Iharkút mine, Bakony mountains (Unit 1) (Cretaceous of Hungary)

Also known as Németbánya, Iharkut, SZ-6

Where: Veszprém, Hungary (47.2° N, 17.6° E: paleocoordinates 31.0° N, 18.6° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Csehbánya Formation, Santonian (86.3 - 83.6 Ma)

• two bone-bearing beds within section, approx. 0.5 m apart

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: crevasse splay; green, sandy claystone and pebbly, gray, green, argillaceous sandstone

• "deposited in an alluvial plain"; fossils "are buried in mud- and sand-filled channel deposits"

•"The palaeoenvironment is interpreted as an alluvial plain and the deposition of the breccia could be the result of the episodic filling of a channel or pond by debris flows, silt and sand" (Osi & Mindszenty, 2009).

•"a flash-flood sequence deposition, which started with a high flow regime characterized by sandstone and clay clasts, whereas the siltstone layers are indicative of waning flow velocity and deposition from suspension in standing water, following the minor flow pulse. Along with its taphonomic characteristics, this sedimentology suggests that Unit 1 was deposited by ephemeral high-density flash-flood events probably triggered by episodic heavy rainfalls." (Prondvai et al. 2017)

• "The Csehbánya Formation consists of variegated clay and sandstone beds...The fauna is concentrated near the top of the outcrop in 20 cm thick sandy clay, sandstone bed...Most of the fossils derived from 5 cm thick sandy clay layer below the sandstone. Other teeth and bones occur disordered on the surface of the sandstone bed and are covered with clay less than 1 cm thick."

•"The vertebrate-bearing beds form 2–3 m thick cyclical units beginning with green clay covered by breccia containing clay clasts, sandstone and siltstone layers (Tuba et al. 2006). Most of the material, including the turtles comes from the matrix supported breccia consisting of ripped-up variegated clay clasts, dolomite pebbles, carbonized plant remains and sand forming channel-like structures with the isolated bones accumulated in lenses" (Rabi et al. 2012)

•SZ-6: "a 10–50-cm-thick basal breccia layer composed of gray-green sand, siltstone, clay clasts, and pebbles. The poorly sorted sandy breccia is interrupted by laminated siltstone horizons; these coarse- and fine-grained layers are repeated several times resulting in a stacked fining-upward series of units."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by A. Osi et al. in 2000–present

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, surface (float), surface (in situ), sieve,

Primary reference: A. Osi, C.-M. Jianu, and D. B. Weishampel. 2003. Dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Hungary. In A. Petculescu & E. Stiuca (eds.), Advances in Vertebrate Paleontology: Hen to Panta. Romanian Academy, "Emil Racovita" Institute of Speleology, Bucarest 117-120 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 48722: authorized by Matthew Carrano, entered by Matthew Carrano on 30.03.2005, edited by Richard Butler, Matthew Oreska, Philip Mannion, Roger Benson, Jonathan Tennant, Terri Cleary, Patricia Holroyd and Kaitlin Maguire

