Linton (Carboniferous of the United States)

Also known as Diamond Coal Mine

Where: Jefferson County, Ohio (40.6° N, 80.7° W: paleocoordinates 7.8° S, 18.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Upper Freeport Coal Member, Westphalian D (309.8 - 307.5 Ma)

• "immediately [... below ...] a locally thick bituminous seam, known as the Upper Freeport coal, at the top of the Allegheny Group. The Upper Freeport is the No. 6 coal of Newberry (1871, 1874, 1878) or the No. 7 coal of subsequent Ohio Geological Survey reports, and is taken to be correlative to the top of the Westphalian D Series of Europe" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: mire or swamp; coal

• "the cannel [...] originated as a subaqueous sapropelic peat that formed under neutral to moderately alkaline, anoxic conditions [...] at the bottom of an approximately 15-m-deep abandoned river meander [...] the Linton meander was closed rapidly by neck cutoff . In the absence of significant clastic influx, plant debris derived from the surrounding levees formed a peaty muck in the bottom of the oxbow and, after a brief period of aerobic decomposition, degenerated into an anoxic, scavenger-free sapropelic peat.

•The oxbow was situated in the meander belt on a large, contemporaneously active river. As sediment supply within this system diminished, peat-forming mires expanded over floodplain deposits, and where no clastic sediments intervened, humic peat accumulated directly above sapropel-filled abandoned channel segments." (Hook & Baird, 1988)

• "Linton fossils are preserved in a thin deposit of cannel coal [...]. The cannel is composed primarily of miospores and other resistant plant parts dispersed within a very fine-grained, pyrite-rich matrix of organic detritus" which are enclosed in an "erosive-based, fining-upward, sandstone-dominated

•sediment body" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by J. S. Newberry, T. Stock, S. Houston, D. Baird, D. Mullenaux, among others; reposited in the AMNH, CM, MCZ, USNM

Collection methods: quarrying,

• "thousands of fossils [...] obtained within the mine, from the mine dump, and from local collectors" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

•PU = Princeton University Fossil Vertebrate Collection (should now be reposited in the Yale Peabody Museum)

Primary reference: E. D. Cope. 1875. Supplement to the Extinct Batrachia and Reptilia of North America I. Catalogue of the Air Breathing Vertebrata from the Coal Measures of Linton, Ohio. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 15(2):261-278 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 85292: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Torsten Liebrecht on 10.12.2008, edited by Matthew Carrano, Emma Dunne, Matthew Clapham, Bethany Allen, Bryan Gee and Joseph Flannery-Sutherland

