Podlesice (Pliocene of Poland)

Where: Poland (50.6° N, 19.5° E: paleocoordinates 50.7° N, 19.1° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: MN 14 (4.9 - 4.2 Ma)

• Pliocene-Pleistocene, unit corresponds to Gunz-Mindel Interglacial (in early refs), the bone breccia includes both in-situ and specimens from a dump-pile, no stratigraphy is discernable, but the in-situ bed is only 4m in thickness. Kowalski, 1962 (Ref 8869), revises age to just Pliocene, so not from the interglacial. Later authors put age at Middle Pliocene (from 1963 on). Assigned to mammalian zone MN 14 (Ref 9172, 1989).

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; shelly/skeletal, argillaceous breccia

• fossils collected in a bone breccia filling a small karstic hole inside a cave in Jurassic limestone, fossils occur in clay matrix representing the floor of the cave

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Collection methods: salvage, surface (float), surface (in situ), chemical, mechanical,

• 500 kg of rock collected

Primary reference: K. Kowalski. 1956. Insectivores, bats and rodents from the Early Pleistocene bone breccia of Podlesice near Kroczyce (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 1(4):331-393 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 32240: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Erin Leckey on 16.06.2003, edited by Jason Head and Lars van den Hoek Ostende

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacerta sp.8 Linnaeus 1758 lizard
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguis cf. fragilis8 Linneaus 1758 Slow worm
Ophisaurus pannoicus1 glass lizard
probably O. pannonicus
 Squamata - Viperidae
Viperidae "indet "B""18 Oppel 1811 viper
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubrinae "indet. "D""18 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
Elaphe sp.1 Wagler 1833 colubrid snake
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Anomalomyidae
Anomalomys sp.1 Gaillard 1900 rodent
 Rodentia - Muridae
Parapodemus coronensis Schaub 1938 mouse
Epimeriones progressus n. sp.7 gerbil
m1, 5M1, 6m1, 2m2, 4I
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Kowalskia polonica n. gen. n. sp." = Neocricetodon polonicus3 Fahlbusch 1969 mouse
Kowalskia magna n. sp.3 Fahlbusch 1969 mouse
re-ID of Cricetus sp. from Kowalski, 1964
Cricetus "sp. 1"3 Leske 1779 mouse
? re-ID of Cricetus sp. from Kowalski, 1964
Cricetus "sp. 2"3 Leske 1779 mouse
? re-ID of Cricetus sp. from Kowalski, 1964
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciurus cf. warthae2 squirrel
P4, L/RM1or2, m1or2, m3
Blackia polonica n. sp.2 squirrel
4M1or2, 3m1or2, p4
cf. Sciurotamias sp.2 Miller 1901 Chinese rock squirrel
P4,2 M1-2, M1or2, 2M3, p4,3m1-2, m3
Pliopetes hungaricus2 squirrel
P4,3M1or2, M3, m1or2
Tamias cf. orlovi2 chipmunk
m1or2
? Pliopetaurista dehneli2 squirrel
M1or2, 2p4, m1or2, m3
Pliopetaurista sp.2 Kretzoi 1962 squirrel
2m1or2,
 Rodentia - Gliridae
"Glirulus pusillus" = Amphidyromys pusillus6 Heller 1936 Japanese dormouse
isolated right m1
Muscardinus pliocaenicus6 Kowalski 1963 dormouse
isolated teeth: 4m1, m2, m3, P4, 4M1, M3
Muscardinus aff. dacicus6 Kormos 1930 dormouse
maxillary fragment with M1; also isolated M1, 3m2, M2 (or m2, badly worn)
Glis minor6 Kowalski 1963 dormouse
G. sackdillingensis minor (n. subspecies)
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Leptodontomys aff. catalaunicus4 rodent
jaw fragment with p4-m1, jaw fragment with p4-m1, 6p4, 3m1or2, 3P4, 4M1or2, D4?
Keramidomys mohleri4 Engesser 1972 rodent
1 jaw fragment without teeth, 2p4, 2m1
Estramomys sp.4 Janossy 1969 rodent
2p4, P4, M1, M1or2, M2
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Sminthozapus sp.1 Sulimski 1962 jumping mouse
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Leporidae indet.1 Fischer de Waldheim 1817 rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonidae indet.1 Thomas 1897 pika
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Desmana nehringi Kormos 1913 Russian desman
mandibular and maxillary fragments with teeth: p2, p4, m2, P2, P4, M1, fragment of a cranial vault