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Fragmentary turtle plates are among the most abundant remains at the site.
Gnathostomata
  -
Actinopteri
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteidae indet.11 Cuvier 1825 gar
 Neopterygii -
Amphibia
 Temnospondyli - Albanerpetontidae
Albanerpetontidae indet.11 Fox and Naylor 1982 tetrapod
MTM V2008.22.1., V.2008.23.1., V2008.24.1., V2009.1.1., and V2010.288.1. (premaxillae); MTM V2008.28.1. and V2009.29.1. (maxillae); MTM V2008.25.1., V2008.26.1., V2008.29.1., V2009.8.1., V2009.9.1., V2009.26.1., V2009.32.1., and V2010.287.1. (dentaries) and MTM V2009.10.1. (indeterminate jaw fragment) - see Szentesi et al. (2013)
Albanerpetontidae "indet. B"26 Fox and Naylor 1982 tetrapod
VER 2015.134.1.–2.
Albanerpetontidae "indet. A"26 Fox and Naylor 1982 tetrapod
VER 2015.134.13.
 Salientia -
Hungarobatrachus szukacsi n. gen. n. sp.27
Hungarobatrachus szukacsi n. gen. n. sp.27 Szentesi and Venczel 2010 frog
"frog"
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Bakonybatrachus fedori n. gen. n. sp.28
Bakonybatrachus fedori n. gen. n. sp.28 Szentesi and Venczel 2012 painted frog
MTM V 2010.283.1. - holotype (incomplete right ilium); referred material: fragmentary maxilla (MTM V 2009.34.1.), fragmentary angulosplenial (MTM V 2008.31.1.) and fragmentary scapula (MTM V 2008.30.1.)
Reptilia
 Testudines - Dortokidae
 Testudines - Bothremydidae
Bothremydidae indet.11 sideneck turtle
Foxemys trabanti n. sp.24 Rabi et al. 2012 sideneck turtle
"turtle"
 Testudinata -
Kallokibotion sp.3 Nopcsa 1923 turtle
 Squamata -
Squamata indet.21 Oppel 1811 squamates
eggshell morphotype MT IV
 Squamata - Chamopsiidae
Pelsochamops infrequens n. gen. n. sp.6
Pelsochamops infrequens n. gen. n. sp.6 Makadi 2013 squamates
MTM 2006.106.1 (holotype), partial left mandible; MTM PAL 2013.24.1, right dentary fragment; MTM PAL 2013.25.1, left dentary fragment
 Squamata - Polyglyphanodontidae
Distortodon rhomboideus n. gen. n. sp.5 Makadi 2013 squamates
Holotype. MTM PAL2012.31.1. partial right maxilla; MTM PAL2012.32.1. right dentary (Fig. 3) and MTM PAL2012.33.1. partial left dentary
Bicuspidon aff. hatzegiensis4 Folie and Codrea 2005 squamates
MTM V.01.24., left dentary fragment; MTM V.01.27., right lower jaw fragment; MTM 2006.108.1, left dentary; MTM 2006.109.1, left dentary fragment; MTM 2006.110.1, dentary fragment; MTM 2006.111.1, left dentary; MTM 2006.112.1, left dentary; MTM 2006.114.1, jaw fragment
 Squamata -
Chromatogenys tiliquoides n. gen. n. sp.8 Makadi and Nydam 2015 squamates
MTM V 2010.129.1 (holotype), partial mandible
Lacertilia indet. lizard
"lizards"
 Squamata - Teiidae
Teiidae indet.11 Gray 1827 squamates
 Squamata -
Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus n. gen. n. sp.7 Makádi et al. 2012 squamates
 Loricata -
Doratodon carcharidens23 Bunzel 1871 crocodilian
Single fragmentary dentary and several isolated teeth
Neosuchia indet.29 Clark 1988 crocodilian
Maxillae and teeth
Eusuchia indet.22 crocodilian
A few isolated skull fragments and hundreds of teeth
 Loricata - Hylaeochampsidae
Iharkutosuchus makadii16 Osi et al. 2007 crocodilian
"crocodile"
 Crocodylia -
Crocodylia indet.21 Owen 1842 crocodilian
eggshell morphotypes MT IIa, b, c
 Pterosauria -
Pterodactyloidea indet.14 pterosaur
MTM V 2010.98.1 (L articular region of lower jaw), MTM V 2010.99.1 (MC IV)
 Pterosauria - Azhdarchidae