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Anderson (2002) states that AMNH 6966 (incl. 6886) is the "only known specimen" of Phlegethontia linearis. Hence, all other specimens referred to P. linearis by earlier authors (i.e. Lund, 1978) are listed as P. longissima in the taxonomic list. However, since some of this material is neither listed as Phlegethontia nor even mentioned at all by Anderson (2002), there is no information on the current whereabouts and taxonomic status of these specimens (marked by an asterisk in the taxonomic list).
Myriapoda
 Chilognatha - Xyloiulidae
Xyloiulus bairdi n. sp.14 Hoffman 1963 millipede
MCZ 5268, 5320, 5321; PU 84787
 Chilognatha - Plagiascetidae
Plagiascetus lateralis n. gen. n. sp.14
Plagiascetus lateralis n. gen. n. sp.14 Hoffman 1963 millipede
PU 84788
Osteichthyes
 Actinopterygii - Haplolepidae
Haplolepis sp.26 Miller 1892 ray-finned fish
Haplolepis corrugata22 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
OSU 4478 (holotpye); AMNH 452G, 1012G; USNM 4496
Microhaplolepis ovoidea15 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
OSU 4563 (holotype); AMNH 445G, 449G, 450G, 943, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1979, 1980, 1983, 2228; CM 21594, 23044, 23045, 23088, 23089, 23608, 23609, 23620, 23624, 24916, 27294, 30656; USNM 4502, 4518, 4523.
Microhaplolepis serrata22 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
-AMNH 2015, 2102, 9153, 9158; CM 21474, 21476,.21567, 21573, 21577, 21586, 21595, 23034, 23037, 23038, 23040, 23042, 23043, 23047, 23048, 23050, 23069, 23071, 23075, 23076, 23077, 23078, 23079, 23080, 23081, 23082, 23083, 23084, 23086, 23087, 23090, 23601, 23602, 23603, 23604, 23605, 23606, 23607, 23610, 23611, 23612, 23614, 23615, 23616, 23627, 24900, 24909, 24921, 24926, 24927, 25257, 25259, 26226, 26227, 26229, 26230, 26235, 26255, 26256, 26257, 26467, 26468; USNM 4452, 4455, 4491, 4492, 4493, 4499, 4512, 4521, 4524, 4525, 4527, 4528, 4535
Parahaplolepis tuberculata22 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
A type specimen of this species has not been found in either the Orton Geological Museum or the American Museum of Natural History (Lowney 1980); MNH 702, 975G, 980, 986G, 1136G, 1944; CM 21507, 21580, 23035, 23039, 23051, 23052, 23617, 23618, 23619, 23621, 23625, 23626, 24906, 24925, 24929, 25260, 25261, 25262, 25264, 25266, 26228, 26234, 26240, 26241, 26466; USNM 4439, 4440, 4441, 4445, 4446, 4448, 4450, 4485, 4486, 4494, 4497, 4498, 4500, 4503, 4504, 4506, 4516, 4531, 7144, 16428, 16432, 16435, 16485; NHMUK P.1005b, 1007a; NMS
Pyritocephalus lineatus22 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
NHMUK P.7779
 Aistopoda - Ophiderpetontidae
"Ophiderpeton amphiuminum" = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum28, "Cercariomorphus parvisquamis n. gen. n. sp." = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum28
"Ophiderpeton amphiuminum" = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum28 Cope 1868 tetrapod
MCZ 2165, caudal series
"Cercariomorphus parvisquamis n. gen. n. sp." = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum28 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 2560 (holotype); AMNH 8683G
 Aistopoda - Oestocephalidae
Oestocephalus amphiuminum n. gen. n. sp.5, "Sauropleura pectinata n. gen. n. sp." = Oestocephalus pectinatus5
Oestocephalus amphiuminum n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6857 (Holotype; skull and anterior trunk)
"Sauropleura pectinata n. gen. n. sp." = Oestocephalus pectinatus5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6868 (Lectotype, skull in lateral and partial palatal view, dermal pectoral girdle and much of trunk. Figured by Cope 1875c, pl XLI, fig. 1)
 Aistopoda - Phlegethontiidae
Phlegethontia linearis n. gen. n. sp.1, "Phlegethontia longissima" = Phlegethontia longissima1, "Phlegethontia serpens n. sp." = Phlegethontia longissima1
Phlegethontia linearis n. gen. n. sp.1 Cope 1871 tetrapod
AMNH 6966 (type; part and counterpart; counterpart originally catalogued as AMNH 6886)
"Phlegethontia longissima" = Phlegethontia longissima1 Fritsch 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 2564 (referred to "Cocytinus gyrinoides Cope" by Moodie, 1916), 6884*, 6913 (neither mentioned by McGinnis, 1967 nor Lund, 1978); MCZ 2038, 2134*, 2135 (part and counterpart)*, 2300*, 2301*, 2334 (part and counterpart); CM 23053*, 23056*, 44759. 68307, 68336, 68338 (all CM specimens without asterisk are neither mentioned by McGinnis, 1967 nor Lund, 1978); USNM 4484 (listed as "Phlegethontia n. sp." by McGinnis, 1967); PU 16536 (pars)*, 16537*, 18737*; asterisks mark specimens reported from Linton by either McGinnis (1967; as P. cf. P. longissima) or Lund (1978; as P. linearis) but not at all mentioned by Anderson (2002); see also comments on taxonomic list
