Talara Tar Seeps (Pleistocene of Peru)

Where: Peru (4.7° S, 80.5° W: paleocoordinates 4.7° S, 80.5° W)

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

Environment/lithology: tar

• dated by faunal comparison

Collection methods: quarrying, sieve

Primary reference: R. R. H. Lemon and C. S. Churcher. 1961. Pleistocene Geology and Paleontology of the Talara Region, Northwest Peru. American Journal of Science 259:410-429 [J. Alroy/K. Sears/M. Uhen]more details

PaleoDB collection 71346: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Karen Sears on 12.03.1999, edited by Richard Hulbert, Matthew Clapham, Evangelos Vlachos and John Alroy

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Insecta
 Orthoptera - Acrididae
Acrididae indet.2 Latreille 1802 short-horned grasshopper
 Dicondylia -
Coleoptera indet.2 Linnaeus 1758 beetle
 Coleoptera - Hydrophilidae
Tropisternus sp.5 Solier 1834 water scavenger beetle
Hydrophilus sp.2 Geoffroy 1762 water scavenger beetle
 Coleoptera - Tenebrionidae
Tenebrionidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 darkling beetle
 Coleoptera - Curculionidae
Sphenophorus sp.2, "Ryssematus sp." = Rhyssomatus2, "Otiorhynchinae indet." = Otiorhynchini2
Sphenophorus sp.2 Schonherr 1837 snout beetle
"Ryssematus sp." = Rhyssomatus2 Schoenherr 1837 snout beetle
"Otiorhynchinae indet." = Otiorhynchini2 snout beetle
 Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 scarab beetle
Copris incertus5 Say 1835 scarab beetle
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
Carabidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 ground beetle
 Coleoptera - Dytiscidae
Dytiscidae indet.2 Leach 1815 predaceous diving beetle
 Lepidoptera - Sphingidae
Sphingidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 moth
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Chelonoidis sp.3 Fitzinger 1835 turtle
Carapacial bones: three costals (ROM-42025, 42028 and 42029) and three peripheral bones (ROM-42026, 42030, and 2024).Limb bones: thirty-four osteoderms (ROM-40572- 40599, 40620, 40600-40604 and 42190); one podial bone (ROM-40620). Unidentified bones: six unidentified shell bones (ROM- 42021-42024, 42027 and 42031).
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Rhinoclemmys sp.3 Fitzinger 1835 turtle
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
"Larus pipixcan" = Leucophaeus pipixcan1, "Larus atricilla" = Leucophaeus atricilla1
"Larus pipixcan" = Leucophaeus pipixcan1 Wagler 1831 Franklin's gull
"Larus atricilla" = Leucophaeus atricilla1 Linnaeus 1758 laughing gull
 Charadriiformes - Jacanidae
Jacana spinosa1 Linnaeus 1758 northern jacana
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Numenius cf. borealis1, "Erolia melanotos" = Calidris melanotos1, "Erolia minutilla" = Calidris minutilla1, "Micropalama himantopus" = Calidris himantopus1, Micropalama chapmani n. sp.1, Arenaria interpres1, "Actitis macularia" = Actitis macularius1, "Lobipes lobatus" = Phalaropus lobatus1, "Steganopus tricolor" = Phalaropus tricolor1, Nuntius solitarius n. gen. n. sp.1, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" = Tringa semipalmata1, "Totanus flavipes" = Tringa flavipes1, Tringa solitaria1, "Totanus melanoleucas" = Tringa melanoleuca1, Tringa ameghini n. sp.1
Numenius cf. borealis1 Forster 1772 eskimo curlew
"Erolia melanotos" = Calidris melanotos1 Vieillot 1819 pectoral sandpiper
"Erolia minutilla" = Calidris minutilla1 Viellot 1816 least sandpiper
"Micropalama himantopus" = Calidris himantopus1 Bonaparte 1826 stilt sandpiper
Micropalama chapmani n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 stilt sandpiper
Arenaria interpres1 Linnaeus 1758 ruddy turnstone
"Actitis macularia" = Actitis macularius1 Linnaeus 1766 spotted sandpiper
"Lobipes lobatus" = Phalaropus lobatus1 Linnaeus 1758 red-necked phalarope
"Steganopus tricolor" = Phalaropus tricolor1 Vieillot 1819 Wilson's phalarope
Nuntius solitarius n. gen. n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 snipe
"Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" = Tringa semipalmata1 Gmelin 1789 willet
"Totanus flavipes" = Tringa flavipes1 Gmelin 1789 lesser yellowlegs
Tringa solitaria1 Wilson 1813 solitary sandpiper
"Totanus melanoleucas" = Tringa melanoleuca1 Gmelin 1789 greater yellowlegs
Tringa ameghini n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 sandpiper
 Charadriiformes - Burhinidae
Burhinus superciliaris1 von Tschudi 1843 Peruvian thick-knee
 Charadriiformes - Charadriidae
Belonopterus edmondi n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 crested plover
Viator picis n. gen. n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 lapwing
Pluvialis squatarola1 Linnaeus 1758 black-bellied plover
Pluvialis dominica1 Mueller 1776 American golden plover
Charadrius semipalmatus1 Bonaparte 1825 semipalmated plover
Charadrius vociferus1 Linnaeus 1758 killdeer
Charadrius collaris1 Vieillot 1818 collared plover
 Charadriiformes - Thinocoridae
Thinocoridae indet.1 Gray 1845 shorebird
Thinocorus rumicivorus1 Eschscholtz 1829 least seedsnipe
Thinocorus koepckae n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 seedsnipe
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Cathartes aura1 Linnaeus 1758 turkey vulture
Gymnogyps howardae n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 condor
Sarcoramphus fischeri n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 king vulture
generic affiliation uncertain as denoted by question mark in original description
