Richards Spur (Permian of the United States)

Also known as Fort Sill; OMNH locality V51; Dolese Bros. limestone quarry; FEP 60A

Where: Comanche County, Oklahoma (34.8° N, 98.4° W: paleocoordinates 0.8° N, 28.6° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Artinskian (290.1 - 279.3 Ma)

• The deposits occur within karstic deposits formed within bedding planes that were partially dissolved by meteoric dissolution of the Ordovician Arbuckle Limestone. Although long correlated with the Arroyo Formation (Clear Fork Group) of Texas (see Sullivan and Reisz, 1999 p. 1265, for discussion), radioisotopic dating of speleothems by Woodhead et al. (2010) and MacDougall et al. (2017) have provided an older estimate to around 289–286 Ma.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fissure fill; poorly lithified, fine-grained, gray claystone and coarse-grained conglomerate

• primarily "fine grey clay... However, sheets of coarse conglomerate occur near the irregular fissure walls, providing evidence for occasional floods... Tetrapod remains occur within both conglomerate and clay"; clay is "largely unlithified" (Sullivan & Reisz, 1999 pp. 1258/59)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by F. E. Peabody, W. Langston, J. Bolt, E. C. Olson, among others; reposited in the FMNH, MCZ, OU, YPM

Collection methods: quarrying, surface (float), sieve,

• The fossils are prepared by "washing the largely unlithified fossiliferous clays and sorting in the laboratory" (Sullivan & Reisz, 1999 p. 1259)

•apparently, the material comes from spoil piles produced during commercial quarrying.

•Additonal institutions storing material from Richards Spur:

•KU(MNH)= KUVP = University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Lawrence

•ROM = Royal Ontario Musuem, Toronto, Canada

•UCLA = University of California Los Angeles

•UCMP = University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley

•UMMP = University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, Detroit

•USNM = Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC

•UWBM = University of Washington, Burke Museum, Seattle

Primary reference: M. J. MacDougall, N. J. Tabor, J. Woodhead, A. R. Daoust, and R. R. Reisz. 2017. The unique preservational environment of the Early Permian (Cisuralian) fossiliferous cave deposits of the Richards Spur locality, Oklahoma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 475:1-11 [B. Gee/B. Gee]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 67862: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 13.12.2006, edited by Torsten Liebrecht, Richard Butler, Roger Benson, Emma Dunne, Bryan Gee, Matthew Clapham and Graeme Lloyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Bolt (1969) notes that the clay mound (the "D-concentrate") in the spoil heap of the quarry that contained the type material of Doleserpeton annectens bears the "remains of many thousands of individuals but virtually no genera other than Doleserpeton".

•The type specimen of Sillerpeton permianum is said to be UCMP 62480 by Lund (1978 p. 65). This specimen number, however, does not appear among the specimens of Phlegethontia cf. longissima listed by McGinnis (1967 p. 2) but one of these specimens bears the catalogue number UCMP 62580. The latter is listed as referred specimen of S. permianum in Lund (1978 p. 66). Anderson (2002, J. Paleont. 76(6) p. 1031) lists both UCMP 62480 and 62580 as type of S. permianum. Since UCMP 62480 is a braincase according to Lund (1978) and UCMP 62580 is a braincase as well (McGinnis, 1967; Lund, 1978) and since there is only one aistopod braincase present in the Fort Sill material (Anderson, 2002) the type of S. permianum is very likely to be UCMP 62580.

•Anderson & Reisz (2003) do not explicitly say when the type of Bolterpeton carrolli was collected but it is improbable that this specimen was known to Bolt in 1980. OMNH 71111 and OMNH 71112, although not explicitly mentioned by Bolt (1980), well may belong to the material that was originally assigned to "species x". Furthermore, Anderson & Reisz (2003) do not explicitly assign the remainder of "species x" to Bolterpeton. Nevertheless they say that these specimens are "closely related" to Bolterpeton, but "because of the size difference between Bolterpeton and Species X, it cannot be said whether Species X is a different species or an ontogenetic variant." Thus, these specimens are re-identified here as ? Bolterpeton sp.

