Frauenweiler (Oligocene of Germany)

Also known as Grube Unterfeld; Bott-Eder clay pit; Rauenberg

Where: Baden-Württemberg, Germany (49.5° N, 9.0° E: paleocoordinates 48.9° N, 5.3° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: MP 22 mammal zone, Rupelian (33.9 - 28.1 Ma)

• "early Oligocene, Rupelian... MP 22" (Mayr 2007)

•fish and bird fossils are from the "Fish Shales," which are "about 10 m thick" and are overlain by an "about 40 m" thick clay interval called the Meletta-Layers (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)

Environment/lithology: estuary or bay; gray claystone

• "the sediments of Frauenweiler are marine and were deposited during a transgression caused by rifting activities (Mayr 2000)" and the exact environment probably was "a quiet, shallow and nutritious bay with some kind of shelter from the open sea" and could even have been a "brackwish water influence," but "the presence of larger estuaries or river mouths does not seem very likely" (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)
• the "fish shales... mostly consist of laminated, dark-grey argillaceous sediments" with a TOC of 4.0-5.5%, and the overall section consists of "dark-grey or black, compact, marly clay stones, which are very well laminated in certain sections" (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)

Size class: macrofossils

• "the [bird] fossils are completely disarticulated, with the bones being jumbled but nevertheless clo- sely associated" but "fish skeletons... are often fully articulated" (Mayr and Micklich 2010)

Preservation: adpression

Collected by Charles Knopf in 2009; reposited in the SMF, SMNS

Collection methods: quarrying

• SMF, SMNS, and HLMD collections

•most specimens were collected prior to 2009

Primary reference: G. Mayr. 2000. A new mousebird (Coliiformes: Coliidae) from the Oligocene of Germany. Journal of Ornithology 141(1):85-92 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 68021: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 24.12.2006, edited by Mark Uhen, Patricia Holroyd, Evangelos Vlachos and Barbara Seuss

