Cethana Dam (Oligocene of Australia)

Where: Tasmania, Australia (41.5° S, 146.1° E: paleocoordinates 58.3° S, 145.6° E)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Proteacidites tuberculatus pollen zone, Early/Lower Oligocene (33.9 - 28.4 Ma)

• According to Macphail (pers. comm.) the age of the flora is between Early Eocene and uppermost Oligocene (Hill, 1984).

•Further palynological assessment suggests that the flora is likely to be in the Late Eocene to Oligocene range based on the high proportion of Nothofagus brassii-type and Phyllocladidites mawsonii pollen (Carpenter & Hill, 1988).

•The palynoflora has been assigned to the early Oligocene by Macphail et al. 1994. The presence of Cyatheacidites annulatus provides a confident Proteacidites tuberculatus Zone (Stover and Partridge 1973) maximum age, but the upper age limits are less certain owing to possible diachronism in the times of extinction of accessory species such as Beaupreadites verrucosus, Granodiporites nebulosus and Triporopollenites ambiguus. (Hill et al. 2008)

Environment/lithology: lagoonal; tabular, brown, gray, yellow siltstone and quartzose sandstone

• The fine laminated siltstone with terrestrial plant fragments indicates a low energy depositional environment such as a lake centre. The sand layers may indicate fluctuating stream inflow on the lake edges.

•The Cethana deposit had an Early Oligocene altitude of about 300 m. It formed at a time for which there is evidence of regional glacial activity (Macphail et al. 1993), in Carpenter & Jordan, 1997.

• The deposit unconformably overlies folded quartzose arenaceous (Moina Sandstone) meta-sediments. The fossiliferous rock is a creamy-yellow to light brown-grey laminated siltstone with alternations of thin sand layers. Fossils from Hill & Carpenter, 1988 were recovered from mudstone of the same locality.

Size classes: macrofossils, microfossils

Preservation: mold/impression, adpression

Collection methods: chemical, hydroflouric

Primary reference: R. S. Hill. 1984. Tertiary Nothofagus macrofossils from Cethana, Tasmania. Alcheringa 8(1):81-86 [C. Jaramillo/A. Cardenas ]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 166832: authorized by Carlos Jaramillo, entered by Andrés Cardenas on 28.02.2015, edited by Carlos Jaramillo