Coragyps cf. atratus1 Bechstein 1793 black vulture
Vultur gryphus1 Linnaeus 1758 Andean condor
Geronogyps reliquus n. gen. n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 vulture
 Galliformes - Cracidae
Penelope cf. purpurascens1 Wagler 1830 crested guan
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Cairina moschata1 Linnaeus 1758 muscovy duck
"Chloephaga melanoptera" = Oressochen melanopterus1 Eyton 1838 Andean goose
Nannonetta invisitata n. gen. n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 crested duck
Nomonyx dominicus1 Linnaeus 1766 masked duck
Dendrocygna autumnalis1 Linnaeus 1758 black-bellied whistling duck
Anas sanctaehelenae n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 dabbling duck
Anas bahamensis1 Linnaeus 1758 white-cheeked pintail
Anas amotape n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 dabbling duck
Anas talarae n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 dabbling duck
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 falcon
Falco femoralis1 Temminck 1822 aplomado falcon
Falco sparverius1 Linnaeus 1758 American kestrel
Falco peregrinus1 Tunstall 1771 peregrine falcon
Polyborus plancus1 Miller 1777 southern caracara
Milvago brodkorbi n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 caracara
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Asio flammeus1, Bubo virginianus1, "Speotyto cunicularia" = Athene cunicularia1
Asio flammeus1 Pontoppidan 1763 short-eared owl
Bubo virginianus1 Gmelin 1788 great horned owl
"Speotyto cunicularia" = Athene cunicularia1 Molina 1782 burrowing owl
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
Tyto alba1 Scopoli 1769 barn owl
 Psittaciformes - Psittacidae
Forpus coelestis1 Lesson 1847 Pacific parrotlet
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Columbina cruziana1 Prévost 1832 croaking ground-dove
Columbina talpacoti1 Temminck 1810 ruddy ground-dove
Zenaida auriculata1 Des Murs 1847 eared dove
Zenaida asiatica1 Linnaeus 1758 white-winged dove
 Caprimulgiformes - Caprimulgidae
Chordeiles acutipennis1 Hermann 1783 lesser nighthawk
Caprimulgus piurensis n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 nightjar
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Porzana carolina1 Linnaeus 1758 sora
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
"Podiceps dominicus" = Tachybaptus dominicus1, Podilymbus podiceps1
"Podiceps dominicus" = Tachybaptus dominicus1 Linnaeus 1766 least grebe
Podilymbus podiceps1 Linnaeus 1758 pied-billed grebe
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Syrigma sanctimartini n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 whistling heron
Egretta caerulea1 Linnaeus 1758 little blue heron
Egretta thula1 Molina 1782 snowy egret
"Casmerodius albus" = Ardea alba1 Linnaeus 1758 great egret
Ardea cocoi1 Linnaeus 1766 cocoi heron
Nycticorax nycticorax1 Linnaeus 1758 black-crowned night heron
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Eudocimus peruvianus n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 ibis
Eudocimus albus1 Linnaeus 1758 white ibis
"Ajaia ajaja" = Platalea ajaja1 Linnaeus 1758 roseate spoonbill
Theristicus wetmorei n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 ibis
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Jabiru mycteria1 Lichtenstein 1819 jabiru
Mycteria americana1 Linnaeus 1758 wood stork
 Tinamiformes - Tinamidae
Crypturellus cf. transfasciatus1 Sclater and Salvin 1878 pale-browed tinamou
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Amplibuteo hibbardi n. gen. n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 hawk
Buteo sp.1 de Lacepède 1799 hawk
two unidentified Buteo species present
Miraquila terrestris n. gen. n. sp.1 Campbell 1979 eagle
Parabuteo unicinctus1 Temminck 1824 Harris's hawk
"Buteo polyosoma" = Geranoaetus polyosoma1 Quoy and Gaimard 1824 variable hawk
Geranoaetus melanoleucus1 Vieillot 1819 black-chested buzzard eagle
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
"Phalacrocorax olivaceus" = Phalacrocorax brasilianus1 Gmelin 1789 neotropic cormorant
Phalacrocorax bougainvillii1 Lesson 1837 Guanay cormorant
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Sigmodon sp. Say and Ord 1825 cotton rat
Phyllotis sp. Waterhouse 1837 mouse
 Rodentia - Caviidae
Neochoerus sp. Hay 1926 caviomorph
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
Amerhippus
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis dirus4, "Pseudalopex sp." = Canis (Pseudalopex)
Canis dirus4 Leidy 1858 dire wolf
"Pseudalopex sp." = Canis (Pseudalopex) Burmeister 1856 canine
Dusicyon
 Carnivora - Felidae
Smilodon fatalis4, "Panthera atrox" = Uncia atrox4
Smilodon fatalis4 Leidy 1868 saber-toothed cat
"Panthera atrox" = Uncia atrox4 Leidy 1853 cat
 Cingulata - Pampatheriidae
Chlamytherium sp. Lund 1838 edentate
 Xenarthra - Megatheriidae
Eremotherium sp. Spillmann 1948 edentate
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Glossotherium sp. Owen 1840 edentate
Scelidotherium sp. Owen 1839 edentate
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
"Haplomastodon sp." = Notiomastodon
"Haplomastodon sp." = Notiomastodon Cabrera 1929 gomphothere
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Eptesicus sp. Rafinesque 1820 house bat
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus sp. Rafinesque 1832 New World deer
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Marmosa sp. Gray 1821 mouse opossum