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "more than 70 elasmobranch and teleostean fish species" are also present (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)
unclassified
  -
Chondrichthyes
 Chimaeriformes - Chimaeridae
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Notorhynchus primigenius12 Agassiz 1835 sevengill shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Triakidae
Triakis kelleri12 hound shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Galeocerdidae
Physogaleus latus12 ground shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurolamna gracilis12 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Cetorhinidae
Keasius parvus3 Leriche 1908 basking shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Carcharias cuspidatus" = Araloselachus cuspidatus12
"Carcharias cuspidatus" = Araloselachus cuspidatus12 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Lamniformes - Carchariidae
Carcharias acutissima3 Agassiz 1843 sand shark
Carcharias gustrowensis12 Winkler 1875 sand shark
 Squaliformes - Squalidae
Squalus alsaticus12 dogfish shark
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Mammalia
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Myotis horaceki3 vesper bat
bats
 Sirenia -
Sirenia indet.14 Illiger 1811 sirenian
sea cows
 Sirenia - Dugongidae
cf. Halitherium schinzii9 Kaup 1838 dugong
 Creodonta - Hyainailouridae
Apterodon rauenbergensis n. sp.2 Frey et al. 2010 creodont
possible carnivore
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Turnicidae
Turnipax oechslerorum n. sp.7 Mayr and Knopf 2007 buttonquail
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
? Colymboides metzleri n. sp.3 Mayr 2004 loon
 Procellariiformes -
Rupelornis cf. definitus3 van Beneden 1871 bird
Rupelornis cf. brodkorbi3 bird
two SMNK skeletons
 Caprimulgiformes - Trochilidae
Eurotrochilus inexpectatus n. gen. n. sp.4 Mayr 2004 hummingbird
see also Mayr 2007
 Piciformes -
Rupelramphastoides knopfi n. gen. n. sp.6
Rupelramphastoides knopfi n. gen. n. sp.6 Mayr 2005 bird
additional specimen described by Mayr 2006
 Coraciiformes - Todidae
Palaeotodus itardiensis9 Mourer-Chauviré 1985 bird
Palaeotodus itardiensis3 Mourer-Chauviré 1985 bird
 Trogoniformes - Trogonidae
cf. Primotrogon sp.5 Mayr 1999 trogon
 Coliiformes - Coliidae
Oligocolius brevitarsus n. gen. n. sp.
Oligocolius brevitarsus n. gen. n. sp. Mayr 2000 mousebird
 Passeriformes -
Wieslochia weissi n. gen. n. sp.8
Wieslochia weissi n. gen. n. sp.8 Mayr and Manegold 2006 perching bird
SMF specimen
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
cf. Trionyx posterus3 softshell turtle
subgenus Platypeltis
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Cheloniidae indet.1 Bonaparte 1832 sea turtle
SMNK-PAL 6608, with barnacles of Protochelonibia
Glarichelys sp.9 Zangerl 1958 sea turtle
Chelonia gwinneri n. sp.16 Wegner 1917 green sea turtle
"Chelonia" gwinneri3 Wegner 1917 green sea turtle
sea turtles
Actinopteri
 Clupeiformes - Clupeoidei
Clupeidae indet.12 Cuvier 1817 herring
sp. a & b
"Sardinella" sardinites3 Heckel 1850 herring
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
Carangidae indet.12 Rafinesque 1815
Archaeus glarisianus3 Agassiz 1843
 Carangiformes - Echeneidae
Oligoremora rhenana3 Micklich et al. 2016
Oligoremora rhenana n. gen. n. sp.11 Micklich et al. 2016
 Pleuronectiformes - Scophthalmidae
Scophthalmus sp.3 Rafinesque 1810 flatfish
 Beloniformes - Hemiramphidae
Hemiramphus sp.3 Cuvier 1817
 Ophidiiformes - Ophidiidae
Ophidiidae indet.3 Rafinesque 1810
 Teleostei -
Perciformes indet.9 Bleeker 1859 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Scorpaenidae
cf. Sebastes sp.12 Cuvier 1829 perch-like fish
 Perciformes -
Percoidei indet.3 Bleeker 1859 perch-like fish
three species (a, b, c)
Oliganodon sp.3 Bannikov 2010 perch-like fish
Oliganodon budensis3 Heckel 1856 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Sparidae
Sparus cf. schopii3 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Propercarinidae
Propercarina sp.12 Pauca 1929 perch-like fish
 Acanthomorphata - Priacanthidae
Priacanthus spinosus3 Weiler 1938
 Acanthomorphata - Chaetodontidae