Parascalops fossilis n. sp.17 Skoczen 1993 mole
Type series includes material from the type series of Scapanulus agrarius
Scapanulus agrarius n. sp.16 Skoczen 1980 mole
Talpa minor Freudenberg 1914 mole
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet.15 Fischer 1814 shrew
author recognizes 8 forms from this region, all forms except 5,6 and7 are found in this collection
Sorex "sp. 1"15 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
fragmentary mandible with m1-m2 and the coronoid and condyloid processes
Sorex "sp. 2"15 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
fragmentary mandible with p4-m1 and the coronoid and condyloid processes
Sorex "sp. 3"15 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Sorex minutus1 Linnaeus 1766 Eurasian pygmy shrew
unsure whether S. runtonensis or S. minutus are the re-ID species
Sorex minutus15 Linnaeus 1766 Eurasian pygmy shrew
Sorex bor15 Reumer 1984 long-tailed shrew
5 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Deinsdorfia reumeri n. sp.14 red-toothed shrew
19 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 37 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Deinsdorfia insperata n. sp.14 red-toothed shrew
4 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 9 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Petenyia hungarica Kormos 1934 red-toothed shrew
Blarinella dubia12 Asiatic short-tailed shrew
41 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 29 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth, originally listed by unknown author as Petenyia dubia
Episoriculus borsodensis11 red-toothed shrew
5 maxillary fragments with A1-M3 (L) and P4-M1 (R), 20 isolated I1, and 226 mandibular halves or fragments, with all teeth and processes except the angular process represented
Soriculus kubinyi Kormos 1934 red-toothed shrew
Neomysorex alpinoides n. gen.11 red-toothed shrew
Paenelimnoecus pannonicus13 red-toothed shrew
17 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 1 fragmentary maxilla and detached upper teeth
Paranourosorex gigas n. gen. n. sp.9 Rzebik-Kowalska 1975 red-toothed shrew
4 mandubular halves (2L/2R) with complete dentition and processes other than processus angularis, fragments of mandibles and maxillae, isolated teeth
Blarinoides mariae10 Sulimski 1959 red-toothed shrew
fragmentary mandible with teeth
Mafia cf. csarnotensis13 red-toothed shrew
8 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 1 fragmentary maxilla and detached upper teeth
Mafia dehneli13 red-toothed shrew
Sulimskia kretzoii13 Sulimski 1962 red-toothed shrew
4 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 2 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth
"Blarinella europaea" = Alloblarinella europaea12 Reumer 1984 shrew
7 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 9 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth
Suncus cf. pannonicus white-toothed shrew
"Petenyia robusta n. sp." = Cokia robusta12 Rzebik-Kowalska 1989 shrew
18 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 22 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth
Zelceina podlesicensis n. sp.14 Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 shrew
14 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 96 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis podlesicensis n. sp. vesper bat
Myotis cf. aemulus vesper bat
Myotis danutae n. sp. vesper bat
Myotis cf. exilis vesper bat
Myotis dasycneme Boie 1825 vesper bat
M. dasycneme subtilis (n. subspecies)
Plecotus crassidens Kormos 1930 vesper bat
Miniopterus schreibersi Natterer 1819 bend-winged bat
 Chiroptera - Rhinolophidae
Rhinolophus grivensis1 Depéret 1892 horseshoe bat
unsure whether R. delphinensis or R. grivensis are the re-ID sp.
Rhinolophus delphinensis1 Gaillard 1899 horseshoe bat
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Baranogale helbingi5 Kormos 1934 mustelid carnivore
Mustela sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 weasel
two fragments of mandible without dentition, one maxillar canine