Eckfeld Maar (NHMM collection) (Eocene of Germany)

Where: Eifel, Germany (50.1° N, 6.8° E: paleocoordinates 47.0° N, 3.0° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: MP 13 zone, Eifel Formation, MP 13 (48.6 - 40.4 Ma)

• The Eifel is the German part of the outcropping Variscan Basement west of the river Rhine and nort of the river Mosel.

•"MP 13... recently dated at 44.3 +/- 0.4 million years BP (Mertz et al. 2000)" (Franzen 2004)

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: crater lake; siltstone and shale

• "a small freshwater [crater] lake a few hundred meters in diameter" (Franzen 2004)
• ...laminitic "oilshales" and siltstones... with frequent turbiditic intercalations... plant macrofossils are ... distributed throughout the sequence under investigation. ... coarse and robust plant debris such as wood fragments and large fruits/seeds is concentrated in the turbiditic layers. (Wilde and Frankenhauser 1998).

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: mold/impression, adpression, original carbon

Collection methods: quarrying, surface (in situ),

• mammals are in the Nautrhistorisches Museum Mainz

Primary reference: V. Wilde and H. Frankenhauser. 1998. The Middle Eocene plant taphocoenosis from Eckfeld (Eifel, Germany). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 101:7-28 [H. Sims/H. Lindon/H. Lindon]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 24201: authorized by Hallie Sims, entered by Heather Lindon on 02.08.2002, edited by Hallie Sims, Jason Cassara, John Alroy and Jered Karr

