Bug Creek Anthills (Cretaceous of the United States)

Also known as Bug Creek, BCA, OMNH V1173

Where: McCone County County, Montana (47.8° N, 106.1° W: paleocoordinates 54.5° N, 78.4° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Hell Creek Formation, Maastrichtian (72.1 - 66.0 Ma)

• upper 1/3 of formation, 80 ft below coal bed

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coarse channel fill; sandstone

• 'Coastal plain deposits'
• "a cross-bedded stram channel"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by Univ. of Minnesota in 1962-1964

Collection methods: surface (float), anthill,

Primary reference: R. Estes. 1965. A new fossil salamander from Montana and Wyoming. Copeia 1965(1):90-95 [E. Fara/E. Fara/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 13142: authorized by Emmanuel Fara, entered by Emmanuel Fara on 23.01.2002, edited by Roger Benson, Philip Mannion, Matthew Carrano and John Alroy

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• mammal fauna said to be present
Chondrichthyes
 Hybodontiformes - Lonchidiidae
Lonchidion selachos4 Estes 1964 elasmobranch
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Myledaphus bipartitus4 Cope 1876 whiptail stingray
Actinopteri
 Acipenseriformes - Polyodontidae
Paleopsephurus wilsoni4 MacAlpin 1947 paddlefish
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser eruciferus4 Cope 1876 sturgeon
 Teleostei -
Teleostei indet.4
numerous vertebrae and fragments
 Teleostei - Aspidorhynchidae
 Elopiformes - Elopidae
Elopidae indet.4 Bonaparte 1846
 Elopiformes - Phyllodontidae
cf. Paralbula casei4 Estes 1969
 Albuliformes - Albulidae
Coriops amnicolus4 Estes 1969 bonefish
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Platacodon nanus4 Marsh 1889
 Amiiformes - Palaeolabridae
Palaeolabrus montanensis4 Estes 1969 bowfin
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
Amia sp.4 Linnaeus 1766 bowfin
not sure. perhaps Protamia
Amia fragosa4 Jordan 1927 bowfin
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus occidentalis4 Leidy 1856 gar
Osteichthyes
 Temnospondyli - Albanerpetontidae
Albanerpetontidae indet.8 Fox and Naylor 1982 tetrapod
Albanerpeton nexuosus8 Estes 1981 tetrapod
 Proteida - Batrachosauroididae
"Prodesmodon copei" = Prodesmodon copei4, "Cuttysarkus mcnallyi" = Prodesmodon copei4, Opisthotriton kayi4
"Prodesmodon copei" = Prodesmodon copei4 Estes 1964 tetrapod
"Cuttysarkus mcnallyi" = Prodesmodon copei4 Estes 1964 tetrapod
Opisthotriton kayi4 Auffenberg 1961 tetrapod
 Salientia -
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
cf. Eopelobates sp.9 Parker 1929 spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Palaeobatrachidae
Palaeobatrachus occidentalis9 Estes and Sanchíz 1982 frog
UALVP 40163
 Salientia -
Scotiophryne pustulosa n. gen. n. sp.4
Scotiophryne pustulosa n. gen. n. sp.4 Estes 1969 frog
MCZ 3623-3626; AMNH 26422; UALVP 40155-60
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Discoglossidae indet.4 Günther 1859 painted frog
cf. Barbourula sp.4 Taylor and Noble 1924 jungle toad
 Caudata - Urodela
Proamphiuma cretacea4 Estes 1969 salamander
Habrosaurus dilatus4 Gilmore 1928 siren
Scapherpeton tectum4 Cope 1876 salamander
Piceoerpeton naylori n. sp.10 Gardner 2012 salamander
UA 14918 (atlas)
Lisserpeton bairdi n. gen. n. sp. Estes 1965 salamander