Bakonydraco galaczi n. gen. n. sp.20 Osi et al. 2005 pterosaur
MTM Gyn/3 (holotype), nearly complete mandible. MTM Gyn/4, 21 dentary symphyseal fragments; MTM V 2010.80.1 (frag. premaxilla), 2010.74.1–74.22 (dentary symphyseal frags.)
 Saurischia -
Titanosauriformes indet.17 Salgado et al. 1997 sauropod
MTM PAL 2017.1.1
 Theropoda -
Theropoda "indet. 3"9 theropod
"Morphotype 3"
Theropoda indet.12 theropod
MTM V 2009.48.1, sacrum fragment; MTM V 2009.47.1-6, caudal vertebra; MTM V 2009.49.1, distal left femur
Tetanurae indet.12 Gauthier 1986 tetanuran theropod
"Morphotype 1"
Maniraptora indet.21 Gauthier 1986 maniraptoran
eggshell morphotype MT V
Pseudogeckoolithus sp.1 Vianey-Liaud and López-Martínez 1997 maniraptoran
eggshell morphotype MT I
Paraves indet.21 Sereno 1997 maniraptoran
eggshell morphotype MT III
Paraves indet.12 Sereno 1997 maniraptoran
"Morphotype 2"
Pneumatoraptor fodori n. gen. n. sp.12 Osi et al. 2010 maniraptoran
MTM V.2008.38.1. - holotype (left scapulacoracoid)
Aves
 Aves -
Aves indet.2 bird
MTM V 2009.41.1, distal L femur; MTM V.2002.06, distal subadult femur; MTM V 2003.19, metatarsal III
 Enantiornithes -
Enantiornithes indet.10 Walker 1981 bird
MTM V.2002.06, fig. 2G-I, distal end of L femur; MTM V.2003.19, metatarsal III
 Enantiornithes - Avisauridae
? Bauxitornis sp.13 Dyke and Osi 2010 bird
MTM PAL 2011.20 & 21 (2 femora)
Bauxitornis mindszentyae n. gen. n. sp.2 Dyke and Osi 2010 bird
MTM V 2009.38.1, R tarsometatarsus
Reptilia
 Theropoda - Abelisauridae
Abelisauridae indet.12 Bonaparte and Novas 1985 ceratosaur
MTM V 2008.43.1 (pedal ungual); MTM PAL 2011.17 (R femur)
 Ornithischia - Rhabdodontidae
Rhabdodontidae indet. Weishampel et al. 2003 rhabdodontid
Mochlodon vorosi n. sp.19 Osi et al. 2012 rhabdodontid
Left complete dentary with four broken teeth (MTM V 2010.105.1; holotype); left postorbital (MTM 2012.14.1); two right quadrates (MTM V 2010.110.1, V 2010.111.1), two left (MTM V 2010.105.1., 2012.15.1) and two right (MTM V 2010.107.1., V 2010.109.1.) dentaries, all four of which are almost complete, six fragmentary dentaries (MTM V 2010 106.1, V 2010 107.1, V 2010 108.1, V 2010 109.1, V 2010.112.1, 2012.16.1), 15 maxillary and 23 dentary teeth (MTM V 2000.01., V 2000.32., V 2000.33., V 2003.10., V 01.161., V 2003.14,– V.2003.16, V 01.64., 2012.17.1, 2012.18.1), isolated cervical (MTM 2012.19.1), dorsal (MTM 2010.118.1.), and caudal (MTM 2012.20.1, 2012.21.1) vertebrae, almost complete but compressed sacrum (MTM V 2010.121.1.), three coracoids (MTM V 01.53., V 2010.122.1., V 2010.123.1.), one fragmentary scapula (MTM 2012.22.1), one fragmentary (MTM 2012.23.1) and one complete humerus (MTM V 2010.128.1.), one complete ulna (MTM 2012.24.1), two almost complete femora (MTM V 01.225., V 2010.126.1.), one fragmentary femur (MTM 2012.25.1), one complete tibia (MTM V 2010.127.1.), two fragmentary tibiae (MTM V 01.101., 2012.26.1), and two phalanges (MTM 2012.27.1, 2012.28.1).
 Ornithischia -
Ajkaceratops kozmai n. gen. n. sp.15
Ajkaceratops kozmai n. gen. n. sp.15 Osi et al. 2010 ceratopsian
MTM V 2009.192.1 (holotype), fused premaxillae and rostral bones. MTM V2009.193.1, V2009.194.1, V2009.195.1, V2009.196.1, predentaries
 Ornithischia - Nodosauridae
Hungarosaurus sp.18 Osi 2005 ankylosaur
PAL 2013.23.1, partial skull
Hungarosaurus tormai n. gen. n. sp.10 Osi 2005 ankylosaur
MNI = 5
unclassified
  -
Plantae indet.10 Haeckel 1866
"carbonized plant fragments"