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Dicranites sp.
Bryophyte (Dicranaceae s.l.); capsules
cf. Frullania sp.
Bryophyte (Jungermanniaceae)
cf. Didymochlaena sp.
Polypodiaceae s.l.
Rumohra recentior
Polypodiaceae s.l.; sporangia
Pityosporites microalatus
Pinaceae (Cathaya)
Libocedrites salicornioides
Cupressaceae s.s.
Pityosporites labdacus
Pinaceae (Pinus)
Aceripollis striatus
Aceraceae (Acer)
Trivestibulopollenites betuloides
Betulaceae s.l. (Betula)
Sambucus sp.
Caprifoliaceae
Spinaepollis spinosus
Euphorbiaceae
Caryapollenites circulus
Juglandaceae (Carya)
Plicatopollis lunatus
Juglandaceae
Plicatopollis plicatus
Juglandaceae
Plicatopollis potoniei
Juglandaceae
cf. Daphnogene sp.
Lauraceae
Olaxipollis matthesii
Olacaceae (Olax)
Emmenopterys sp.
Rubiaceae
Reevesiapollis triangulus
Sterculiaceae: Reevesia (Reevesiapollis triangulus vel eocaenicus)
Pungiphyllum waltheri
Incerta sedis
Lindsaea sp.
Polypodiaceae s.l.
Insecta
 Hemiptera - Cydnidae
Cydnidae "indet. 1"2 Billberg 1820 burrowing bug
Cydnidae "indet. 2"2 Billberg 1820 burrowing bug
Cydnidae "indet. 3"2 Billberg 1820 burrowing bug
Cydnidae "indet. 4"2 Billberg 1820 burrowing bug
 Dicondylia -
Orthoptera indet.2 Olivier 1789 grasshopper
 Coleoptera - Buprestidae
"Coroebini "indet. 1"" = Coraebini2
"Coroebini "indet. 1"" = Coraebini2 Bedel 1921 jewel beetle
 Coleoptera - Elateridae
Agrypnus sp.2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Agrypnus "sp 1"2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Agrypnus "sp 2"2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Agrypnus "sp 3"2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Agrypnus "sp 4"2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Agrypnus "sp 5"2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Agrypnus "sp 6"2 Eschscholtz 1829 click beetle
Macropunctum eocaenicum2 Meunier 1921 click beetle
Macropunctum senckenbergi2 Tröster 1994 click beetle
Macropunctum rebugense2 Tröster 1994 click beetle
Macropunctum messelense2 Tröster 1991 click beetle
most common Macropunctum making up 48%
Macropunctum meunieri2 Tröster 1991 click beetle
Macropunctum angustiscutellum2 Tröster 1994 click beetle
Macropunctum angulosum2 Tröster 1999 click beetle
 Coleoptera - Eucnemidae
Eucnemidae indet.2 Eschscholtz 1829 false click beetle
 Coleoptera - Chrysomelidae
Chrysomelidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 leaf beetle
Alticinae indet.2 Newman 1834 flea beetle
Sagrinae indet.2 Leach 1815 frog-legged beetle
 Coleoptera - Brentidae
Apioninae "indet. 3"2 Schoenherr 1823 weevil
Apioninae "indet. 4"2 Schoenherr 1823 weevil
 Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeinae indet.2 Latreille 1802 scarab beetle
Melolonthinae indet.2 Leach 1817 scarab beetle
Cetoniinae indet.2 Leach 1815 flower chafer
15 specimens poorly preserved likely to different morphgroups
Mammalia
 Primates - Notharctidae
Europolemur klatti1 Weigelt 1933 primate
Periconodon sp.1 Stehlin 1916 primate
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Ailuravus picteti1 Rütimeyer 1891 rodent
 Perissodactyla - Lophiodontidae
Lophiodon leptorhynchum1 Filhol 1888 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Propalaeotherium parvulum" = Eurohippus parvulus1
"Propalaeotherium parvulum" = Eurohippus parvulus1 Laurillard 1849 horse
 Perissodactyla - Pachynolophidae
"Paraplagiolophus codiciensis" = Plagiolophus codiciensis1
"Paraplagiolophus codiciensis" = Plagiolophus codiciensis1 Gaudry 1865 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Palaeotheriidae
Propalaeotherium voigti1 Matthes 1977 odd-toed ungulate
Palaeotherium castrense1 Noulet 1863 odd-toed ungulate
"Palaeotherium castrense castrense"
"Propalaeotherium isselanum" = Palaeotherium isselanum1 Cuvier 1824 odd-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Cebochoeridae
Gervachoerus cf. jaegeri1 Sudre 1978 even-toed ungulate
Cebochoerus cf. ruetimeyeri1 Stehlin 1908 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Dichobunidae
Neufferia manderscheidi1 Franzen 1994 even-toed ungulate
Hyperdichobune hammeli1 Sudre 1978 even-toed ungulate
Lutzia eckfeldensis1 Franzen 1994 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Choeropotamidae
Haplobunodon solodurense1 Stehlin 1908 even-toed ungulate
Chlorophyceae