"Phlegethontia serpens n. sp." = Phlegethontia longissima1 Fritsch 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6899 (type)
 Recumbirostra - Molgophidae
"Brachydectes newberryi n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi5, "Pleuroptyx clavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi9, "Cocytinus gyrinoides" = Brachydectes newberryi23, "Molgophis wheatleyi" = Brachydectes newberryi23, Molgophis macrurus n. gen. n. sp.5
"Brachydectes newberryi n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi5 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6941 (Holotype designated by Hook (1983); a nearly complete right mandible, left dentary, two premaxillae and a right maxilla)
"Pleuroptyx clavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi9 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6838 (Holotype; a series of five vertebrae and associated ribs), AMNH 6863, BM(NH) R.2676, MB 47, MCZ 2303, and USNM 4509 (all attributed specimens)
"Cocytinus gyrinoides" = Brachydectes newberryi23 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6925 (holotype)
"Molgophis wheatleyi" = Brachydectes newberryi23 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6897 (holotype)
Molgophis macrurus n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 amniote
No holotype was designated but attributed specimens from Linton include: AMNH 6840, AMNH 6913, AMNH 6963, AMNH 6968 (all articulated vertebral and rib material). Specimens from others localities can be found at MCZ.
Reptilia
 Procolophonomorpha - Acleistorhinidae
Carbonodraco lundi n. gen. n. sp.17
Carbonodraco lundi n. gen. n. sp.17 Mann et al. 2019 parareptile
=Cephalerpeton cf. C. ventriarmatum Reisz and Baird 1983. Holotype: CM 23055, a disarticulated skull that includes maxillae, left premaxilla, right lacrimal, left prefrontal, left parietal, left frontal, dentaries and, splenials, left surangular, and vomers; collected by Richard Lund, 1972. Referred Material: NHMUK R. 2667, right mandible in lingual perspective; probably collected by John S. Newberry, circa 1870, later given to James W. Davis (‘Davies’ of Reisz & Baird, 1983), and eventually purchased by the British Museum [Natural History] in 1895. CM 81536, a pair of dentaries preserved in lingual perspective; collected by Scott McKenzie, 2004.
 Eureptilia - Protorothyrididae
"Sauropleura longipes n. sp." = Anthracodromeus longipes
"Sauropleura longipes n. sp." = Anthracodromeus longipes Cope 1875 eureptile
AMNH 6940 (type)
Osteichthyes
 Pelycosauria -
Pelycosauria indet.24 pelycosaur
PU 19840
 Synapsida - Edaphosauridae
Melanedaphodon hovaneci n. gen. n. sp.16
Melanedaphodon hovaneci n. gen. n. sp.16 Mann et al. 2023 synapsid
Holotype: CM 93778, a natural mould of cranial remains comprising a partial right mandibular ramus, a right pterygoid, the posterior part of a right maxilla, and the right jugal. Referred material: CM 93779, a natural mold of partial skeleton comprising a right maxilla, a right pterygoid, a left parietal, a left frontal, a parabasisphenoid, and postcranial bones.
 Synapsida - Ophiacodontidae
Archaeothyris sp.24 Reisz 1972 ophiacodont
MB-R57/59; AMNH 2567 (assigned to S. digitata by Moodie, 1916)
 Tetrapoda - Gephyrostegidae
"Sauropleura digitata n. gen. n. sp." = Eusauropleura digitata3, "? Eusauropleura digitata" = Eusauropleura digitata3
"Sauropleura digitata n. gen. n. sp." = Eusauropleura digitata3 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6865 (formerly 8004 G, type), AMNH 6960
"? Eusauropleura digitata" = Eusauropleura digitata3 Cope 1868 tetrapod
PU 16815
 Tetrapoda - Anthracosauridae
Anthracosaurus lancifer n. sp.22 Newberry 1856 tetrapod
Ohio State Univ. Mus 4500 (holotype, a palatal tusk)
 Tetrapoda - Eogyrinidae
Leptophractus obsoletus n. gen. n. sp.7
Leptophractus obsoletus n. gen. n. sp.7 Cope 1873 tetrapod
AMNH 6831 and Columbia Univ. specimen (syntypes; both upper and lower jaws of skulls)
 Baphetoidea - Baphetidae
"Leptophractus lineolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Megalocephalus lineolatus11, "Baphetes lintonensis n. sp." = Loxomma lintonensis2
"Leptophractus lineolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Megalocephalus lineolatus11 Cope 1877 tetrapod
AMNH 6828 (formerly Newberry 1086/1087G) (holotype; fragment of skull and left mandibular ramus prepared as acid-etched mold)
"Baphetes lintonensis n. sp." = Loxomma lintonensis2 Beaumont 1977 tetrapod
AMNH 6944 (holotype; part and counterpart of juvenile skull)
Amphibia
 Temnospondyli - Cochleosauridae
Adamanterpeton ohioensis n. gen. n. sp.19
Adamanterpeton ohioensis n. gen. n. sp.19 Milner and Sequeira 1998 tetrapod
AMNH 2933 (holotype; skull in partial counterpart on two slabs of coal)
 Temnospondyli - Amphibamidae
"Raniceps lyelli n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli25, "Tuditanus mordex n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli25, "Ichthycanthus platypus n. gen. n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli25
