Spinagallo Cave (Pleistocene of Italy)

Where: Siracusa, Italy (37.0° N, 15.2° E: paleocoordinates 37.0° N, 15.2° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• hand sample-level geographic resolution

When: Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

Environment/lithology: cave; unlithified, sandy breccia

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, mechanical,

• The specimens are preserved in the Museo di Paleontologia dell'Università di Roma (MPUR) and in the Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia of the Torino University (MGPT), both in Italy

Primary reference: M. Pavia. 1999. The Middle Pleistocene avifauna of Spinagallo Cave (Sicily, Italy): preliminary report. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89:125-127 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 175900: authorized by Marco Pavia, entered by Marco Pavia on 17.01.2016, edited by Matthew Clapham and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla cf. arborea1 Linnaeus 1758 tree frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo cf. viridis1 Laurenti 1768 European green toad
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Discoglossus cf. pictus1 Otth 1837 Painted frog
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
"Testudo hermanni" = Chersine hermanni1
"Testudo hermanni" = Chersine hermanni1 Gmelin 1789 Hermann's tortoise
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
"Larus minutus" = Hydrocoloeus minutus, "Larus ridibundus" = Chroicocephalus ridibundus
"Larus minutus" = Hydrocoloeus minutus Pallas 1776 little gull
"Larus ridibundus" = Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus 1758 black-headed gull
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian woodcock
 Charadriiformes - Recurvirostridae
Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus 1758 pied avocet
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco subbuteo Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian hobby
Falco eleonorae Gené 1839 Eleonora's falcon
Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus 1758 Common kestrel
Falco columbarius Linnaeus 1758 merlin
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Asio otus Linnaeus 1758 long-eared owl
Aegolius martae3 Pavia 2008 true owl
cf. Surnia ulula Linnaeus 1758 northern hawk owl
Otus scops Linnaeus 1758 European scops-owl
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
Tyto mourerchauvireae n. sp.2 Pavia 2004 barn owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Columba livia Gmelin 1789 rock pigeon
Columba palumbus Linnaeus 1758 common wood-pigeon
Streptopelia turtur Linnaeus 1758 European turtle-dove
 Cuculiformes - Cuculidae
Cuculus canorus Linnaeus 1758 common cuckoo
 Piciformes - Picidae
Dendrocopos leucotos Bechstein 1802 white-backed woodpecker
Picus viridis Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian green woodpecker
 Ornithurae -
Passeriformes indet. Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
 Passeriformes - Laniidae
Lanius senator Linnaeus 1758 woodchat shrike
 Passeriformes - Alaudidae
Calandrella brachydactyla Leisler 1814 greater short-toed lark
Lullula arborea Linnaeus 1758 wood lark
 Passeriformes - Emberizidae
Emberiza "sp. 1" Linnaeus 1758 old world bunting
Emberiza "sp. 2" Linnaeus 1758 old world bunting
Emberiza "sp. 3" Linnaeus 1758 old world bunting
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Corvidae indet. Vigors 1825 perching bird
Pica pica Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian magpie
Pyrrhocorax graculus Linnaeus 1766 yellow-billed chough
 Passeriformes - Fringillidae
Pyrrhula pyrrhula Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian bullfinch
"Carduelis chloris" = Chloris chloris Linnaeus 1758 European greenfinch
Coccothraustes coccothraustes Linnaeus 1758 hawfinch
Fringilla sp. Linnaeus 1758 finch
Fringilla coelebs/montifringilla
Carduelis sp. Brisson 1760 finch
Serinus sp. Koch 1816 finch
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
Hirundo sp. Linnaeus 1758 swallow
 Passeriformes - Muscicapidae
Oenanthe cf. hispanica Linnaeus 1758 black-eared wheatear
Monticola solitarius Linnaeus 1758 blue rock-thrush
Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus 1758 European robin
 Passeriformes - Sylviidae
Sylvia sp. Scopoli 1769 perching bird
 Passeriformes - Phylloscopidae
Phylloscopus sp. Boie 1826 leaf warbler
Phylloscopus sibilatrix/collybita
 Passeriformes - Sturnidae
Sturnus sp. Linnaeus 1756 starling
 Passeriformes - Passeridae
Petronia petronia Linnaeus 1766 rock petronia
 Passeriformes - Prunellidae
Prunella modularis Linnaeus 1758 hedge accentor
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Turdus "sp. 1" Linnaeus 1758 true thrush
Turdus "sp. 2" Linnaeus 1758 true thrush
 Passeriformes - Motacillidae
Anthus sp. Bechstein 1805 perching bird
 Caprimulgiformes - Apodidae
Apus sp. Scopoli 1777 swift
Apus apus/pallidus
Apus melba Linnaeus 1758 alpine swift
 Caprimulgiformes - Caprimulgidae
Caprimulgus cf. europaeus Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian nightjar
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Grus sp. Brisson 1760 crane
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus 1758 water rail
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Geronticus eremita Linnaeus 1758 northern bald ibis
 Ornithurae - Phasianidae
Coturnix coturnix Linnaeus 1758 common quail
 Ornithurae - Anatidae
Marmaronetta angustirostris Ménétriés 1832 marbled teal
"Anas penelope" = Mareca penelope Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian wigeon
Anser erythropus Linnaeus 1758 lesser white-fronted goose
Branta sp. Scopoli 1769 goose
"Anas querquedula" = Spatula querquedula Linnaeus 1758 garganey
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipiter nisus Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian sparrowhawk
Accipiter gentilis Linnaeus 1758 northern goshawk
Reptilia
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacerta sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 squamates
Lacerta viridis1 Laurenti 1768 European green lizard
 Squamata - Colubridae
Coluber cf. viridiflavus1 Lacépède 1789 racer
Natrix sp.1 Laurenti 1768 water snake