Ventana Cave Volcanic Debris Layer (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Pima County, Arizona (32.5° N, 112.3° W: paleocoordinates 32.5° N, 112.2° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• multiple AMS dates not in stratigraphic order suggest the Volcanic Debris Layer (a.k.a. Bed 5) "accumulated between approximately 8800 B.P. and 10,500 B.P." (i.e., in the earliest Holocene), and all cultural artifacts and apparently imported Laevicardium shells are thought to be of this age, but most or all faunal remains are thought to have been reworked from the immediately "underlying [small pebble] conglomerate deposit rich in horse remains"

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; lithified, tuffaceous, silty sandstone and sandy carbonate

• "rocks and ash of volcanic origin, eroded and redeposited in the cave by fluvial and eolian processes" and then "cemented" postdepositionally by "both calcium carbonate and silica"; "Scattered fragments of basalt, andesite, and agglomerate" plus pieces of charcoal are included in the matrix; the lower part is a "dusty, tuffaceous silty sand with a high lime content" and the upper consists of "irregular plates of granular calcium carbonate separated by thin films of uncemented sand"

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by E. Haury, W. Bailey, J. Hayden in 1941, 1942

Collection methods: quarrying

Primary reference: B. B. Huckell and C. V. Haynes, Jr. 2003. The Ventana Complex: new dates and new ideas on its place in early Holocene western prehistory. American Antiquity 68(2):353-371 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 93244: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 08.01.2010

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• taxonomic list is repeated from Colbert (1950)
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
"fragments of tortoise shell"
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Equus occidentalis" = Equus (Dolichohippus) simplicidens
"Equus occidentalis" = Equus (Dolichohippus) simplicidens Cope 1892 horse
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Taxidea taxus Schreber 1778 American badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
"Vulpes macrotis" = Vulpes velox
"Vulpes macrotis" = Vulpes velox Say 1823 swift fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
"Felis atrox" = Uncia atrox
"Felis atrox" = Uncia atrox Leidy 1853 cat
 Phyllophaga - Nothrotheriidae
"Nothrotheriops shastensis" = Nothrotherium shastense
"Nothrotheriops shastensis" = Nothrotherium shastense Sinclair 1905 Shasta ground sloth
species assigned to Nothrotherium shastense by Colbert
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
"Dicotyles tajacu" = Tayassu tajacu
"Dicotyles tajacu" = Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus 1758 collared peccary
identified as Pecari angulatus by Colbert
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bison sp. Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervidae indet. Gray 1821 deer
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
"Tetrameryx cf. conklingi" = Stockoceros conklingi
"Tetrameryx cf. conklingi" = Stockoceros conklingi Stock 1930 pronghorn