 Lophiiformes - Lophiidae
Lophiidae indet.3 Cuvier anglerfish
 Scombriformes - Stromateidae
 Scombriformes - Scombridae
Scombridae indet.12 Rafinesque 1815
Scomber sp.12 Linnaeus 1758
or Auxides sp.
Auxides cf. cernegurae3 Ciobanu 1977
Scomberomorini indet.12 Starks 1910
sp. a & b
Neocybium sp.12 Leriche 1906
 Scombriformes - Gempylidae
 Scombriformes -
cf. Sphyraenodus sp.12 Agassiz 1839
 Scombriformes - Palaeorhynchidae
"Palaeorhynchus cf. glarisianus" = Palaeorhynchus glarisianum3, Palaeorhynchus cf. zitteli3
"Palaeorhynchus cf. glarisianus" = Palaeorhynchus glarisianum3 de Blainville 1818
Palaeorhynchus cf. zitteli3 Kramberger 1879
 Scombriformes - Trichiuridae
Lepidopus sp.3 Gouan 1770
Anenchelum cf. angustum3 Danil'chenko 1980
aff. Trichiurus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758
 Scombriformes - Nomeidae
 Syngnathiformes - Syngnathidae
Doryrhamphus sp.12 Kaup 1853
Syngnathus sp.12 Linnaeus 1758 pipefish
Syngnathus cf. incompletus3 Cosmovici 1887 pipefish
 Syngnathiformes - Centriscidae
 Syngnathiformes - Aulostomidae
 Gadiformes - Merlucciidae
Palaeogadus cf. intergerinus3 Daniltshenko 1947
 Gadiformes - Phycidae
Protobrotula sp.12 Danil'chenko 1960
 Gadiformes - Gadidae
Gadidae indet.12 Rafinesque 1810
 Gasterosteiformes -
Nerophis sp.3 Rafinesque 1810
 Lampriformes - Veliferidae
Veliferidae indet.12 Bleeker 1859
 Anguilliformes - Moringuidae
Deutschenchelys micklichi n. gen. n. sp.15
Deutschenchelys micklichi n. gen. n. sp.15 Prokofiev 2012 eel
 Elopiformes - Elopidae
Elopidae indet.12 Bonaparte 1846
 Scorpaeniformes - Triglidae
Triglidae indet.3 sea robin
 Acanthopteri - Sphyraenidae
cf. Sphyraena sp.12 Artedi 1793 barracuda
Echinoidea
 Spatangoida - Schizasteridae
"Ova sp." = Schizaster (Ova)3
"Ova sp." = Schizaster (Ova)3 Gray 1825 heart urchin
Gastropoda
 Sorbeoconcha - Aporrhaidae
 Neogastropoda -
Neogastropoda indet.3 Thiele 1929 snail
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Muricopsis sp.3 Bucquoy et al. 1882 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Streptochetus sp.3 Cossmann 1901 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
Galeodea depressa3 Buch 1831 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
 Epitonioidea - Epitoniidae
? Opalia sp.3 Adams and Adams 1853 wentletrap
 Cerithioidea - Batillariidae
Granulolabium ? plicatum3 Bruguiére 1792 snail
Bivalvia
 Lucinida - Thyasiridae
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
? Panopea sp.3 Menard 1807 clam
 Pholadomyida - Pholadomyidae
 Cardiida - Chamidae
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
? Arcopagia sp.3 Leach 1827 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
 Ostreida - Malleidae
Isognomon sp.3 Lightfoot 1786 oyster
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris sp.3 Da Costa 1778 clam
 Nuculanida - Sareptidae
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Insecta
  -
Insecta indet.14 Linnaeus 1758 insect
 Odonata - Calopterygidae
Calopterygidae indet.3 Selys-Longchamps 1850 broad-winged damselfly
 Lepidoptera - Geometridae
cf. Geometridae indet.3 Leach 1815 geometer moth
 Coleoptera - Cerambycidae
Cerambycidae indet.3 Latreille 1802 longhorned beetle
 Coleoptera - Curculionidae
Curculionidae indet.3 Latreille 1802 snout beetle
 Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
cf. Staphylinidae indet.3 Latreille 1802 rove beetle
 Coleoptera -
Elateroidea indet.3 Leach 1815 beetle
cf. Elateridae or Bupestridae
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
Carabidae indet.3 Latreille 1802 ground beetle
 Dicondylia -
cf. Hymenoptera indet.3 Linnaeus 1758 winged insect
cf. Orthoptera indet.3 Olivier 1789 grasshopper
 Hemiptera - Pentatomidae
Pentatomidae indet.3 Leach 1815 stink bug
 Hemiptera -
 Diptera -
cf. Diptera indet.3 Linnaeus 1758 fly
mostly Bibionidae
Malacostraca
 Decapoda - Carcinidae
Coeloma taunicum3 Von Meyer 1862 crab
 Decapoda - Nephropidae
Hoploparia klebsi3 Noetling 1885 clawed lobster
 Decapoda - Callianassidae
Callianassidae indet.3 Dana 1852 decapod
Thecostraca
 Pedunculata -
Pedunculata indet.3 Lamarck 1818 barnacle
 Balanomorpha - Chelonibiidae
