Linton (Carboniferous of the United States)

Also known as Diamond Coal Mine

Where: Jefferson County, Ohio (40.6° N, 80.7° W: paleocoordinates 7.8° S, 18.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Upper Freeport Coal Member, Westphalian D (309.8 - 307.5 Ma)

• "immediately [... below ...] a locally thick bituminous seam, known as the Upper Freeport coal, at the top of the Allegheny Group. The Upper Freeport is the No. 6 coal of Newberry (1871, 1874, 1878) or the No. 7 coal of subsequent Ohio Geological Survey reports, and is taken to be correlative to the top of the Westphalian D Series of Europe" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: mire or swamp; coal

• "the cannel [...] originated as a subaqueous sapropelic peat that formed under neutral to moderately alkaline, anoxic conditions [...] at the bottom of an approximately 15-m-deep abandoned river meander [...] the Linton meander was closed rapidly by neck cutoff . In the absence of significant clastic influx, plant debris derived from the surrounding levees formed a peaty muck in the bottom of the oxbow and, after a brief period of aerobic decomposition, degenerated into an anoxic, scavenger-free sapropelic peat.

•The oxbow was situated in the meander belt on a large, contemporaneously active river. As sediment supply within this system diminished, peat-forming mires expanded over floodplain deposits, and where no clastic sediments intervened, humic peat accumulated directly above sapropel-filled abandoned channel segments." (Hook & Baird, 1988)

• "Linton fossils are preserved in a thin deposit of cannel coal [...]. The cannel is composed primarily of miospores and other resistant plant parts dispersed within a very fine-grained, pyrite-rich matrix of organic detritus" which are enclosed in an "erosive-based, fining-upward, sandstone-dominated

•sediment body" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by J. S. Newberry, T. Stock, S. Houston, D. Baird, D. Mullenaux, among others; reposited in the AMNH, CM, MCZ, USNM

Collection methods: quarrying,

• "thousands of fossils [...] obtained within the mine, from the mine dump, and from local collectors" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

•PU = Princeton University Fossil Vertebrate Collection (should now be reposited in the Yale Peabody Museum)

Primary reference: E. D. Cope. 1875. Supplement to the Extinct Batrachia and Reptilia of North America I. Catalogue of the Air Breathing Vertebrata from the Coal Measures of Linton, Ohio. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 15(2):261-278 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 85292: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Torsten Liebrecht on 10.12.2008, edited by Matthew Carrano, Emma Dunne, Matthew Clapham, Bethany Allen, Bryan Gee and Joseph Flannery-Sutherland