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Tmesipteris tasmanica1
Specimen examined. C-204.
Sticherus sp.1
Specimens examined. C-253, 593, 637.
aff. Hymenophyllum sp.1
Specimen examined. C-635.
Schizaea sp.1
Specimen examined. C-071.
? Daviesia sp.1
Specimen examined. C-464, 618.
Cycadeoideopsida
 Bennettitales -
Ptilophyllum muelleri8 Ettingshausen 1886
Pinopsida
 Pinales - Podocarpaceae
Lagarostrobos sp.1 Quinn 1982
Specimens examined. C-340, 540, 735.
Dacrycarpites australiensis1 Cookson and Pike 1953
Lygistepollenites florinii1 Stover and Evans 1973
Dacrycarpus mucronatus6 Wells and Hill 1989
in Carpenter, 1991 Dacrycarpus falcatus
Acmopyle glabra1 Hill and Carpenter 1991
Specimens examined. C-222, 226.
Dacrydium "sp. 1"1 Soland and Lambert 1807
Specimens examined. C-202, 471.
Dacrydium "sp. 2"1 Soland and Lambert 1807
Specimens examined. C-517, 519.
Phyllocladus "sp. 1"1 Richard and Mirbel 1825
Specimen examined. C-305.
Phyllocladus "sp. 2"1 Richard and Mirbel 1825
Specimen examined. C-352.
Podocarpidites spp.1 Cookson 1947
Podocarpus "sp. 1"1 Lheritier and Persoon 1807
Specimen examined. C-610.
Podocarpus "sp. 2"1 Lheritier and Persoon 1807
Specimens examined. C-251, 274, 275, 342, 492.
 Pinales - Cupressaceae
Papuacedrus australis n. sp.5 Hill and Carpenter 1989
Specimens examined. C-225, 234, 259, 349
Libocedrus morrisonii1 Hill and Carpenter 1989
Specimen examined. C-553.
 Pinales - Araucariaceae
Agathis "sp. 3"1 Salisbury 1807
Specimen examined. C-534.
Agathis "sp. 2"1 Salisbury 1807
Specimen examined. C-489.
Agathis "sp. 1"1 Salisbury 1807
Specimen examined. C-478.
Agathis sp.1 Salisbury 1807
Specimens examined. C-223, 441, 529.
Agathis spp.7 Salisbury 1807
In addition to leaves, cone scales also occur here.
Agathis brevigongylodes7 Hill et al. 2008
Agathis vittatus7 Hill et al. 2008
Araucariacites australis1 Cookson 1947
Araucaria "sp. 1"1 de Jussieu 1789
Specimens examined. C-021, 546, 632, 642, 643.
Monocotyledoneae
 Restionales - Commelinidae
 Liliales - Liliidae
Liliacidites sp.1 Couper 1953
Cycadopsida
 Cycadales - Zamiaceae
Pterostoma aff. anastomosans1 Hill 1980 cycads
Specimens examined. C-483.
Macrozamia australis1 cycads
Specimens examined. C-532, 651, 652.
Cycadopites
  -
Cycadopites sp.1 Wodehouse 1933
Pteridopsida
  - Polypodiaceae
  -
Laevigatosporites ovatus1 Wilson and Webster 1946
Cyathidites minor1 Couper 1953
Cyathidites australis1 Couper 1953
Cyathidites paleospora1 Alley and Broadbridge 1992
Matonisporites ornamentalis1 Partridge 1973
Peromonolites vellosus1 Partridge 1973
 Schizaeales - Schizaeaceae
Lygodium sp.1 Swartz
Specimens examined. C-232, 661.
Lygodium dinmorphyllum9 Churchill 1969
 Gleicheniales - Matoniaceae
Dictyophyllidites arcuatus1 Pocknall and Mildenhall 1984
 Gleicheniales - Gleicheniaceae
Gleichenia sp.1 Smith
Specimens examined. C-048, 099.
 Cyatheales -
 Cyatheales - Cyatheaceae
? Cyatheaceae indet.1 Kaulfuss
Specimens examined. C-255, 446.
 Polypodiales - Blechnaceae
? Blechnum sp.1 Linnaeus
Specimens examined. C-083, 420, 530, 531.
  -
Verrucosisporites
  -
Lycopsida
  -
  - Selaginellaceae
  - Lycopodiaceae
Retitriletes austroclavatidites1 Döring et al. 1963
Lycopodiumsporites sp.1 Delcourt and Sprumont 1955
Bryopsida
  -
Stereisporites sp.1 Pflug 1953
Magnoliopsida
  -
Dicotyledonae
 Rosidae - Rosidae
 Nepenthales - Dilleniidae
Droseraceae indet.1 Salisbury 1808
Magnoliopsida
  -
Haloragacidites harrisii1 Mildenhall and Harris 1971
 Magnoliales - Lauraceae
Laurophyllum sp.1 Goeppert 1853 laurel
Specimens examined. C-479, 628.
  -
 Myrtales - Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae indet.1 de Jussieu 1789
Specimens examined. C-023, 029, 214, 306, 324, 350, 386, 393, 624, 716, 717, 718 and several others.
 Myrtales -
 Malvales - Sterculiaceae
aff. Brachychiton sp.1 Schott and Endlicher 1832
Specimen examined. C-648.
 Rosales - Cunoniaceae
Weinmanniaphyllum bernardii n. gen. n. sp.2 Carpenter and Buchanan 1993
Callicoma serratifolia2 Andrews 1809
Schizomeria tasmaniensis n. sp.2 Carpenter and Buchanan 1993
Acsmithia grandiflora n. sp.2 Carpenter and Buchanan 1993
