Vazhakala (Pleistocene of India)

Where: Kerala, India (10.0° N, 76.3° E: paleocoordinates 10.0° N, 76.3° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• >35000 YBP (14C)

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: perireef or subreef; limestone

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: C. S. G. Pillai, K. K. Appukuttan, and P. Kaladharan. 1999. Occurence of submerged Pleistocene stony corals and marine molluscs at Vazhakala near Cochin and their significance on sea level changes. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 28:96-98 [W. Kiessling/U. Merkel]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 107971: authorized by Wolfgang Kiessling, entered by Uta Merkel on 19.04.2011

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
Arca sp. Linnaeus 1758 ark
"Arca fusca" = Barbatia (Ustularca) fusca Bruguiére 1792 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Chlamys leopardus" = Annachlamys flabellatus Lamarck 1819 scallop
 Carditida - Carditidae
Venericardia sp. Lamarck 1801 clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama sp. Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Mactra sp. Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus sp. Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax sp. Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Tellina sp. Linnaeus 1758 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
Cardium sp. Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Solenida - Solenidae
Solen sp. Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Solenida - Pharidae
Siliqua sp. Mühlfeld 1811 clam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Nuculana sp. Link 1807 pointed nut clam
Gastropoda
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius sp. Duméril 1806 snail
Bullia sp. Gray 1834 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
"Olivia sp." = Cancellaria (Olivia)
"Olivia sp." = Cancellaria (Olivia) snail
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra sp. Lamarck 1798 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Marginella sp. Lamarck 1799 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Turbinellidae
"Xancus pyrum" = Turbinella pyrum
"Xancus pyrum" = Turbinella pyrum Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Thais rugosa murex snail
Murex sp. Linnaeus 1758 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Cochlespiridae
Cochlespira sp. Conrad 1865 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus sp. Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
"Conus figulinus" = Conus (Dendroconus) figulinus Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
Strombus sp. Linnaeus 1758 conch
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica sp., "Polynices sp." = Polinices
Natica sp. Scopoli 1777 moon snail
"Polynices sp." = Polinices Monfort 1810 moon snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
Cypraea sp. Linnaeus 1758 cowry
Cypraea tigris Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea ocellata" = Erosaria ocellata Linnaeus 1758 cowry
Cypraea coellata
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Cymatium pileare" = Monoplex pilearis
"Cymatium pileare" = Monoplex pilearis Linnaeus 1758 triton shell
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
"Turbo intercostalis" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) intercostalis
"Turbo intercostalis" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) intercostalis Menke 1829 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Calliostoma sp. Swainson 1840 top snail
Scaphopoda
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium rectum tusk shell
Anthozoa
 Scleractinia - Poritidae
Porites sp. Link 1807 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Acroporidae
Montipora tuberculosa Lamarck 1816 stony coral
"Acropora formosa" = Acropora muricata Linnaeus 1758 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Pocilloporidae
Pocillopora damicornis Linnaeus 1758 stony coral
Pocillopora verrucosa Ellis and Solander 1786 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Merulinidae
Leptoria phrygia Ellis and Solander 1786 stony coral
Goniastrea retiformis Lamarck 1816 stony coral
Platygyra lamellina Ehrenberg 1834 stony coral
"Favia pallida" = Dipsastraea pallida Dana 1846 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Faviidae
Leptastrea transversa Klunzinger 1879 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Oculinidae
Galaxea astreata Lamarck 1816 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Caryophylliidae
Heterocyathus aequicostatus Milne-Edwards and Haime 1848 stony coral