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Anderson (2002) states that AMNH 6966 (incl. 6886) is the "only known specimen" of Phlegethontia linearis. Hence, all other specimens referred to P. linearis by earlier authors (i.e. Lund, 1978) are listed as P. longissima in the taxonomic list. However, since some of this material is neither listed as Phlegethontia nor even mentioned at all by Anderson (2002), there is no information on the current whereabouts and taxonomic status of these specimens (marked by an asterisk in the taxonomic list).
Osteichthyes
 Baphetoidea - Baphetidae
"Baphetes lintonensis n. sp." = Loxomma lintonensis2, "Leptophractus lineolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Megalocephalus lineolatus11
"Baphetes lintonensis n. sp." = Loxomma lintonensis2 Beaumont 1977 tetrapod
AMNH 6944 (holotype; part and counterpart of juvenile skull)
"Leptophractus lineolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Megalocephalus lineolatus11 Cope 1877 tetrapod
AMNH 6828 (formerly Newberry 1086/1087G) (holotype; fragment of skull and left mandibular ramus prepared as acid-etched mold)
 Tetrapoda - Eogyrinidae
Leptophractus obsoletus n. gen. n. sp.7
Leptophractus obsoletus n. gen. n. sp.7 Cope 1873 tetrapod
AMNH 6831 and Columbia Univ. specimen (syntypes; both upper and lower jaws of skulls)
 Tetrapoda - Anthracosauridae
Anthracosaurus lancifer n. sp.21 Newberry 1856 tetrapod
Ohio State Univ. Mus 4500 (holotype, a palatal tusk)
 Tetrapoda - Colosteidae
"Pygopterus scutellatus n. sp." = Colosteus scutellatus4, Ichthyerpeton squamosum n. sp.19
"Pygopterus scutellatus n. sp." = Colosteus scutellatus4 Cope 1869 tetrapod
AMNH 6916 (holotype; formerly Columbia University 8584G & 8666G, incomplete skull and anterior portion of trunk)
Ichthyerpeton squamosum n. sp.19 Moodie 1909 tetrapod
 Tetrapoda - Gephyrostegidae
"Sauropleura digitata n. gen. n. sp." = Eusauropleura digitata3, "? Eusauropleura digitata" = Eusauropleura digitata3
"Sauropleura digitata n. gen. n. sp." = Eusauropleura digitata3 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6865 (formerly 8004 G, type), AMNH 6960
"? Eusauropleura digitata" = Eusauropleura digitata3 Cope 1868 tetrapod
PU 16815
 Synapsida - Ophiacodontidae
Archaeothyris sp.23 Reisz 1972 ophiacodont
MB-R57/59; AMNH 2567 (assigned to S. digitata by Moodie, 1916)
 Pelycosauria -
Pelycosauria indet.23 pelycosaur
PU 19840
 Recumbirostra - Molgophidae
Molgophis macrurus n. gen. n. sp.5, "Brachydectes newberryi n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi5, "Molgophis wheatleyi" = Brachydectes newberryi22, "Cocytinus gyrinoides" = Brachydectes newberryi22, "Pleuroptyx clavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi9
Molgophis macrurus n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 amniote
No holotype was designated but attributed specimens from Linton include: AMNH 6840, AMNH 6913, AMNH 6963, AMNH 6968 (all articulated vertebral and rib material). Specimens from others localities can be found at MCZ.
"Brachydectes newberryi n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi5 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6941 (Holotype designated by Hook (1983); a nearly complete right mandible, left dentary, two premaxillae and a right maxilla)
"Molgophis wheatleyi" = Brachydectes newberryi22 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6897 (holotype)
"Cocytinus gyrinoides" = Brachydectes newberryi22 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6925 (holotype)
"Pleuroptyx clavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Brachydectes newberryi9 Cope 1868 amniote
AMNH 6838 (Holotype; a series of five vertebrae and associated ribs), AMNH 6863, BM(NH) R.2676, MB 47, MCZ 2303, and USNM 4509 (all attributed specimens)
Reptilia
 Eureptilia - Protorothyrididae
"Sauropleura longipes n. sp." = Anthracodromeus longipes
"Sauropleura longipes n. sp." = Anthracodromeus longipes Cope 1875 eureptile
AMNH 6940 (type)
 Procolophonomorpha - Acleistorhinidae
Carbonodraco lundi n. gen. n. sp.16
Carbonodraco lundi n. gen. n. sp.16 Mann et al. 2019 parareptile
=Cephalerpeton cf. C. ventriarmatum Reisz and Baird 1983. Holotype: CM 23055, a disarticulated skull that includes maxillae, left premaxilla, right lacrimal, left prefrontal, left parietal, left frontal, dentaries and, splenials, left surangular, and vomers; collected by Richard Lund, 1972. Referred Material: NHMUK R. 2667, right mandible in lingual perspective; probably collected by John S. Newberry, circa 1870, later given to James W. Davis (‘Davies’ of Reisz & Baird, 1983), and eventually purchased by the British Museum [Natural History] in 1895. CM 81536, a pair of dentaries preserved in lingual perspective; collected by Scott McKenzie, 2004.