some specimens were uncatalogued
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet.1 Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Compsemydidae
Compsemys victa4 Leidy 1856 turtle
 Testudines - Baenidae
Eubaena cephalica5 Hay 1904 turtle
MCZ 3530 (both parietals), AMNH 4948 (skull), MCZ 3510, 3511, 3512, 3519 (maxillae), MCZ 3525 (right parietal)
Palatobaena bairdi5 Gaffney 1972 turtle
MCZ 3515 (right maxilla), and a specimen referred by Lyson & Joyce (2009): AMNH 8277 (complete lower jaws)
 Testudines - Panemydidae
? Emydinae indet.4 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
 Testudines - Adocidae
Adocus sp.4 Cope 1868 turtle
 Theropoda -
 Avetheropoda - Dromaeosauridae
? Dromaeosauridae indet.4 Colbert and Russell 1969 coelurosaur
 Avetheropoda -
Paronychodon lacustris4 Cope 1876 coelurosaur
 Avetheropoda - Coeluridae
? Coeluridae indet.4 Marsh 1881 coelurid
 Neornithischia - Pachycephalosauridae
? Pachycephalosauridae indet.4 Sternberg 1945 ornithischian
 Neornithischia - Ceratopsidae
Triceratops sp.4 Marsh 1889 ceratopsid
 Neornithischia - Thescelosauridae
Orodromeus makelai6 Horner and Weishampel 1988 ornithischian
 Neornithischia - Hadrosauridae
"Anatosaurus sp." = Edmontosaurus4
"Anatosaurus sp." = Edmontosaurus4 Lambe 1917 hadrosaurine
 Crocodylia -
"Leidyosuchus sternbergi" = Borealosuchus sternbergii4
"Leidyosuchus sternbergi" = Borealosuchus sternbergii4 Gilmore 1910 crocodilian
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Brachychampsa montana4 Gilmore 1911 crocodilian
 Squamata - Xenosauridae
Exostinus lancensis4 Gilmore 1928 lizard
plus specimen reported by Gao & Fox (1996), UALVP 29919 (frontal)
 Squamata -
Paraderma bogerti4 Estes 1964 lizard
Parasaniwa wyomingensis4 Gilmore 1928 lizard
plus Gao & Fox (1996) specimens: UALVP 33357-33360 (maxilla), 33361 and several unnumbered (dentaries), 33362, 33363 (pterygoids), 33364, 33365 (parietals)
 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanidae indet.7 Hardwicke and Gray 1824 monitor lizard
MCZ 3665 (large vertebra)
 Squamata -
Colpodontosaurus cracens4 Estes 1964 lizard
Gao & Fox (1996): UALVP 29785-29786
 Squamata - Anguidae
"Pancelosaurus piger" = Odaxosaurus piger4
"Pancelosaurus piger" = Odaxosaurus piger4 Gilmore 1928 lizard
 Squamata -
Coniophis precedens4 Marsh 1892 snake
 Squamata - Boidae
"? Erycinae indet." = Erycidae4
"? Erycinae indet." = Erycidae4 Bonaparte 1825 sand boa
 Squamata - Globauridae
Contogenys sloani n. gen. n. sp.2
Contogenys sloani n. gen. n. sp.2 Estes 1969 lizard
MCZ 3682-3684; OMNH 59221; UALVP 29839
 Squamata - Chamopsiidae
Haptosphenus placodon4 Estes 1964 lizard
Leptochamops denticulatus4 Gilmore 1928 lizard
Chamops segnis4 Marsh 1892 lizard
Additional specimens from Gao & Fox (1996): UALVP 29724-29726, 29730, 29737-29738 (maxilla), and 29721, 29723, 29815 (dentaries)
Peneteius aquilonius4 Estes 1969 lizard
Peneteius aquilonius n. gen. n. sp.3 Estes 1969 lizard
MCZ 3612 (holotype dentary)
Meniscognathus altmani7 Estes 1964 lizard
UALVP 29775, 29779 (maxilla), and 29776, 29831 (dentaries)
 Squamata - Xantusiidae
Xantusiidae "gen. et sp. nov."7 Baird 1858 night lizard
UALVP 29840
 Squamata - Cordylidae
? Cordylidae "gen. et sp. indet. B"7 Gray 1837 spinytail lizard
UALVP 29722 (dentary)
 Choristodera -
Champsosaurus sp.4 Cope 1876 choristodere