Medicine Pole Hills (Eocene of the United States)

Also known as PTRM V89002

Where: Bowman County, North Dakota (46.1° N, 103.3° W: paleocoordinates 47.4° N, 94.2° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Chalky Buttes Member (Chadron Formation), Chadronian (37.2 - 33.9 Ma)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: "channel"; poorly lithified, fine-grained, medium, brown sandstone

• "characteristic of the distal reaches of some modern braided rivers... braidbelt environment" (Smith 2006)
• "brownish, poorly sorted, poorly consolidated, generally medium- to fine-grained sandstone... 2.5 m local section... two trough cross-bedded units (units 2 and 6); unit 5 [and] 2 [are] indistinguishable... Along the bedding planes are strewn gray mudballs... Unit 3 is a fine-grained, parallel-bedded sandstone. Unit 4 displays planar cross-bedding." (Smith 2006)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, sieve,

• "All fossils were collected... by dry-screening quarried sediment" (Smith 2006)

Primary reference: D. A. Pearson and J. W. Hoganson. 1995. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Sciences 49 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 16991: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 12.04.1997, edited by Torsten Liebrecht, Clint Boyd and Terri Cleary

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• from six different sites

•originally reported by Leonard 1922

Reptilia
 Squamata -
Anguimorpha "MPH-1"8 Fürbringer 1900 lizard
PTRM 5375, partial left dentary; 1824, partial right dentary; 5376, anterior left dentary fragment. Newly referred specimens in Smith 2011: PTRM 19212-14, 19461 (jaw fragments).
Saniwa edura n. sp.8 Smith 2006 lizard
PTRM 5379 (holotype), partial left dentary; 5380, partial parietal. Newly referred specimens from Smith 2011: PTRM 19036 (8 teeth), 19155 (3 teeth), 19339 (3 teeth), 19360 (1 tooth), 19375 (7 teeth), 19437 (18 teeth), 19472 (2 teeth), 19516 (2 teeth), 19545 (2 teeth), 19552 (1 tooth).
cf. Peltosaurus sp.8 Cope 1872 lizard
PTRM 2606, partial left dentary; 2617, partial right maxilla; 5272, jaw fragment; 5381, right maxilla; 5685, right frontal fragment. New referred specimens from Smith 2011: PTRM 19211 (jaw fragment), 19364 (parietal fragment; Figure 79A, B), 194267 (partial right maxilla), 19427 (jaw fragment), 19470 (left dermarticular; Figure 79C, D).
 Squamata - Anguidae
Gerrhonotinae indet.9 Cope 1864 lizard
PTRM 19025, 19210, 19419, 19473, 19514, 19592
Helodermoides sp.8 Douglass 1903 lizard
"sp. nov.?" PTRM 1825, left parietal fragment; 5647, 5709, cephalic osteoderms. Further referred specimens from Smith 2011: PTRM 19028 (right jugal fragment), 19549 (partial left jugal; Figure 80).
Anniellinae indet.9 Nopcsa 1928 lizard
PTRM 19129, 19548
Diploglossinae "MPH-1"8 Boucourt 1873 lizard
PTRM 1807, left dentary fragment; 1823, jaw fragment; 5378, osteoderm. Newly referred by Smith 2011: PTRM 19207 (right maxilla fragment), 19208 (left maxilla fragment), 19209 (right maxilla fragment), 19346 (frontal fragment), 19358 (left quadrate; Figure 77B–D), 19428 (left dentary fragment), 19474 (right maxilla fragment; Figure 77A), 19591? (partial left dentary), 19784 (partial osteoderm; Figure 77E).
