospiridae
Lophospira sp. Whitfield 1886 snail
 Murchisoniina - Eotomariidae
"Liospira americanum" = Liospira americana
"Liospira americanum" = Liospira americana Billings 1860 snail
 Bellerophontida - Sinuitidae
Sinuites cancellatus Hall 1847 snail
Tergomya
 Archinacellida - Archinacellidae
Archinacella sp. Ulrich and Scofield 1897
Lophophorata
 Tentaculitida - Cornulitidae
Strophomenata
 Strophomenida - Sowerbyellidae
"Thaerodonta rugosa" = Sowerbyella rugosa Meek 1873
 Strophomenida - Rafinesquinidae
Leptaena cf. richmondensis Foerste 1909
Leptaena richmondensis precursor
Rhynchonellata
 Orthida - Plectorthidae
 Orthida - Dalmanellidae
"Onniella multisecta" = Cincinnetina multisecta
"Onniella multisecta" = Cincinnetina multisecta James 1871
 Pentamerida - Camerellidae
Camerella sp. Billings 1859
 Pentamerida - Clarkellidae
 Atrypida - Anazygidae
Zygospira sp. Hall 1862
Lingulata
 Lingulida -
Linguloidea indet. Menke 1828
originally entered as "linguloid indet."
 Lingulida - Pseudolingulidae
Craniata
 Craniopsida - Craniopsidae
 Craniida - Craniidae
? Petrocrania sp. Raymond 1910
Stenolaemata
 Cyclostomata - Diastoporidae
Berenicea sp. Lamouroux 1821
 Trepostomata - Trematoporidae
Batostoma sp. Ulrich 1882
 Trepostomata - Halloporidae
 Trepostomata - Heterotrypidae
Dekayella sp. Ulrich 1882
 Cryptostomata - Rhinidictyidae
Rhinidictya sp. Ulrich 1882
 Cryptostomata - Acanthocladiidae
Gymnolaemata
 Ctenostomata - Vinellidae
Vinella sp. Ulrich 1890
Hyolitha
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
Hyolithes sp. d'Eichwald 1840
Euchelicerata
 Eurypterida - Megalograptidae
? Megalograptus sp. Miller 1874 eurypterid
Ostracoda
 Palaeocopida - Tetradellidae
Ceratopsis chambersi Miller 1874 ostracod
 Palaeocopida - Euprimitiidae
Trilobita
 Olenida - Olenidae
Triarthrus becki Green 1832 trilobite
 Proetida - Proetidae
"Proetus parviusculus" = Interproetus parviusculus
"Proetus parviusculus" = Interproetus parviusculus Hall 1860 trilobite
 Proetida - Dimeropygidae
Mesotaphraspis sp. Whittington and Evitt 1953 trilobite
 Trinucleida - Trinucleidae
"Cryptolithus bellulus" = Cryptolithus tessellatus
"Cryptolithus bellulus" = Cryptolithus tessellatus Green 1832 trilobite
 Asaphida - Asaphidae
Isotelus gigas Dekay 1824 trilobite
 Odontopleurida - Odontopleuridae
Diacanthaspis sp. Whittington 1941 trilobite
 Lichida - Lichidae
Platylichas sp. G├╝rich 1901 trilobite
 Phacopida -
Phacopida indet. Salter 1864 trilobite
originally entered as "phacopid indet."
 Phacopida - Pterygometopidae
"Pterygometopus achates" = Achatella achates
"Pterygometopus achates" = Achatella achates Billings 1860 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calymenidae
Gravicalymene sp. Shirley 1936 trilobite
Pterobranchia
 Dendroidea - Dendrograptidae
Ptilograptus sp. graptolite
 Graptoloidea - Climacograptidae
Climacograptus typicalis Hall 1865 climacograptid
 Graptoloidea - Diplograptidae
Orthograptus quadrimucronatus Hall 1865 graptolite
Orthograptus quadrimucronatus micracanthus
Diplograptus nexus graptolite
Asteroidea
 Euaxosida - Mesopalaeasteridae
 Euaxosida - Palasterinidae
Schuchertia laxata Schuchert 1915 sea star
 Hadrosida - Urasterellidae
Urasterella pulchella Billings 1857 sea star
 Hadrosida - Promopalaeasteridae
Promopalaeaster bellulus Schuchert 1915 sea star
 Asterozoa - Phragmactinidae
Phragmactis sp. Spencer 1940
probably Swataria derstleri: Blake named that genus in 2014 based on type material from a nearby locality. (PJW)
Ophiuroidea
 Oegophiurida - Protasteridae
"Taeniaster sp." = Taeniaster, "Protasterina maximus" = Taeniaster
"Taeniaster sp." = Taeniaster Billings 1858 brittle star
"Protasterina maximus" = Taeniaster brittle star
Stylophora
 Mitrata -
Ateleocystites huxleyi Billings 1858
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
undetermined root-type holdfast [originally entered as "crinoid indet."]
 Monobathrida - Glyptocrinidae
Glyptocrinus sp. Hall 1847 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Xenocrinidae
Xenocrinidae indet. Miller 1890 Sea lily
originally entered as "xenocrinoid indet."
 Myelodactylida - Iocrinidae
Iocrinus subcrassus Meek and Worthen 1865 Sea lily
 Homocrinida - Cincinnaticrinidae
Cincinnaticrinus sp. Warn and Strimple 1977 Sea lily
or Heterocrinus sp.
 Homocrinida - Homocrinidae
Ectenocrinus simplex Hall 1847 Sea lily
 Inadunata - Merocrinidae
Merocrinidae indet. Miller 1890 Sea lily
originally entered as "merocrinoid indet."
  -
Lichenocrinus sp. Hall 1866 Sea lily
Scyphozoa
 Conulariida - Conulariidae
Hydrozoa
 Hydroida -
Inocaulis sp. Hall 1852
unclassified
  -
Porifera indet. Grant 1836