Aistopoda indet.16
only one single Aistopod vertebra was known from Ft. Sill at the time
Arthropoda indet.27 Latreille 1829
cuticle fragments preserved on the palate of acleistorhinid reptiles OMNH 73362 (presumably part of an antenna) and ONMH 73364 (presumably a cercus)
 Chilognatha -
Helminthomorpha indet.17 Pocock 1887 millipede
OU 12150, 12151
Karstiulus fortsillensis n. gen. n. sp.17 Hannibal and May 2020 millipede
OU 12154
 Chilognatha - Oklahomasomatidae
Oklahomasoma richardsspurense n. gen. n. sp.17 Hannibal and May 2020 millipede
OU 44526
 Chilognatha -
Dolesea subtila n. gen. n. sp.17
Dolesea subtila n. gen. n. sp.17 Hannibal and May 2020 millipede
OU 12152, 12153
 Xenacanthida - Orthacanthidae
? Orthacanthus sp.29 Agassiz 1843 elasmobranch
 Seymouriamorpha - Seymouriidae
Seymouria sp.42 Broili 1904 tetrapod
FMNH PR 2053 (femur), 2054 (humerus), 2055-2057; OMNH 15108, 56825 (all vertebral elements)
 Caseasauria - Caseidae
Arisierpeton simplex33 Reisz 2019 synapsid
GAA 00225-1 (Holotype: premaxilla); GAA 00242, a right premaxilla; GAA 00239, a right premaxillary fragment; GAA 00207, a left maxillary fragment; GAA 00225-2, a right maxillary fragment; GAA 00240, a left maxillary fragment with two teeth and fragments of two other teeth; GAA 00246-1, a partial left dentary with eight teeth; GAA 00246-2, a partial right dentary with 12 teeth or parts of teeth; GAA 00244, a series of three dorsal vertebrae.
Oromycter dolesorum n. gen. n. sp.32 Reisz 2005 synapsid
 Synapsida - Sphenacodontidae
Sphenacodontidae indet.10 Marsh 1878 synapsid
OMNH 73811-73816 (2 dentigerous fragments, 3 isolated teeth, 1 cervical)
Dimetrodon sp.7 Cope 1878 synapsid
ROM 73635, 73636 (isolated teeth); ROM 73637 (neural spine)
 Synapsida - Varanopidae
Mesenosaurus efremovi n. sp.24 Maho et al. 2019 synapsid
OMNH 73208, 73209, 73500; "large undescribed mycterosaurine"
Varanops cf. brevirostris23 Williston 1911 synapsid
Mycterosaurus longiceps39 Williston 1915 synapsid
FMNH UR 381 (pars; a tibia) "identification questionable"
Thrausmosaurus serratidens n. gen. n. sp.11 Fox 1962 synapsid
KU 11120 (type), 11121, 11122 (all are dentigerous fragments)
Mycterosaurinae indet.24 Modesto et al. 2001 synapsid
USNM 21895 (type)
 Parareptilia -
Microleter mckinzieorum n. gen. n. sp.44
Microleter mckinzieorum n. gen. n. sp.44 Tsuji et al. 2010 parareptile
OMNH 73106 (type)
 Bolosauria - Bolosauridae
Bolosaurus grandis n. sp.34 Reisz et al. 2002 parareptile
 Parareptilia - Nyctiphruretidae
Abyssomedon williamsi n. gen. n. sp.22
Abyssomedon williamsi n. gen. n. sp.22 MacDougall and Reisz 2014 parareptile
BMRP 2008 33a
 Procolophonomorpha - Acleistorhinidae
Acleistorhinidae indet.27 Daly 1969 parareptile
OMNH 73364 (one skull; apparently not among the material referred to Delorhynchus cifellii by Reisz et al., 2014)
Feeserpeton oklahomensis n. gen. n. sp.21 MacDougall and Reisz 2012 parareptile
OMNH 73541 (type, a nearly complete skull)
Colobomycter pholeter n. gen. n. sp.45 Vaughn 1958 parareptile
FMNH UR 272 (type); OMNH 55927, 73535; ROM 26108; specimen numbers of other than the type specimen are from Modesto & Reisz (2008)
Colobomycter vaughni n. sp.20 MacDougall et al. 2016 parareptile
UWBM 96304 (Holotype: partial skull with a few disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements) and BMRP 2008.3.3b (interior surface of a partial skull and two disarticulated vertebrae), found at Dolese Brothers Limestone quarry
Delorhynchus multidentatus n. sp.40 Rowe et al. 2021 parareptile
ROMVP 87042, fragmentary skull
Delorhynchus cifellii n. sp.36 Reisz et al. 2014 parareptile
OMNH 73515 (holotype), OMNH 73362 and 73363 (skull and mandible, cited as "acleistorhinid parareptile" in Modesto et al., 2009), 73524 (a right maxilla)
Delorhynchus priscus n. gen. n. sp.11 Fox 1962 parareptile