 Squamata - Iguanidae
"Oreithyia oaklandi" = Oreithyia oaklandi9, "Oreithyia oaklandi n. gen. n. sp." = Oreithyia oaklandi9, Cypressaurus sp.8, Cypressaurus sp.9, Cypressaurus sp.9, Queironius praelapsus9, Queironius praelapsus n. gen. n. sp.9, Tuberculacerta pearsoni n. gen. n. sp.8
"Oreithyia oaklandi" = Oreithyia oaklandi9 Smith 2011 lizard
PTRM 5357, partial left dentary; 5178, partial left dentary; 5267, left dentary fragment
"Oreithyia oaklandi n. gen. n. sp." = Oreithyia oaklandi9 Smith 2011 lizard
PTRM 5198, right dentary; 2054, left dentary fragment; 2594, partial left dentary; 5202, partial right dentary; 2095, left maxilla fragment; 5401, left maxilla fragment; ?5396, left maxilla fragment
Cypressaurus sp.8 Holman 1972 lizard
PTRM 2623, partial left dentary; 5321, dentary fragment. Smith 2011 adds the 2 Iguanid MPH-2 and -4 specimens to this taxon and includes new referred specimens: PTRM 19063 (maxilla fragment), 19085 (partial left jugal; Figure 74G–I), 19215 (partial right dentary), 19235 (left maxilla fragment; Figure 74E, F), 19267 (right maxilla fragment; Figure 74A–D), 19296 (jaw fragment), 19297, 19298 (right dentary fragments), 19299 (left dentary fragment), 19300 (jaw fragment), 19301 (right maxilla fragment), 19409 (right maxilla fragment), 19468 (left jugal fragment), 19494 (right jugal fragment), 19502 (left maxilla fragment), 19509 (partial left dentary), 19550 (partial right dentary), 19556 (right dentary fragment), 19582 (partial right dentary; Figure 74J, K), 19589 (right dentary fragment), 19590 (partial left dentary).
Cypressaurus sp.9 Holman 1972 lizard
PTRM 2602, right dentary
Cypressaurus sp.9 Holman 1972 lizard
PTRM 2041, partial left dentary
Queironius praelapsus9 Smith 2011 lizard
Queironius praelapsus n. gen. n. sp.9 Smith 2011 lizard
PTRM 1822, left dentary; 2605, right dentary fragment; 2743, edentulous left dentary; 5231, partial right dentary; 5334, left dentary fragment; 5352, partial right dentary; 5353, right dentary fragment; 5354, partial right dentary; 5724, maxilla fragment
Tuberculacerta pearsoni n. gen. n. sp.8 Smith 2006 lizard
PTRM 5296 (holotype), left dentary; 1432, left dentary fragment; 5326, right dentary; 5355, left dentary; 1429, right maxilla. Referred specimens from Smith 2011: PTRM 19020 (partial right maxilla), 19021 (partial right maxilla; Figure 72D–F), 19022 (premaxilla; Figure 72A–C), 19023 (partial left postorbital; Figure 73I–J), 19051 (left maxilla fragment), 19052 (maxilla fragment), 19116 (partial frontal; Figure 73E, F), 19135 (partial right ectopterygoid; Figure 73A–D), 19145 (maxilla fragment), 19146 (left maxilla fragment), 19263 (partial right dentary), 19292 (partial right dentary), 19293 (partial left maxilla), 19294 (left maxilla fragment), 19295 (right maxilla fragment), 19335 (partial right jugal), 19411 (right dentary fragment), 19412 (partial right maxilla), 19450 (partial left maxilla; Figure 72G, H), 19532 (partial right maxilla), 19538 (right jugal fragment; Figure 73G, H), 19539 (partial left maxilla), 19555 (left maxilla fragment), 19588 (partial right dentary).
 Squamata - Polychrotidae
Sauropithecoides charisticus n. gen. n. sp.9 Smith 2006 lizard
PTRM 1841 (holotype), partial right maxilla; PTRM 2637, right dentary fragment; 1990, partial right dentary; 2596, left dentary fragment; 1418, right dentary fragment; 2673, right dentary fragment; 5351, edentulous right dentary; 5400, jaw fragment; 1997, right maxilla fragment; 5372, left maxilla fragment; 5373, right maxilla fragment; 5374, partial right maxilla
Sauropithecoides charisticus n. gen. n. sp.9 Smith 2006 lizard
PRTM 1986, premaxilla; 5371, dermal skull bone fragment
 Squamata -
Tinosaurus sp.8 Marsh 1872 lizard
PRTM 2038, jaw fragment
Coniophis sp.10 Marsh 1892 snake
5 trunk vertebrae (PTRM 19505, ?19603, 19652, 19716, and 19743), 1 postcloacal (PTRM 19740)
 Squamata - Loxocemidae
Ogmophis compactus10 Lambe 1908 Mexican burrowing snake
1 parabasisphenoid (PTRM 19350), 1 left quadrate (PTRM 19378), 66 trunk vertebrae (PTRM 19615, 19621-19624, 19626, 19627, 19629, 19631-19640, 19642, 19669-19671, 19675-19678, 19692, 19695-19700, 19703-19707, 19719, 19721, 19724, 19725, 19729-19737, 19739, 19741, 19742, 19745-19747, 19755-19760, 19780-19782), 11 postcloacal vertebrae (PTRM 19625, 19630, 19647, 19672, 19686, 19694, 19726, 19727, 19752, 19761, 19767)
 Squamata - Boidae
Calamagras weigeli10 Holman 1972 dwarf boa
