Tham Khuyen (Pleistocene of Vietnam)

Where: Lang Son, Vietnam (22.0° N, 106.4° E: paleocoordinates 21.9° N, 106.4° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

• from "Two distinct breccia layers, a lower light red unit and an overlying darker red one... the darker one [contains] most of the fossil vertebrate remains... there is no sharp discontinuity between the layers, which were deposited during the same period... faunal analyses... suggest a late middle Pleistocene age (probably around 300-250 Ka) for the entire contained mammalian assemblage"

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; lithified, shelly/skeletal, red breccia

• "periodic flooding appears to have washed river sediments ande remains of vertebrates into the cavity... A relatively high energy environment"
• "heavily calcified breccias that are rich in fossil bone and teeth" including "cobbles and small boulders"

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by T. K. Le, V. B. Tran in 1965, 1966

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, mechanical,

• collected by "a joint Vietnamese and German (DDR) group... Blocks... were removed... using hammers and chisels, following which manual preparation of the specimens was completed in the laboratories of the Institute of Archaeology in Hanoi"

Primary reference: J. H. Schwartz, T. H. Vu, L. C. Nguyen, K. T. Le, and I. Tattersall. 1994. A diverse hominoid fauna from the late middle Pleistocene breccia cave of Tham Khuyen, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 73:1-11 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 92781: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 28.11.2009, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Mammalia
 Primates -
Hominoidea indet. Gray 1825 ape
said to be a new genus and "large-bodied"
 Primates - Hominidae
Pongo sp. Lacépède 1799 orangutan
"dentally primitive"
Pongo pygmaeus Linnaeus 1760 Bornean orangutan
subspecies kahlkei
Pongo hooijeri n. sp. Schwartz et al. 1995 orangutan
Gigantopithecus blacki von Koenigswald 1935 ape
Homo sp. Linnaeus 1758 human
 Primates - Hylobatidae
"Hylobates cf. concolor" = Nomascus concolor
"Hylobates cf. concolor" = Nomascus concolor Harlan 1826 black crested gibbon
 Primates -
Langsonia liquidens n. gen. n. sp.
Langsonia liquidens n. gen. n. sp. Schwartz et al. 1995 ape
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Macaca sp. Lacépède 1799 macaque
Macaca cf. assamensis MacClelland 1839 macaque
 Rodentia - Muridae
Rattus sp. Fischer 1803 rat
Mus sp. Linnaeus 1758 house mouse
 Rodentia - Spalacidae
Rhizomys cf. troglodytes greater bamboo rat
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix sp. Linnaeus 1758 porcupine
Atherurus sp. Cuvier 1829 brush-tailed porcupine
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinoceros sinensis one-horned rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762 tapir
Tapirus (Megatapirus) augustus Matthew and Granger 1923 tapir
 Chiroptera -
Chiroptera indet. Blumenbach 1779 bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus malayanus Raffles 1821 sun bear
Ursus thibetanus Cuvier 1823 Asian black bear
"Ursus thibetanus kokeni"
Ailuropoda melanoleuca David 1869 giant panda
"Ailuropoda melanoleuca fovealis"
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Arctonyx collaris Cuvier 1825 hog badger
"Arctonyx collaris cf. rostratus"
 Carnivora - Canidae
Cuon sp. Hodgson 1838 dhole
 Carnivora - Viverridae
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus sp. Linnaeus 1758 pig
Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 wild boar
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus 1758 water buffalo
Bibos gaurus antelope
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervus sp., "Rusa unicolor" = Cervus unicolor, "Muntiacus muntjac" = Muntiacus muntjak
Cervus sp. Linnaeus 1758 deer
"Rusa unicolor" = Cervus unicolor Kerr 1792 sambar
"Muntiacus muntjac" = Muntiacus muntjak Rafinesque 1815 muntjak