  -
Botryococcus sp. Kutzing 1849
Algae (Botryoccaceae); coenobia
Charophyceae
  - Zygnemataceae
Ovoidites sp. Krutzsch 1959
Algae (Zygnemataceae); zygospores
 Charales - Characeae
Chara sp. Linnaeus 1753 stonewort
Algae (Charophyceae); gyrogonites
Monocolpopollenites
  -
Liliopsida
 Alismatidae - Alismatidae
Pinopsida
 Pinales - Araucariaceae
Araucariacites europaeus
Araucariaceae?
 Pinales - Taxodiaceae
Taxodiaceae indet. Saporta 1865
Cupressacites insulipapillatus
Cupressaceae s.s.
Ginkgoopsida
 Ephedrales - Ephedraceae
Ephedripites eocenipites jointfir
Ephedraceae (Ephedra)
Monocotyledoneae
 Arecales - Arecaceae
Arecaceae indet. von Berchtold and Presl 1820
(Palmae): leaves, pollen, flowers, spines
  -
Sparganiaceaepollenites spp. Thiergart 1937
Sparganiaceae
 Cyperales - Commelinidae
Cyperaceae indet. Jussieu 1789 sedge
 Restionales - Commelinidae
Milfordia hungarica
Restionaceae
Milfordia incerta
Restionaceae
Milfordia minima
Restionaceae
 Dioscoreales - Liliidae
cf. Smilax sp. Linnaeus
Smilaceae
 Arales - Arecidae
Araceae indet. de Jussieu 1789
Monocots
 Poales - Poaceae
Graminidites eifelensis
Poaceae (Gramineae)
Graminidites sp. Potonie 1960
Poaceae (Gramineae)
Pteridopsida
  -
Leiotriletes maxoides
Schizaeaceae
Leiotriletes microadriennis Krutzsch 1959
Schizaeaceae
  - Polypodiaceae
Verrucatosporites tennellis
Polypodiaceae s.l. (Polypodium)
  -
Laevigatosporites haardtii
Polypodiaceae s.l.
Laevigatosporites discordatus Thomson and Pflug 1953
Polypodiaceae s.l.
 Osmundales - Osmundaceae
Osmunda lignitum
Osmundaceae
 Schizaeales - Schizaeaceae
Cicatricosisporites dorogensis Potonie and Gelletich 1933
Schizaeaceae
Lygodium kaulfussi Heer
Schizaeaceae
Microfoveolatosporites granuloides
Schizaeaceae (Schizaea)
  -
Lycopsida
 Lycopodiales -
Acrostichum
  -
Acrostichum sp. Linnaeus
Polypodiaceae s.l.
Muscites
  -
Muscites sp. Brongniart 1828
Bryophyte (incerta sedis)
Magnoliopsida
  -
Araliaceoipollenites euphorii
Araliaceae gen. indet.
Araliaceoipollenites sp. Potonié 1960
Araliaceae gen. indet.
Ericipites ericius
Ericaceae
Ericipites sp. Wodehouse 1933
Ericaceae
Dicotyledonae
 Rhamnales - Rosidae
Vitaceae indet. de Jussieu 1789
leaves, pollen, diaspores
 Urticales - Dilleniidae
Ficus sp. Linnaeus 1753
Moraceae
cf. Zelkova sp. Spach 1841 zelkova
Ulmaceae s.l.
cf. Ulmus sp. Linnaeus 1753 elm
Ulmaceae s.l.
 Euphorbiales - Dilleniidae
 Theales - Dilleniidae
 Juglandales - Hamamelidae
Comptonia sp. L'Héritier de Brutelle 1789
Myricaceae
cf. Platycarya sp. Siebold and Zuccarini
Juglandaceae: leaves, pollen, diaspores, flowers
cf. Pterocarya sp. Kunth 1824 wingnut
Juglandaceae
cf. Engelhardtia sp. Blume 1829
Juglandaceae: leaves, pollen, diaspores
Magnoliopsida
 Magnoliales - Lauraceae
cf. Laurophyllum sp. Goeppert 1853 laurel
Lauraceae
 Saxifragales - Hamamelidaceae
Hamamelidaceae indet. Brown 1818
?pollen
 Fabales - Leguminosae
Leguminosae indet. de Jussieu
leaves, pollen, diaspores
 Myrtales - Onagraceae
 Malvales - Bombacaceae
Bombacacidites sp. Couper 1960
Bombacaceae
 Rosales - Rosaceae
Rosa sp. Linnaeus 1753 rose
Rosaceae
Rubus sp. Jordan 1997
Rosaceae
 Sapindales - Rutaceae
Rutaceae indet. de Jussieu 1789
diaspores, ?pollen
 Sapindales - Anacardiaceae
cf. Pentoperculum sp. Manchester 1994 cashew
Anacardiaceae
 Sapindales - Burseraceae
Canarium sp. Linnaeus
Burseraceae
 Santalales - Loranthaceae
Gothanipollis gothanii
Loranthaceae s.l.
 Proteales -
 Fagales - Betulaceae
cf. Carpinus sp. Linnaeus 1753 hornbeam
Betulaceae s.l.
 Fagales - Fagaceae
Fagaceae indet. Dumortier 1829
Archetype
 Ranunculales - Menispermaceae
Menispermaceae indet. de Jussieu 1789
pollen, diaspores, ?leaves
Chrysophyceae
  -
Chrysophyceae indet.
Algae; cysts
Tetraedron
  - Chlorococcaceae
Tetraedron sp. Kutzing 1845
Algae (Botryoccaceae); unicells
Sargentodoxa
  -
cf. Sargentodoxa sp.
Sargentodoxaceae
Tetracolporopollenites
  -
Tetracolporopollenites spp. Pflug and Thomson 1953
Sapotaceae "T. spp. div."
Alnipollenites verus
  -
Alnipollenites verus Potonie 1931
Betulaceae s.l. (Alnus)
Tricolpopollenites
  -
Tricolpopollenites asper
Fagaceae (Quercus)
Tricolpopollenites retiformis
  -
Tricolpopollenites retiformis Thomson and Pflug 1953
Salicaceae
Mastixiaceae
  - Mastixiaceae
Mastixiaceae indet. Calestani 1905
Compositoipollenites
  -