 Santalales - Loranthaceae
 Proteales - Proteaceae
Proteaceae "incertae sedis"1, ? Grevillea "sp. 2"1, ? Grevillea "sp. 1"1, Banksieaephyllum "sp. 4"1, Banksieaephyllum "sp. 3"1, Banksieaephyllum linearis n. sp.4, Banksieaephyllum orientalis n. sp.1, Banksieaeformis "sp. 2"1, "Proteaciphyllum linearis n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum linearis4, "Proteaciphyllum lomatioides n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum lomatioides4, "Proteaciphyllum ornamentalis n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum ornamentalis4, "Proteaciphyllum gevuininoides n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum gevuininoides4, "Proteaciphyllum cethanicum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum cethanicum4, "Proteaciphyllum rugulatum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum rugulatum4, "Proteaciphyllum microphyllum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum integrifolium4, "Proteaciphyllum integrifolium n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum integrifolium4, "Proteaciphyllum tridacnoides n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum tridacnoides4, "Proteaciphyllum attenuatum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum attenuatum4, Lomatia "sp. 3"1, Lomatia fraxinifolia4, Lomatia xeromorpha n. sp.3, Telopea truncata4
Proteaceae "incertae sedis"1 de Jussieu 1789
? Grevillea "sp. 2"1 Brown and Knight 1809
Specimen examined. C- 715.
? Grevillea "sp. 1"1 Brown and Knight 1809
Specimen examined. C- 714.
Banksieaephyllum "sp. 4"1 Cookson and Duigan 1950
Specimens examined. C-443, 590, 630.
Banksieaephyllum "sp. 3"1 Cookson and Duigan 1950
Specimen examined. C-550.
Banksieaephyllum linearis n. sp.4 Carpenter and Jordan 1997
Banksieaephyllum orientalis n. sp.1 Carpenter and Jordan 1997
in Carpenter, 1991 Banksieaephyllum sp. 1
Banksieaeformis "sp. 2"1 Hill and Christophel 1988
Specimens examined. C-294, 315, 711.
"Proteaciphyllum linearis n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum linearis4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum lomatioides n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum lomatioides4 Jordan et al. 1998
in Carpenter, 1991 Lomatia sp. 3
"Proteaciphyllum ornamentalis n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum ornamentalis4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum gevuininoides n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum gevuininoides4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum cethanicum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum cethanicum4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum rugulatum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum rugulatum4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum microphyllum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum integrifolium4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum integrifolium n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum integrifolium4 Jordan et al. 1998
"Proteaciphyllum tridacnoides n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum tridacnoides4 Jordan et al. 1998
in Carpenter, 1991 Lomatia sp. 4
"Proteaciphyllum attenuatum n. sp." = Euproteaciphyllum attenuatum4 Jordan et al. 1998
Lomatia "sp. 3"1 Brown 1810
Specimens examined. C-037
Lomatia fraxinifolia4
Specimens examined. C-495, 551, 556.
Lomatia xeromorpha n. sp.3 Carpenter and Hill 1988
 Proteales -
 Fagales - Nothofagaceae
Nothofagus aff. alessandrii1
Specimens examined. C-457, 665
Nothofagus cethanica n. sp. Hill 1984
Nothofagus tasmanica1 Hill 1983
Specimen examined. C-288.
Nothofagus gunnii Oersted 1873
 Fagales -
Nothofagidites spp.1 Potonié 1960
Nothofagidites emarcidus / Nothofagidites heterus
Nothofagidites asperus1 Cookson 1958
Nothofagidites flemingii1 Potonie 1960
 Fagales - Casuarinaceae
aff. Gymnostoma sp.1 Johnson 1980
Specimens examined. C-262, 502, 777, dispersed cuticle 778, 779.
 Violales - Elaeocarpaceae
aff. Elaeocarpus sp.1 Linnaeus
Specimen examined. C-608.
  -
Tricolpites spp.1 Potonié 1960