1 ?pterygoid fragment (PTRM 19130 - tentatively assigned to this taxon), 1 left dentary fragment (PTRM 19476 - tentatively assigned to this taxon), 68 trunk vertebrae (PTRM 19593, 19594, 19596, 19598, 19600-19602, 19605, 19606, 19610, 19612-19614, 19616, 19617, 19619, 19620, 19628, 19648-19650, 19653-19666, 19673, 19679, 19682-19687, 19691, 19701, 19702, 19708, 19710-19715, 19720, 19722, 19723, 19738, 19744, 19748-19750, 19762-19766, 19768, 19778), 10 postcloacal vertebrae (PTRM 19608, 19609, 19611, 19651, 19680, 19681, 19690, 19709, 19753, 19754)
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet.10 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
5 trunk vertebrae (PTRM 19641, 19643-19645, 19717), 4 postcloacals (PTRM 19645, 19646, 19718, 19779)
 Squamata - Rhineuridae
cf. Rhineura sp.8 Cope 1861 worm lizard
PTRM 5248, left dentary; 5322, right dentary fragment; 5725, left dentary; 1422, 1434, 1438, 1443-5, 1553, 1796, 1812-3, 1828, 1831, 1851, 2023, 2042, 2067, 5171, 5180, 5216, 5235, 5238, 5348, twelve specimens; 5362-3, 5384-6, 5668, 5673-4, 5686-8, trunk vertebrae. New specimens from Smith 2011: PTRM 19128 (precaudal vertebra), 19147 (partial right dentary), 19147, 19148 (partial right dentaries), 19149 (right dentary fragment), 19163 (nearly complete left dentary), 19164 (partial left dentary), 19165 (partial right dentary), 19166 (partial left dentary), 19167 (right dentary fragment), 19168 (left dentary fragment), 19169 (jaw fragment), 19170 (left maxilla fragment), 19421 (partial right maxilla), 19424 (nearly complete left dentary), 19425, 19489 (partial right dentaries), 19490, 19491 (left dentary fragments), 19492 (jaw fragment), 19527 (partial right maxilla), 19546, 19547 (precaudal vertebrae), 19566 (partial left dentary), 19567 (right dentary fragment), 19568 (left maxilla fragment).
cf. Spathorhynchus sp.8 Berman 1973 worm lizard
PTRM 1793, right dentary; 1825, 5364-70, 5638-9, 5662, 5667, 5671-2, 5691, trunk vertebrae. New referrals from Smith 2011: PTRM 19160 (partial left dentary), 19161, 19162 (partial right dentaries), 19216 (partial right maxilla), 19420 (partial left dentary), 19422? (right maxilla fragment), 19423 (jaw fragment), 19524–19526 (partial vertebrae).
 Squamata -
Scincoidea "MPH-1"8 Oppel 1811 lizard
PTRM 5359, partial right dentary; 5358, right dentary fragment
 Squamata - Xantusiidae
"Palaeoxantusia" borealis8 Holman 1972 night lizard
PTRM 2720, partial left dentary; 5360, edentulous left dentary; 5361, partial right dentary; 2074, medial portion of right maxilla; 5284, left dentary fragment; 5288, partial right dentary; 2074, right maxilla fragment; 2713, partial right maxilla; 5298, right maxilla fragment; 5387, right dentary fragment. Newly referred by Smith 2011: PTRM 19024 (partial right frontal; Figure 75J, K), 19026 (partial left mandible; Figure 75L), 19150 (right dentary fragment), 19171, 19172 (partial left maxillae), 19173 (left maxilla fragment), 19174–19179 (right maxilla fragments), 19180 (partial premaxilla; Figure 75A), 19181 (premaxilla fragment), 19182 (partial premaxilla), 19183–19187 (partial left dentaries), 19188, 19189 (left dentary fragments), 19190–19195 (partial right dentaries), 19196–19200 (right dentary fragments), 19201, 19202 (jaw fragments), 19413 (left dentary fragment), 19414 (right dentary fragment), 19415, 19416 (left maxilla fragments), 19417 (right maxilla fragment), 19418 (partial premaxilla), 19439 (left dentary fragment), 19440, 19441 (partial right maxillae), 19442 (right maxilla fragment), 19443 (left maxilla fragment), 19469 (nearly complete left pterygoid; Figure 75G–I), 19477 (partial right dentary), 19478 (right dentary fragment), 19479, 19480 (partial left dentaries), 19481 (partial right maxilla), 19482 (left maxilla fragment), 19483, 19484 (partial left maxillae), 19485, 19486 (left maxilla fragments), 19487 (partial premaxilla), 19488 (premaxilla fragment), 19511 (partial right dentary), 19512, 19513 (right dentary fragments), 19517 (left dentary fragment), 19523 (left frontal fragment), 19528 (partial left dentary), 19529 (partial left maxilla), 19540, 19541 (partial right dentaries), 19542 (nearly complete right maxilla), 19543 (nearly complete right maxilla; Figure 75B–D), 19544 (partial right maxilla; Figure 75E, F), 19557, 19558 (partial left dentaries), 19559 (left dentary fragment), 19560 (partial right dentary), 19561 (right dentary fragment), 19562, 19563 (left maxilla fragments), 19564, 19565 (right maxilla fragments).
