Conard Fissure (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Newton County, Arkansas (36.0° N, 93.2° W: paleocoordinates 36.0° N, 93.0° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Irvingtonian (1.8 - 0.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: J. W. Gidley and C. L. Gazin. 1938. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Cumberland Cave, Maryland. United States National Museum Bulletin 171:1-99 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

PaleoDB collection 20290: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Terri Cleary and Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "Microtus ochrogaster" is presumably not present
Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
Coluber cf. constrictor2 Linnaeus 1758 black racer
Pituophis sp.2 Holbrook 1842 gopher snake
vertebrae
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalus sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 rattlesnake
AMNH 6404, left articular
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Reithrodontomys sp. Giglioli 1874 harvest mouse
not clear what "R. simplicidens" is
Neotoma ozarkensis Brown 1908 pack rat
i.d. accepted by Zakrzewski 1993
Ondatra annectens Brown 1908 muskrat
Microtus paroperarius Hibbard 1944 vole
"Pedomys llanensis" = Microtus llanensis1 Hibbard 1944 vole
Pitymys cumberlandensis1 van der Meulen 1978 vole
Peromyscus sp. Gloger 1841 deer mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus ? tridecemlineatus1 Mitchell 1821 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Marmota monax Linnaeus 1758 groundhog
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus1 Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Geomys bursarius3 Shaw 1800 plains pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor canadensis Kuhl 1820 American beaver
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
Erethizon dorsatum Linnaeus 1758 North American porcupine
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus ? americanus Erxleben 1777 snowshoe hare
Lepus alleni1 Mearns 1890 antelope jackrabbit
Sylvilagus ? floridanus Allen 1890 eastern cottontail
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopus aquaticus Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus ? scotti Gidley 1900 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex minutus1 Eurasian pygmy shrew
Sorex cinereus1 Kerr 1792 cinereus shrew
Sorex fumeus Miller 1895 smoky shrew
Sorex monticolus1 Merriam 1890 montane shrew
Blarina brevicauda Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
includes type of "B. ozarkensis": see Jones et al. 1984
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus1 Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
Spilogale ? putorius1 Linnaeus 1758 eastern spotted skunk
Mephitis mephitis1 Schreber 1776 striped skunk
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
"Mustela vison" = Neovison vison Schreber 1777 mink
Mustela frenata3 Lichtenstein 1831 long-tailed weasel
Mustela erminea3 Linnaeus 1758 stoat
"Martes diluviana" = Pekania diluviana3 Cope 1889 mustelid carnivore
presumably includes "M. pennanti" (also suspected by Hall 1936)
Brachyprotoma obtusata1 Cope 1899 short-faced skunk
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes sp.1 Frisch 1775 fox
Canis armbrusteri5 Gidley 1913 canine
Canis latrans4 Say 1823 coyote
Urocyon cinereoargenteus3 Schreber 1775 gray fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
Smilodon fatalis1 Leidy 1868 saber-toothed cat
Lynx rufus3 Schreber 1777 bobcat
presumably includes "L. compressus"; also mentioned by Werdelin 1985
Miracinonyx studeri1 Savage 1960 American cheetah
Panthera onca3 Linnaeus 1758 jaguar
suggested by Simpson 1941b, and called into question by Seymour 1993
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
"Myotis leibi" = Myotis leibii3, Eptesicus fuscus1
"Myotis leibi" = Myotis leibii3 Audubon and Bachman 1842 vesper bat
a bat; presumably = "M. subulatus(?)"
Eptesicus fuscus1 Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus fossilis1 Leidy 1860 peccary
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bootherium bombifrons1 Harlan 1825 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 deer
Odocoileus virginianus3 Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
presumably includes "O. hemionus(?)"