KU 11117 (type), 11118, 11119 (all are fragmentary maxillae)
 Eureptilia - Protorothyrididae
Protorothyrididae indet.31 Price 1937 eureptile
ROM 21732 to 21740 (all are isolated longbones of fore- and hindlimb)
 Eosuchia -
Neodiapsida indet.42 Benton 1985 diapsid
YPM 4926 (a single parietal bone)
Orovenator mayorum n. gen. n. sp.37 Reisz et al. 2011 diapsid
OMNH 74606 (type), 74607; both are partial skulls
 Eureptilia - Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae indet.26 Case 1911 eureptile
OMNH 52366, 52367
Captorhinus sp.18 Cope 1896 eureptile
Captorhinus kierani9 deBraga et al. 2019 eureptile
OMNH 73281a (Holotype: complete skull); ROMVP 80229 (right dentary)
Captorhinus aguti42 Cope 1882 eureptile
AMNH 2463-2466, 4434, 5494, AMNH unnumbered; FMNH UR 338, 339, 382-402, 425, 594-596, UC 1699, 3x UC unnumbered; UMMP 50985, KU 9978, 8962-8964, 8965, 9780, 9924, Clarke Collection unnumbered specimen (disarticulated partial skull); MCZ 1198, 1199, 2146; OMNH 15138; ROM 30096-30101; specimen numbers are from Seltin (1959), Fox & Bowman (1966), Holmes (1977), Sumida (1987) and Modesto (1998); minimum number of individuals is derived from the presence of 91 interclavicles (incl. more or less complete skeletons)
Captorhinus magnus n. sp.18 Kissel et al. 2002 eureptile
OMNH 55386, 55387 (type), 55390-55392, 55396, 55397, 55399, 55400, 56820, 56821, 56881, 56884-56886, 56888, 56891, 56893-56897, 56900, 56909-56913, 56917, 56921, 56923, 56929, 56943, 56961, 56963, 56965, 56967, 56970, 56973, 56975, 56983, 56984; presence of 6 left humeri indicates that, at least, 6 individuals are present
Opisthodontosaurus carrolli n. gen. n. sp.35 Reisz et al. 2015 eureptile
OMNH 77469 (type, a partial skull with mandible), 43299 (a right maxilla), 43300 (left dentary), 77470 (partial skull roof and lower jaw preserved in articulation) 77471 (partial skull and lower jaws, incl. disarticulated vertebrae, pectoral girdle, right forelimb, proximal head of left humerus) and 77472 (partial lower jaws, left maxilla and fragmentary skull roof elements, partial palate, isolated dorsal vertebrae and ribs, two caudal vertebrae, partial right pelvis and femur); ROM 71398 (a single maxillary tooth); UWBM 89171 (lower jaws, partial palate, fragment of lacrimal and prefrontal)
Opisthodontosaurus carrolli35 Reisz et al. 2015 eureptile
YPM 3684, 3686, 3864-3866 (all are mandibles ore maxillaries) + "numerous isolated bones" in the collections of the KUMNH (number of individuals is inferred from presence of at least 50 dentaries)
Labidosauriscus richardi n. gen. n. sp.28 Modesto et al. 2018 eureptile
OMNH 77609, a partial subadult skull with associated vertebrae (holotype). OMNH 77610, greater part of a mostly articulated, dorsoventrally-compressed skull with a few postcra- nial elements; OMNH 77611, a right premaxilla; OMNH 77612, greater part of a small left maxilla with 11 tooth positions; OMNH 77613, fragment of anterior end of medium-sized right maxilla with three complete teeth and a single alveolus; OMNH 77614, fragment of anterior end of small, right maxilla with two complete teeth and two tooth stumps; OMNH 78657, fragment of small, right maxilla with two complete teeth and a large alve- olus; OMNH 78658, anterior fragment of large, right dentary with two complete teeth.
Baeotherates fortsillensis n. gen. n. sp.25 May and Cifelli 1998 eureptile
OMNH 55758 (type)
 Recumbirostra - Gymnarthridae
? Bolterpeton sp.2 Anderson and Reisz 2003 amniote
referred to as "species x" ("either microsaur or reptile") by Bolt (1980); minimum number of individuals is derived from the presence of 91 dentaries (minus OMNH 71111) assigned to "x" by Bolt (1980; specimens mentioned and figured therein are: FMNH PR 1083 (maxilla), 1084-1086 (dentaries), 1087 (premax.), 1091 (maxilla), 1162 (dentary), 1180, 1181 (both are premaxillae))