Mammalia
 Leptictida - Leptictidae
Leptictis cf. acutidens3 Douglass 1902 eutherian
 Primates - Microsyopidae
Uintasoricinae indet.6 Szalay 1969 primate
PTRM 10401
 Primates - Paromomyidae
cf. Ignacius sp.6 Matthew and Granger 1921 primate
PTRM 17483
 Rodentia - Sciuravidae
Prolapsus sp.2 Wood 1973 rodent
PTRM 7298
 Rodentia - Pipestoneomyidae
Pipestoneomys sp.1 Donohoe 1956 rodent
PTRM 10974, 6167
 Rodentia - Aplodontidae
Prosciurus vetustus2 Matthew 1903 mountain beaver
PTRM 11046, 14177, 5572, 8339, 11047, 11051, 7392, 8010, 11039, 14607, 15022, 5052, 5074, 6212, 10950, 7921, 7720, 8340, 11035, 11037, 5037, 5571, 11040, 11048, 11049, 14175, 2630, 8005, 11044, 7293, 7659
Prosciurinae indet.2 Wilson 1949 mountain beaver
PTRM 4962, 5051, 4901
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Douglassciurus jeffersoni2 Douglass 1902 squirrel
PTRM 6203, 5025, 2607, 2628, 7932, 11034, 1943, 11036
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Paradjidaumo cf. hansonorum Russell 1972 rodent
Paradjidaumo cf. trilophus Cope 1873 rodent
Centimanomys sp. Galbreath 1955 rodent
Yoderimys cf. stewarti Russell 1972 rodent
"stewardii"
 Rodentia - Heliscomyidae
Heliscomys cf. vetus2 Cope 1873 rodent
PTRM 4898, 11063, 5452, 5459, 5540, 7727, 10290, 10296, 11061, 14157, 14159, 14161, 14168, 14693, 14697, 14699, 4881, 4961, 5588, 5595, 10208, 10294, 10298, 11054, 11055, 11058, 11064, 11066, 14155, 14166, 14167, 14171, 14692, 14696, 14698, 14700, 4880, 5065, 5094, 5457, 5818, 5848, 6157, 10292, 10297, 10444, 11067, 14150, 14153, 14154, 14158, 14160, 14164, 14170, 14173, 14701, 14702, 4971, 5013, 5490, 5744, 5875, 6276, 7426, 8013, 8014, 10293, 10295, 11056, 11057, 11059, 11060, 11062, 14151, 14152, 14156, 14162, 14163, 14165, 14169, 14172, 14694, 14695, 14703, 14704
 Rodentia - Eutypomyidae
Eutypomys parvus1 Lambe 1908 rodent
PTRM 8338, 1398, 4866, 6100, 7924, 10967, 10417, 10973, 4900, 10997, 1364, 1955, 7290, 7715, 8323, 10966, 10971, 10980, 10986, 10989, 10991, 10992, 10993, 1327, 2098, 7292, 8006, 10985, 10969, 10987, 6275, 7935, 10968, 10979, 10990, 7425, 7949, 10982, 10983, 10994, 16012, 11013, 5028, 10965, 6150, 10972, 10975, 10996, 1488, 2629, 5022, 5029, 5105, 6158, 6206, 7291, 7943, 10970, 10976, 10978, 10981, 10988, 11019, 2012, 6126, 7397, 7712, 8319, 10995, 11004, 1397, 5095, 10977, 5027, 5032.