Protochelonibia sp.3 Harzhauser and Newman 2011 turtle barnacle
Protochelonibia melleni1 turtle barnacle
Arachnida
 Scorpiones -
cf. Scorpiones indet.3 Latreille 1817 scorpion
 Araneae -
cf. Araneae indet.3 Clerck 1757 spider
Coccolithophyceae
 Watznaueriales - Watznaueriaceae
 Podorhabdales - Biscutaceae
Biscutum constans3 Górka 1957
 Prymnesiophycidae - Prymnesiophycidae
Pontosphaera sp.3 Lohmann 1961
Zygrhablithus bijugatus3 Deflandre and Fert 1954
Cruciplacolithus sp.3 Hay and Mohler 1927
Braarudosphaera bigelowii3 Gran and Braarud 1935
Markalius inversus3 Deflandre 1954
"Coccolithus crassipons" = Coccolithus3
"Coccolithus spp." = Coccolithus3 Schwartz 1959
Coccolithus pelagicus12 Wallich 1877
"Cyclococcolithus spp." = Coccolithus3 Schwartz 1959
  -
Sphenolithus moriformis3 Bronnimann and Stradner 1960
  - Goniolithaceae
Goniolithus fluckigeri3 Deflandre 1957
  -
Reticulofenestra
  -
unclassified
  -
Plantae indet.14 Haeckel 1866
Hepaticae
  -
Craigia
  -
 Coniferales - Cupressaceae
Taxodium sp.3 Richard 1810 cypress
Sequoia abietina3 coast redwood
Pinopsida
 Pinales - Pinaceae
Angiospermae
 Malpighiales - Salicaceae
 Fagales - Myricaceae
Myrica sp.3 Linnaeus 1753 bayberry
Myrica cf. lignitum3 Unger 1850 bayberry
 Fagales - Juglandaceae
 Fagales - Betulaceae
 Oxalidales - Elaeocarpaceae
 Fabales - Fabaceae
? Leguminocarpon sp.3 Göppert 1855 legume
 Rosales - Rhamnaceae
? Berchemia sp.3 Necker and de Candolle 1825 buckthorn
Dicotyledoneae
 Ericales - Symplocaceae
 Parietales - Ternstroemiaceae
Angiospermae
 Buxales - Buxaceae
? Buxus egeriana3 Kvaček and Bužek 1982 boxwood
 Santalales - Loranthaceae
? Viscophyllum sp.3 Knoll 1904 mistletoe
 Lamiales - Oleaceae
Oleinites sp.3 Cookson 1947
 Saxifragales - Saxifragaceae
 Saxifragales - Hamamelidaceae
Distylium sp.3 Siebold and Zuccarini 1841 witch-hazel
 Proteales - Platanaceae
Platanus neptuni3 Buzek et al. 1967 plane tree
 Laurales - Lauraceae
 Mesangiosperms - Arecaceae
Arecaceae indet.3 von Berchtold and Presl 1820 palm
Sabalites major3 fan palm
Phoenicites sp.3 Brongniart 1828 palm
Palmacites lamanonis3 Brongniart 1822 palm
Magnoliopsida
  -
Dicotylophyllum sp.3 Saporta 1894
Pteridopsida
  -
"Filicopsida indet." = Pteridopsida3
"Filicopsida indet." = Pteridopsida3 Ritgen 1828
Polypodiopsida
 Schizaeales - Polypodiidae
"Lygodium kaulfussii" = Lygodium kaulfussi3
"Lygodium kaulfussii" = Lygodium kaulfussi3 Heer climbing fern
Cycadopsida
 Cycadales - Zamiaceae
Ceratozamia floersheimensis3 Kvacek 2002 cycads
Foraminifera
  -
Foraminifera indet.3 Eichwald 1830
 Buliminacea - Uvigerinidae
Uvigerina sp.3 d'Orbigny 1826
 Rotaliina - Bolivinidae
 Lituolida - Lituolidae
Globothalamea
 Rotaliida - Nonionidae
 Rotaliida - Cibicididae
Lobatula lobatula3 Walker and Jacob 1798
 Rotaliida - Gavelinellidae
 Rotaliida - Discorbidae
Rosalina sp.3 d'Orbigny 1826
Foraminifera
 Astrorhizacea - Bathysiphonidae
 Buliminoidea - Buliminidae
Fissurina sp.3 Reuss 1850
Nodosariata
 Vaginulinida - Vaginulinidae
Lenticulina sp.3 Lamarck 1804
 Nodosariida - Stilostomellidae
 Nodosariida - Nodosariidae
Frondicularia sp.3 Defrance 1824
Lagena sp.3 Walker and Boys 1784
Dentalina sp.3 d'Orbigny 1826
 Polymorphinida - Polymorphinidae
Globulina gibba3 d'Orbigny 1832
Doliostrobus
  - Doliostrobaceae
Proantigonia
  -
Proantigonia sp.12, "Capros caprosoides" = Proantigonia caprosoides12
Proantigonia sp.12 Kramberger
"Capros caprosoides" = Proantigonia caprosoides12 Cosmovici 1887
 Dinoflagellata -
Dinophyceae
 Gonyaulacales -
Batiacasphaera sp.3 Drugg 1970
 Gonyaulacales - Areoligeraceae
Glaphyrocysta sp.3 Gerlach 1961
Areoligera sp.3 Lejeune-Carpentier 1938
 Gonyaulacales - Cladopyxiaceae
Enneadocysta sp.3 Stover and Williams 1995
arcuata complex
 Gonyaulacales -
 Gonyaulacales - Gonyaulacaceae
 Gonyaulacales - Goniodomaceae
 Gonyaulacales -
Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata3 Bujak and Matsuoka 1986
  -
 Peridiniales - Peridiniaceae
 Peridiniales -
 Peridiniales - Protoperidiniaceae
Lejeunecysta cinctoria3 Lentin and Williams 1981
Trachinus minutus
  -
"Trachinus cf. minutus" = Megalolepis minutus3
"Trachinus cf. minutus" = Megalolepis minutus3 Jonet 1958
 Fucophyceae - Cystoseiraceae