Barn Owl Cave (Holocene of Ecuador)

Where: Galapagos, Ecuador (1.2° S, 90.5° W: paleocoordinates 1.2° S, 90.5° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Holocene (0.0 - 0.0 Ma)

Environment/lithology: sinkhole; brown, yellow, silty, sandy gravel

• Near the entrance, the floor of each cave was littered with hundreds of bones, as well as pieces of wood. The sediments from the different test pits are broadly similar to each other. They are very inorganic, being derived from basalts, with some secondary minerals (gypsum, flourite, apatite, minor calcite).

•Unit A: brown (7.5 YR 4/4 dry), reddish brown (5 YR 4/4 wet), moderately well laminated, poorly sorted, clayey, sandy, pebbly silt, alternating with well-laminated, poorly sorted, clayey, silty, sandy gravel; basaltic clasts very angular to sub-rounded; no reaction with 10% HCI; maximum observed thickness = 10 cm; indistinct lower contact (dashed line). Unit B: brown (7.5 YR 4/4 dry), reddish brown (5 YR 4/4 wet), unlaminated, moderately well sorted; silty, sandy, pebbly clay; basaltic clasts sub-angular; overall prismatic texture; strong reaction with 10% HCI; maximum observed thickness = 6 cm; sharp lower contact (solid line). Unit C\: Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6 dry), dark brown (7.5 YR 4/6 wet), unlaminated, moderately well sorted, silty, sandy clay to clayey, sandy, gravely silt; basaltic clasts, rarely up to 20 cm in diameter, sub-angular to sub-rounded; strong reaction ith 10% HCI; maximum observed thickness = 22 cm; indistinct lower contact (dashed line). Unit Cy. light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/6 dry), dark brown (7.5 YR 4/6 wet), unlaminated, very poorly sorted, clayey, sandy, gravely silt; basaltic clasts rarely up to 20 cm in diameter, smaller clasts of flourite and calcite, very angular to sub-rounded; strong reaction with 10% HCI; maximum observed thickness = 6 cm; lower contact basaltic bedrock).)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: D. W. Steadman. 1986. Holocene Vertebrate Fossils from Isla Floreana, Galapagos. Smithsonian contributions to zoology 413:1-112 [E. Vlachos/E. Vlachos]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 190846: authorized by Evangelos Vlachos, entered by Evangelos Vlachos on 19.12.2017

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Squamata - Colubridae
Alsophis biserialis colubrid snake
 Squamata - Tropiduridae
Tropidurus grayii ground lizard
 Squamata - Gekkonidae
Phyllodactylus baurii leaf-toed gecko
 Aves -
 Passeriformes -
Passeriformes indet. Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
 Passeriformes - Tyrannidae
"Pyrocephalus nanus" = Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus Gould 1838 Galapagos vermilion flycatcher
Myiarchus magnirostris Gould 1838 Galapagos flycatcher
 Passeriformes - Mimidae
Mimus trifasciatus Gould 1837 Floreana mockinbird
 Passeriformes - Thraupidae
"Geospiza pauper" = Camarhynchus pauper, "Geospiza parvula" = Camarhynchus parvulus, Geospiza indet., Geospiza magnirostris, Geospiza fuliginosa, Geospiza scandens, "Geospiza nebulosa" = Geospiza difficilis, Geospiza fortis, "Geospiza olivacea" = Certhidea olivacea, "Geospiza crassirostris" = Platyspiza crassirostris
"Geospiza pauper" = Camarhynchus pauper Ridgway 1890 medium tree-finch
"Geospiza parvula" = Camarhynchus parvulus Gould 1837 small tree-finch
Geospiza indet. Gould 1837 Darwin's finch
Geospiza magnirostris Gould 1837 large ground-finch
Geospiza fuliginosa Gould 1837 small ground-finch
Geospiza scandens Gould 1837 common cactus-finch
"Geospiza nebulosa" = Geospiza difficilis Sharpe 1888 sharp-beaked ground-finch
Geospiza fortis Gould 1837 medium ground-finch
"Geospiza olivacea" = Certhidea olivacea Gould 1837 green warbler-finch
"Geospiza crassirostris" = Platyspiza crassirostris Gould 1837 vegetarian finch
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Zenaida galapagoensis Gould 1841 Galapagos dove
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
"Tyto punctatissima" = Tyto alba punctatissima
"Tyto punctatissima" = Tyto alba punctatissima Gould and Gray 1838 Galapagos barn owl
 Procellariiformes - Procellariidae
Pterodroma phaeopygia Slavin 1876 Galapagos petrel
 Procellariiformes - Hydrobatidae
Oceanodroma castro Harcourt 1861 band-rumped storm-petrel
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardeidae indet. Leach 1820 heron
Nyctanassa violacea Linnaeus 1758 yellow-crowned night heron
 Testudines - Testudinidae
Geochelone elephantopus Harlan 1827 Galapagos giant tortoise
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Lasiurus borealis Muller 1776 hairy-tailed bat
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felis domesticus Erxleben 1777 domestic cat
introduced by man
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 wild boar
introduced by man
 Rodentia - Muridae
Mus musculus Linnaeus 1758 house mouse
introduced by man
Rattus rattus Linnaeus 1758 black rat
introduced by man