Dmanisi (Pleistocene of Georgia)

Also known as Dmanissi

Where: Georgia (41.3° N, 44.2° E: paleocoordinates 41.3° N, 45.2° E)

• coordinate based on political unit

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• underlying Masavera Basalt was dated at 1.8 +/- 0.1 Ma (K-Ar) by Gabunia and Vekua 1995 and at 1.85 +/- 0.01 (40Ar/39Ar) by Gabunia et al. 2000 and is of normal polarity, so it correlates with the Olduvai Subchron; unit A also is normally polarized and assigned to the same subchron, whereas unit B and fossiliferous fissure fills in unit A are reversed and assigned to the following Matuyama Subchron (Gabunia et al. 2000)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fissure fill; poorly lithified, tuffaceous sandstone

• "lens- to tunnel-shaped... intrusive fills within unit A strata that formed at the time of erosion of unit A deposits but before deposition of unit B... These structures probably formed by underground water movement or soil piping, which eroded subsurface tunnels and cavities" (Gabunia et al. 2000)
• "2.5 m of fossiliferous, volcaniclastic alluvium" consisting of units A (lower) and B (upper), with most fossils coming from fills in unit A that are "poorly lithified and distinctively different in color, texture, and primary structures from the surrounding unit A sediment" that consists of tuffaceous loamy sand (Gabunia et al. 2000)

Size class: macrofossils

Collected in 1991, 1999, 2000, 2002 - 2004

• "over 2000 identifiable vertebrate fossils... and over 1000 stone artifacts" (Gabunia et al. 2000)

Primary reference: L. Gabunia and A. Vekua. 1995. A Plio-Pleistocene hominid from Dmanisi, East Georgia, Caucasus. Nature 373:509-512 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 56733: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 23.11.2005, edited by John Alroy and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo cf. viridis1 Laurenti 1768 European green toad
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudo graeca1 Linnaeus 1758 common tortoise
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacerta cf. viridis1 Laurenti 1768 European green lizard
 Squamata - Colubridae
Elaphe sp.4 Wagler 1833 colubrid snake
Coluber robertmertensi4 Mlynarksi 1964 racer
Natrix sp.1 Laurenti 1768 water snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
"Daboia cf. raddei" = Vipera (Daboia)4
"Daboia cf. raddei" = Vipera (Daboia)4 oriental viper
 Primates - Hominidae
Homo georgicus n. sp.2 Gabounia et al. 2002 human
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus dominans3 Eurasian field mouse
Gerbillus sp.3 Desmarest 1804 gerbil
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Mimomys aff. pliocaenicus5 Forsyth Major 1889 vole
"Kowalskia sp." = Neocricetodon Schaub 1934 mouse
Cricetus sp.3 Leske 1779 mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Marmota sp.3 Frisch 1775 marmot
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus5 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
subspecies etruscus
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus stenonis3 Cocchi 1867 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus etruscus3 Cuvier 1823 bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Martes sp.3 Frisch 1775 marten
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis etruscus3 Forsyth Major 1877 canine
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Pachycrocuta perrieri3 brown hyaena
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Soergelia sp.3 Schaub 1951 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Eucladoceros aff. senezensis3 deer
"Eucladocerus aff. senezensis"
Dama nestii3 fallow deer