Amphibia
 Nectridea - Diplocaulidae
"Tuditanus brevirostris n. sp." = Diceratosaurus brevirostris10
"Tuditanus brevirostris n. sp." = Diceratosaurus brevirostris10 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6933 (Holotype; acid-etched mould of skull and articulated skeleton in counterpart, complete as far as 7th caudal vertebra. Dorsal skull roof lacking except for right tabular horn.)
 Nectridea - Urocordylidae
"Colosteus marshii n. sp." = Ptyonius marshii6, "Sauropleura remex n. sp." = Ctenerpeton remex5
"Colosteus marshii n. sp." = Ptyonius marshii6 Cope 1869 tetrapod
AMNH 6862 (Holotype; partial skull, ventral scales, and disarticulated postcranial elements. Figured by Cope 1875c pl. XXVII, fig. 6)
"Sauropleura remex n. sp." = Ctenerpeton remex5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6907 (Holotype; well-preserved portion of tail, consisting of 23 caudal vertebrae, maximum height 19.7mm; counterpart YPM (PU) 1769). At least nine specimens known in collections at AMNH, USNM, and YPM (PU).
 Microsauria - Odonterpetontidae
Odonterpeton triangulare n. gen. n. sp.20
Odonterpeton triangulare n. gen. n. sp.20 Moodie 1909 tetrapod
USNM 4465 (Holotype, skull and anterior postcranial skeleton)
 Microsauria - Tuditanidae
Tuditanus punctulatus n. gen. n. sp.10
Tuditanus punctulatus n. gen. n. sp.10 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6926 (Holotype, skull and much of postcranial skeleton in counterpart blocks)
 Temnospondyli - Eobrachyopidae
"Dendrerpeton obtusum n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus5, "Sauropleura latithorax n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus12, "Tuditanus tabulatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus19, "Colosteus foveatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus6
"Dendrerpeton obtusum n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6928 (type)
"Sauropleura latithorax n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus12 Cope 1868 tetrapod
USNM 4471 (type)
"Tuditanus tabulatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus19 Cope 1868 tetrapod
"Single well-preserved skull and its obverse in the collection of the Colombia University of New York City"
"Colosteus foveatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus6 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6919
 Temnospondyli -
"Tuditanus radiatus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus8, "Diceratosaurus robustus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus19, "Diceratosaurus laevis n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus19, "Tuditanus huxleyi n. sp." = Macrerpeton huxleyi13
"Tuditanus radiatus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus8 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 6922 (Holotype, acid-etched mold of skull in dorsal aspect)
"Diceratosaurus robustus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus19 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 8611 G
"Diceratosaurus laevis n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus19 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 102
"Tuditanus huxleyi n. sp." = Macrerpeton huxleyi13 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6834 (Newberry 9022) (Holotype: nearly complete skill (length 11.5cm) now represented by acid-etched molds of part and counterpart)
 Temnospondyli - Dissorophidae
"Erpetosaurus tuberculatus n. sp." = Stegops newberryi24, "Ceraterpeton divaricatum n. sp." = Stegops newberryi24, "Stegops divaricata n. sp." = Stegops newberryi26
"Erpetosaurus tuberculatus n. sp." = Stegops newberryi24 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6952
"Ceraterpeton divaricatum n. sp." = Stegops newberryi24 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 2559/FMNH UR16 (Holotype: counterparts)
"Stegops divaricata n. sp." = Stegops newberryi26 Cope 1875 tetrapod
 Temnospondyli - Amphibamidae
"Raniceps lyelli n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli24, "Tuditanus mordex n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli24, "Ichthycanthus platypus n. gen. n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli24
"Raniceps lyelli n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli24 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 6841 (Holotype: almost complete skeleton in dorsal aspect and skull in ventral aspect as acid-etched counterpart mould)
"Tuditanus mordex n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli24 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 2566
"Ichthycanthus platypus n. gen. n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli24 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 2002