"Raniceps lyelli n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli25 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 6841 (Holotype: almost complete skeleton in dorsal aspect and skull in ventral aspect as acid-etched counterpart mould)
"Tuditanus mordex n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli25 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 2566
"Ichthycanthus platypus n. gen. n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli25 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 2002
 Temnospondyli - Dissorophidae
"Erpetosaurus tuberculatus n. sp." = Stegops newberryi25, "Ceraterpeton divaricatum n. sp." = Stegops newberryi25, "Stegops divaricata n. sp." = Stegops newberryi27
"Erpetosaurus tuberculatus n. sp." = Stegops newberryi25 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6952
"Ceraterpeton divaricatum n. sp." = Stegops newberryi25 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 2559/FMNH UR16 (Holotype: counterparts)
"Stegops divaricata n. sp." = Stegops newberryi27 Cope 1875 tetrapod
 Temnospondyli -
"Tuditanus huxleyi n. sp." = Macrerpeton huxleyi13, "Tuditanus radiatus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus8, "Diceratosaurus robustus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus20, "Diceratosaurus laevis n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus20
"Tuditanus huxleyi n. sp." = Macrerpeton huxleyi13 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6834 (Newberry 9022) (Holotype: nearly complete skill (length 11.5cm) now represented by acid-etched molds of part and counterpart)
"Tuditanus radiatus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus8 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 6922 (Holotype, acid-etched mold of skull in dorsal aspect)
"Diceratosaurus robustus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus20 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 8611 G
"Diceratosaurus laevis n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus20 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 102
 Temnospondyli - Eobrachyopidae
"Dendrerpeton obtusum n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus5, "Colosteus foveatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus6, "Sauropleura latithorax n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus12, "Tuditanus tabulatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus20
"Dendrerpeton obtusum n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6928 (type)
"Colosteus foveatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus6 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6919
"Sauropleura latithorax n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus12 Cope 1868 tetrapod
USNM 4471 (type)
"Tuditanus tabulatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus20 Cope 1868 tetrapod
"Single well-preserved skull and its obverse in the collection of the Colombia University of New York City"
 Nectridea - Diplocaulidae
"Tuditanus brevirostris n. sp." = Diceratosaurus brevirostris10
"Tuditanus brevirostris n. sp." = Diceratosaurus brevirostris10 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6933 (Holotype; acid-etched mould of skull and articulated skeleton in counterpart, complete as far as 7th caudal vertebra. Dorsal skull roof lacking except for right tabular horn.)
 Nectridea - Urocordylidae
"Sauropleura remex n. sp." = Ctenerpeton remex5, "Colosteus marshii n. sp." = Ptyonius marshii6
"Sauropleura remex n. sp." = Ctenerpeton remex5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6907 (Holotype; well-preserved portion of tail, consisting of 23 caudal vertebrae, maximum height 19.7mm; counterpart YPM (PU) 1769). At least nine specimens known in collections at AMNH, USNM, and YPM (PU).
"Colosteus marshii n. sp." = Ptyonius marshii6 Cope 1869 tetrapod
AMNH 6862 (Holotype; partial skull, ventral scales, and disarticulated postcranial elements. Figured by Cope 1875c pl. XXVII, fig. 6)
 Microsauria - Tuditanidae
Tuditanus punctulatus n. gen. n. sp.10
Tuditanus punctulatus n. gen. n. sp.10 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6926 (Holotype, skull and much of postcranial skeleton in counterpart blocks)
 Microsauria - Odonterpetontidae
Odonterpeton triangulare n. gen. n. sp.21
Odonterpeton triangulare n. gen. n. sp.21 Moodie 1909 tetrapod
USNM 4465 (Holotype, skull and anterior postcranial skeleton)
Osteichthyes
 Tetrapoda - Colosteidae
"Pygopterus scutellatus n. sp." = Colosteus scutellatus4, Ichthyerpeton squamosum n. sp.20
"Pygopterus scutellatus n. sp." = Colosteus scutellatus4 Cope 1869 tetrapod
AMNH 6916 (holotype; formerly Columbia University 8584G & 8666G, incomplete skull and anterior portion of trunk)
Ichthyerpeton squamosum n. sp.20 Moodie 1909 tetrapod
 Palaeoniscoidea -
Palaeoniscoidea sp.18
PU 16536 (pars)