Bolterpeton carrolli n. gen. n. sp.2 Anderson and Reisz 2003 amniote
OMNH 52364 (type), OMNH 71111 (both are incomplete mandibles); the second specimen probably was originally identified as "species x" by Bolt (1980) (see comments on taxonomic list)
Euryodus sp.14 Olson 1939 amniote
OMNH 53519 (skull with mandibles); FMNH PR 1030 (partial skull with mandibles)
Cardiocephalus peabodyi n. sp.8 Carroll and Gaskill 1978 amniote
OUSM 10001 (formerly OU 1034); YPM 3689; KUMNH 8967
 Recumbirostra - Ostodolepidae
Nannaroter mckinziei n. gen. n. sp.3
Nannaroter mckinziei n. gen. n. sp.3 Anderson et al. 2009 amniote
OMNH 73107 (type)
 Temnospondyli -
Temnospondyli indet.30 tetrapod
UCLA 1751 (fragment of squamosal of large individual)
 Temnospondyli - Dissorophidae
Dissorophidae indet.43 Boulenger 1902 tetrapod
OMNH 56870 (palatine); "clearly does not pertain to either Cacops or Acheloma"
cf. Cacops sp.43 Williston 1910 tetrapod
OMNH 56868 (femur), 56869 (humerus; "probably but not necessarily the same taxon represented by the femur")
Cacops woehri n. sp.41 Froebisch and Reisz 2012 tetrapod
OMNH 73216 (Holotype: partial skull) and BMRP 2007.3.5 (Frobisch et al., 2015)
Cacops morrisi n. sp.38 Reisz et al. 2009 tetrapod
FMNH 1032, 1033 (both are isolated quadrates), 1034 (palatine); catalogue numbers of other specimens (13 palatines total, 14 quadrates total) are not given; estimation of minimum number of individuals is based on the presence of 14 quadrates
Dissorophinae indet.15 Boulenger 1902 tetrapod
OMNH 73522a, anterior trunk and hindlimb
Dissorophus cf. multicinctus13 Cope 1895 tetrapod
ROMVP 80072 (partial, disarticulated posterior skull table and occiput in articulation with a series of osteoderms covering 13 vertebral positions); ROMVP 80073 (partial, articulated posterior skull and occiput in articulation with a series of nine osteoderm positions and clavicle); ROMVP 80074 (anterior shield with corresponding anteriormost internal osteoderm); ROMVP 80075 (anterior shield); ROMVP 80076 (internal osteoderm articulated with fragmentary internal-external pair and partial neural spines); ROMVP 80077 (articulated series of osteoderms with possible interclavicle)
cf. Aspidosaurus sp.13 Broili 1904 tetrapod
ROMVP 80069 (osteoderms and neural spines)
 Temnospondyli - Trematopidae
"Trematopsidae indet." = Trematopidae5, "Acheloma cf. cumminsi" = Acheloma cumminsi43, "Acheloma dunni n. sp." = Acheloma cumminsi30
"Trematopsidae indet." = Trematopidae5 Williston 1910 tetrapod
FMNH UR 2400 (partial skull)
"Acheloma cf. cumminsi" = Acheloma cumminsi43 Cope 1882 tetrapod
OMNH 56864-56866
"Acheloma dunni n. sp." = Acheloma cumminsi30 Cope 1882 tetrapod
OMNH 73281, nearly complete skull. BMRP2007.3.4, small trematopid skull; BMRP2007.3.1, trematopid snout; OMNH 52365, jaw articulation; OMNH 73514, pelvic girdle; OMNH 52545, right humerus.
 Temnospondyli - Micropholidae
Pasawioops mayi n. gen. n. sp.12 Fröbisch and Reisz 2008 tetrapod
OMNH 73019 (type), 73509
Tersomius sp.6 Case 1910 tetrapod
FMNH UR 1092 (small dentary)
Tersomius dolesensis n. sp.1 Anderson and Bolt 2013 tetrapod
OMNH 3709 (Holotype: nearly complete skull), first reported as Tersomius sp. by Bolt (1980), found at Dolese Brothers Limestone quarry
 Temnospondyli - Amphibamidae
Doleserpeton annectens n. gen. n. sp.4
Doleserpeton annectens n. gen. n. sp.4 Bolt 1969 tetrapod
FMNH UR 1308 (type); "Referred specimens are too numerous to list; all are in the Field Museum"
 Microsauria - Hapsidopareiidae
Llistrofus pricei n. gen. n. sp.8
Llistrofus pricei n. gen. n. sp.8 Carroll and Gaskill 1978 tetrapod
FMNH UR 948 (type)
 Aistopoda - Phlegethontiidae
Sillerpeton permianum n. gen. n. sp.19
Sillerpeton permianum n. gen. n. sp.19 Lund 1978 tetrapod
only one single Aistopod vertebra was known from Ft. Sill at the time