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Metaparamys cf. dawsonae2 Korth and Emry 2007 rodent
PTRM 11041, 7920, 8349, 7440
Ischyromys junctus2 Russell 1972 rodent
PTRM 14972, 7945, 8001, 8325, 4738, 7387, 7713, 2625, 2008, 10928, 5104, 8008, 11045, 11042, 11043, 8321, 11050, 11053.
Ischyromys cf. veterior2 Matthew 1903 rodent
PTRM 11038, 4905, 7428
 Rodentia - Cylindrodontidae
Ardynomys saskatchewensis1 rodent
PTRM 7478, 7926 11023, 11052, 8332, 11001, 14968, 10932, 7295, 7717, 7726, 8322, 11007, 11021, 7272, 11020
Pseudocylindrodon silvaticus1 rodent
PTRM 8288, 14960, 14705, 10934, 7388, 7393, 10945, 10946, 5000, 7390, 5010, 8009, 11024, 4999, 7927, 8333, 11026, 14970, 5537, 6123, 7297, 7395, 10947, 7944, 10413, 7427, 7716, 7925, 7931, 5525, 8337, 5096, 5871, 11022
Cylindrodon collinus1 Russell 1972 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Palaeolagus cf. temnodon Douglass 1902 rabbit
"timnodon"
Megalagus cf. brachyodon Matthew 1903 rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Geolabididae
Centetodon chadronensis Lillegraven et al. 1981 placental
Centetodon magnus Clark 1936 placental
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
Brontotheriidae indet. Marsh 1873 brontothere
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Trigonias sp. Lucas 1900 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla -
Toxotherium sp. Wood 1961 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Mesohippus cf. propinquus Lambe 1905 anchitheriine horse
"proprinquus"
Mesohippus cf. westoni Cope 1889 anchitheriine horse
"westonii"
 Tribosphenida - Heterosoricidae
cf. Domnina sp.4 Cope 1873 placental
PTRM 14680
Domnina sagittariensis n. sp.4 Kihm and Schumaker 2008 placental
PTRM 5553, 7889, 10734, 10700, 2025, 7415, 5833, 7284, 7705, 10764, 10737, 4921, 7800, 16020, 7283, 7289, 7416, 7437, 10741, 14125, 4949, 8316, 10742, 14682, 10284, 10275, 10743, 5125, 10739; 4827, 5549, 10735, 10738
Domnina sagittariensis4 Kihm and Schumaker 2008 placental
Domnina cf. thompsoni4 Simpson 1941 placental
PTRM 10272, 10736, 10274, 10276, 14126, 14124, 14127, 10740, 10703, 14681, 5831, 10273
 Tribosphenida - Apternodontidae
Oligoryctes cf. cameronensis3 Hough 1956 placental
No Specimen Numbers Cited
Apternodus sp.3 Matthew 1903 placental
No Specimen Numbers Cited
 Tribosphenida - Micropternodontidae
Micropternodus cf. borealis3 Matthew 1903 placental
No Specimen Numbers Cited
 Chiroptera -
Chiroptera indet. Blumenbach 1779 bat
a bat
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Daphoenus sp. Leidy 1853 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Canidae
Hesperocyon cf. gregarius Cope 1873 canid
"gregarias"
 Macroscelidea - Amphilemuridae
cf. Ankylodon sp. Patterson and McGrew 1937 elephant shrew
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Peradectes sp.5 Matthew and Granger 1921 metatherian
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
Herpetotherium valens, "Herpetotherium cf. fugax" = Peratherium fugax5
Herpetotherium valens Lambe 1908 marsupial
"Herpetotherium cf. fugax" = Peratherium fugax5 Cope 1873 marsupial
 Artiodactyla - Leptochoeridae
Stibarus montanus Matthew 1903 even-toed ungulate
 Artiodactyla - Camelidae
cf. Poebrotherium sp. Leidy 1847 camel
 Artiodactyla - Anthracotheriidae
Anthracotheriidae indet. Leidy 1869 anthracothere
 Artiodactyla - Leptomerycidae
Leptomeryx cf. yoderi Schlaikjer 1935 ruminant
confirmed by Heaton and Emry 1996
 Sarcobora - Apatemyidae
Sinclairella sp. Jepsen 1934 insectivoran
 Multituberculata - Neoplagiaulacidae
? Neoplagiaulacidae indet.7 Ameghino 1890 multituberculate
PTRM 7812
Ectypodus lovei Sloan 1966 multituberculate