 Temnospondyli - Cochleosauridae
Adamanterpeton ohioensis n. gen. n. sp.18
Adamanterpeton ohioensis n. gen. n. sp.18 Milner and Sequeira 1998 tetrapod
AMNH 2933 (holotype; skull in partial counterpart on two slabs of coal)
Osteichthyes
 Aistopoda - Phlegethontiidae
Phlegethontia linearis n. gen. n. sp.1, "Phlegethontia longissima" = Phlegethontia longissima1, "Phlegethontia serpens n. sp." = Phlegethontia longissima1
Phlegethontia linearis n. gen. n. sp.1 Cope 1871 tetrapod
AMNH 6966 (type; part and counterpart; counterpart originally catalogued as AMNH 6886)
"Phlegethontia longissima" = Phlegethontia longissima1 Fritsch 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 2564 (referred to "Cocytinus gyrinoides Cope" by Moodie, 1916), 6884*, 6913 (neither mentioned by McGinnis, 1967 nor Lund, 1978); MCZ 2038, 2134*, 2135 (part and counterpart)*, 2300*, 2301*, 2334 (part and counterpart); CM 23053*, 23056*, 44759. 68307, 68336, 68338 (all CM specimens without asterisk are neither mentioned by McGinnis, 1967 nor Lund, 1978); USNM 4484 (listed as "Phlegethontia n. sp." by McGinnis, 1967); PU 16536 (pars)*, 16537*, 18737*; asterisks mark specimens reported from Linton by either McGinnis (1967; as P. cf. P. longissima) or Lund (1978; as P. linearis) but not at all mentioned by Anderson (2002); see also comments on taxonomic list
"Phlegethontia serpens n. sp." = Phlegethontia longissima1 Fritsch 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6899 (type)
 Aistopoda - Ophiderpetontidae
"Ophiderpeton amphiuminum" = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum27, "Cercariomorphus parvisquamis n. gen. n. sp." = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum27
"Ophiderpeton amphiuminum" = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum27 Cope 1868 tetrapod
MCZ 2165, caudal series
"Cercariomorphus parvisquamis n. gen. n. sp." = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum27 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 2560 (holotype); AMNH 8683G
 Aistopoda - Oestocephalidae
Oestocephalus amphiuminum n. gen. n. sp.5, "Sauropleura pectinata n. gen. n. sp." = Oestocephalus pectinatus5
Oestocephalus amphiuminum n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6857 (Holotype; skull and anterior trunk)
"Sauropleura pectinata n. gen. n. sp." = Oestocephalus pectinatus5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6868 (Lectotype, skull in lateral and partial palatal view, dermal pectoral girdle and much of trunk. Figured by Cope 1875c, pl XLI, fig. 1)
 Actinopterygii - Haplolepidae
Pyritocephalus lineatus21 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
NHMUK P.7779
Parahaplolepis tuberculata21 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
A type specimen of this species has not been found in either the Orton Geological Museum or the American Museum of Natural History (Lowney 1980); MNH 702, 975G, 980, 986G, 1136G, 1944; CM 21507, 21580, 23035, 23039, 23051, 23052, 23617, 23618, 23619, 23621, 23625, 23626, 24906, 24925, 24929, 25260, 25261, 25262, 25264, 25266, 26228, 26234, 26240, 26241, 26466; USNM 4439, 4440, 4441, 4445, 4446, 4448, 4450, 4485, 4486, 4494, 4497, 4498, 4500, 4503, 4504, 4506, 4516, 4531, 7144, 16428, 16432, 16435, 16485; NHMUK P.1005b, 1007a; NMS
Microhaplolepis ovoidea15 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
OSU 4563 (holotype); AMNH 445G, 449G, 450G, 943, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1979, 1980, 1983, 2228; CM 21594, 23044, 23045, 23088, 23089, 23608, 23609, 23620, 23624, 24916, 27294, 30656; USNM 4502, 4518, 4523.
Microhaplolepis serrata21 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
-AMNH 2015, 2102, 9153, 9158; CM 21474, 21476,.21567, 21573, 21577, 21586, 21595, 23034, 23037, 23038, 23040, 23042, 23043, 23047, 23048, 23050, 23069, 23071, 23075, 23076, 23077, 23078, 23079, 23080, 23081, 23082, 23083, 23084, 23086, 23087, 23090, 23601, 23602, 23603, 23604, 23605, 23606, 23607, 23610, 23611, 23612, 23614, 23615, 23616, 23627, 24900, 24909, 24921, 24926, 24927, 25257, 25259, 26226, 26227, 26229, 26230, 26235, 26255, 26256, 26257, 26467, 26468; USNM 4452, 4455, 4491, 4492, 4493, 4499, 4512, 4521, 4524, 4525, 4527, 4528, 4535
Haplolepis sp.25 Miller 1892 ray-finned fish
Haplolepis corrugata21 Newberry 1856 ray-finned fish
OSU 4478 (holotpye); AMNH 452G, 1012G; USNM 4496
 Palaeoniscoidea -
Palaeoniscoidea sp.17
PU 16536 (pars)
Myriapoda
 Chilognatha - Xyloiulidae
Xyloiulus bairdi n. sp.14 Hoffman 1963 millipede
MCZ 5268, 5320, 5321; PU 84787
 Chilognatha - Plagiascetidae
Plagiascetus lateralis n. gen. n. sp.14
Plagiascetus lateralis n. gen. n. sp.14 Hoffman 1963 millipede
PU 84788