Sanhe Cave (Pleistocene of China)

Also known as Chongzuo, ZAR

Where: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (22.3° N, 107.5° E: paleocoordinates 22.2° N, 107.3° E)

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• 4th layer

•Based on the faunal and paleomagnetic correlation, the geological age of Sanhe Cave is estimated to be middle Early Pleistocene, corresponding to approximately 1.2e1.6 Ma (Jin et al., 2008a, 2009a).

Environment/lithology: cave; sandstone

• brown-yellow sand with tiny calcareous breccia

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: Y. Wang, C. Jin, and J.I. Mead. 2014. New remains of Sinomastodon yangziensis (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae) from Sanhe karst Cave, with discussion on the evolution of Pleistocene Sinomastodon in South China. Quaternary International 339-340:90-96 [M. Uhen/A. Glass/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 214689: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Abigail Glass on 12.10.2020, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Mammalia
 Insectivora - Tupaiidae
Tupaia belangeri Wagner 1841 tree shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Ia sp. Thomas 1902 vesper bat
Myotis longipes vesper bat
Miniopterus schreibersi Natterer 1819 bend-winged bat
 Chiroptera - Hipposideridae
Aselliscus wheeleri leaf-nosed bat
Hipposideros amiger roundleaf bat
Hipposideros pratti roundleaf bat
Hipposideros larvatus roundleaf bat
Hipposideros bicolor roundleaf bat
 Chiroptera - Rhinolophidae
Rhinolophus pani n. sp. horseshoe bat
Rhinolophus cf. rouxi horseshoe bat
Rhinolophus macrotis horseshoe bat
Rhinolophus sp. Lacépède 1799 horseshoe bat
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sinensis Owen 1870 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinoceros sinensis Owen 1870 one-horned rhinoceros
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Caprinae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
"Bibos sp." = Bos (Bibos) Hodgson 1837 ox
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervavitus fenqii, Muntiacus lacustris, "Cervus (Rusa) yunnanensis" = Rusa
Cervavitus fenqii Han 1987 deer
Muntiacus lacustris Teilhard de Chardin and Trassaert 1937 muntjak
"Cervus (Rusa) yunnanensis" = Rusa deer
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus xiaozhu, Sus peii, "Dicoryphochoerus ultimus" = Hippopotamodon
"Dicoryphochoerus ultimus" = Hippopotamodon pig
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ailuropoda wulingshanensis Wang et al. 1982 giant panda
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Melogale sp. Geoffroy 1831 ferret badgers
Martes sp. Frisch 1775 marten
Arctonyx collaris Cuvier 1825 hog badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
 Carnivora - Viverridae
Viverra zibetha Linnaeus 1758 large Indian civet
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felis sp. Linnaeus 1758 cat
Panthera pardus Linnaeus 1758 leopard
 Theriamorpha - Talpidae
Mogera cf. insularis Swinhoe 1863 insular mole
Uropsilus sp. Milne-Edwards 1871 shrew mole
 Theriamorpha - Soricidae
Suncus sp. Ehrenberg 1832 white-toothed shrew
Crocidura cf. hosfildi white-toothed shrew
Soriculus sp. Blyth 1845 red-toothed shrew
Blarinella sp. Thomas 1911 Asiatic short-tailed shrew
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Nesolagus sp. Forsyth Major 1899 striped rabbit
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix magna porcupine
Atherurus sp. Cuvier 1829 brush-tailed porcupine
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus draco Eurasian field mouse
Apodemus cf. peninsulae Eurasian field mouse
Rattus sp. Fischer 1803 rat
Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout 1769 brown rat
Mus cf. pahari house mouse
Chiropodomys cf. gliorides pencil-tailed tree mouse
Hapalomys gracilis marmoset rat
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Eothenomys sp. Miller 1896 vole
 Rodentia - Spalacidae
Rhizomys brachyrhizomyoides greater bamboo rat
 Rodentia -
Typhlomys intermedius Chinese pygmy dormouse
Typhlomys cinereus Milne-Edwards 1877 Chinese pygmy dormouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Petaurista brachyodus Giant flying squirrel
Petaurista sp. Link 1795 Giant flying squirrel
Pteromys sp. Cuvier 1800 Eurasian flying squirrel
Dremomys sp. Heude 1898 red-cheeked squirrel
Sciurotamias davidianus Chinese rock squirrel
 Primates - Hylobatidae
Hylobates sp. Illiger 1811 gibbon
 Primates - Hominidae
cf. Hominidae indet. Gray 1825 ape
cf. Ponginae indet. Elliot 1913 ape
Gigantopithecus blacki von Koenigswald 1935 ape
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Procynocephalus sp. Schlosser 1924 monkey
Macaca sp. Lacépède 1799 macaque
Presbytis sp. Eschscholtz 1821 monkey
Rhinopithecus sp. Milne-Edwards 1872 snub-nosed monkey
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Sinomastodon yangziensis Wang et al. 2014 gomphothere