Bell Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as ACb-2

Where: Colbert County, Alabama (34.7° N, 87.8° W: paleocoordinates 34.7° N, 87.8° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• 25,000 to 11,500 RCYBP

Environment/lithology: cave; claystone

Primary reference: P. W. Parmalee and R. W. Graham. 2002. Additional records of the giant beaver, Castoroides, from the Mid-South: Alabama, Tennessee, and South Carolina. Smithsonian Contribution to Paleobiology 93:65-71 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 84181: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 23.09.2008, edited by John Alroy and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• U-series dates of 0.115 +/- 0.004 and 0.121 +/- 0.006 Ma (average = 0.118 Ma)
overlies unit D

"22 other small vertebrates" apparently not yet identified
Sangamonian
Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 frog
Rana catesbeiana2 Shaw 1802 American bullfrog
Rana pipiens2 Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla gratiosa2 Le Conte 1856 barking treefrog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp.2, "Bufo woodhousii" = Bufo woodhousei2, Bufo americanus2
Bufo sp.2 Laurenti 1768 toad
"Bufo woodhousii" = Bufo woodhousei2 Girard 1854 Woodhouse's toad
subspecies fowleri
Bufo americanus2 Holbrook 1836 American toad
 Caudata - Urodela
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis2 Daudin 1803 hellbender
"Ambystoma sp." = Amblystoma2 Tschudi 1838 mole salamander
"Ambystoma maculotum" = Amblystoma2 mole salamander
Eurycea sp.2 lungless salamander
Desmognathus sp.2 Baird 1850 lungless salamander
Desmognathus ochrophaeus2 Cope 1859 lungless salamander
Plethodon glutinosus2 Green 1818 northern slimy salamander
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Apalone sp.3 Rafinesque 1832 softshell turtle
Apalone spinifera3 LeSueur 1827 spiny softshell turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Chrysemys picta2 Schneider 1783 painted turtle
Graptemys geographica2 Le Sueur 1817 common map turtle
Pseudemys sp.2 Gray 1856 cooter
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
Sterna sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 tern
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Bartramia longicauda5, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" = Tringa semipalmata5, "Philohela minor" = Scolopax minor5
Bartramia longicauda5 Bechstein 1812 upland sandpiper
"Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" = Tringa semipalmata5 Gmelin 1789 willet
"Philohela minor" = Scolopax minor5 Gmelin 1789 American woodcock
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Meleagris gallopavo5 Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
Bonasa umbellus5 Linnaeus 1766 ruffed grouse
Tympanuchus cupido5 Linnaeus 1758 greater prairie chicken
 Galliformes - Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus5 Linnaeus 1758 northern bobwhite
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Branta canadensis5 Linnaeus 1758 Canada goose
Cygnus sp.5 Garsault 1764 swan
Mergus sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 merganser
Aythya collaris5 Donovan 1809 ring-necked duck
Aythya cf. valisineria5 Wilson 1814 canvasback
Anas platyrhynchos5 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
Anas crecca5 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco sparverius5 Linnaeus 1758 American kestrel
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
"Otus asio" = Megascops asio5 Linnaeus 1758 eastern screech-owl
Strix cf. varia5 Barton 1799 barred owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Ectopistes migratorius5 Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Piciformes - Picidae
Melanerpes cf. carolinus5 Linnaeus 1758 red-bellied woodpecker
Picoides cf. villosus5 Linnaeus 1766 hairy woodpecker
 Ornithurae -
Passeriformes indet.5 Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
 Passeriformes - Mimidae
Dumetella carolinensis5 Linnaeus 1766 gray catbird
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
Quiscalus quiscula5 Linnaeus 1758 common grackle
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Pica pica5 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian magpie
Corvus corax5 Linnaeus 1758 common raven
Cyanocitta cristata5 Linnaeus 1758 blue jay
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
Hirundinidae indet.5 Rafinesque 1815 swallow
 Passeriformes - Parulidae
Parulinae indet.5 perching bird
 Passeriformes - Tyrannidae
Sayornis cf. phoebe5 Latham 1790 eastern phoebe
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Turdus migratorius5 Linnaeus 1758 American robin
 Passeriformes - Cardinalidae
Piranga cf. olivacea5 Gmelin 1789 scarlet tanager
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Grus sp.5 Brisson 1760 crane
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
Gavia immer5 Brunnich 1764 common loon
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Podilymbus podiceps5 Linnaeus 1758 pied-billed grebe
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipiter striatus5 Vieillot 1897 sharp-shinned hawk
Haliaeetus cf. leucocephalus5 Linnaeus 1766 bald eagle
Reptilia
 Squamata - Polychrotidae
Anolis carolinensis2 Voight 1832 green anole
 Squamata - Colubridae
Diadophis punctatus2 Linnaeus ringneck snake
Storeria sp.2 Baird and Girard 1853 brown snake
Elaphe sp.2 Wagler 1833 colubrid snake
Elaphe vulpina2 Baird and Girard 1853 fox snake
Elaphe cf. guttata2 Linnaeus 1766 corn snake
Opheodrys aestivus2 colubrid snake
Coluber constrictor2 Linnaeus 1758 black racer
Lampropeltis getulus2 Linnaeus 1766 kingsnake
Lampropeltis triangulum2 Lacépède 1788 milk snake
subspecies triangulum
Carphophis anoenus2 worm snake
Heterodon cf. platirhinos2 hog-nosed snake
Thamnophis sp.2 Fitzinger 1843 garter snake
Thamnophis sirtalis2 Linnaeus garter snake
Nerodia sipeodon2 water snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalus horridus2 Linnaeus 1758 timber rattlesnake
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Microtus pennsylvanicus4 Ord 1815 meadow vole
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castoroides sp. Foster 1838 giant beaver
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762 tapir
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus1 Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
"Martes pennanti" = Pekania pennanti
"Martes pennanti" = Pekania pennanti Erxleben 1777 fisher
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 canine
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus nasutus Leidy 1868 peccary
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Rangifer tarandus Linnaeus 1758 reindeer