Vallin Buio (Pleistocene to of Italy)

Where: Livorno, Italy (43.6° N, 10.4° E: paleocoordinates 43.5° N, 10.3° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Panchina Formation, Early/Lower Pleistocene to Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.0 Ma)

• The levels of interest, because of their small thickness, present to the bed a layer of about 1 meter attributed to the formation of the Blue Clay (of the geological map 1:25,000 of Livorno Province) of the marine environment, from neritic to upper bathyal and chronologically attributed to the Pliocene (Barsotti et al., 1974), and to the roof a layer of about 100-130 cm thick represented by the Red Sands of Donoratico, that may be referred to a continental environment (aeolian, colluvial and of alluvial plain) attributable to the Upper Pleistocene. This collection discusses that of the Red Sands of Donoratico.

Environment/lithology: marine; poorly lithified, sandy, carbonaceous limestone and graded, blue claystone

• The Blue Clay formation is of the marine environment, from neritic to upper bathyal. The Red Sands of Donoratico may be referred to a continental environment (aeolian, colluvial and of alluvial plain). The middle layer, about 80-100 cm thick, which lies in transgression on blue clay and consists of a calcarenite with many bioclasts, remnants of marine gastropods and bivalves and few pebbles, is attributable lithologically to the “Panchina” layer.
• Most fossils come from the calcarenite and compressed sands either included within or filling the cavities. The quality of preservation is very poor because the shells are often eroded and fragmented. This is partly due to the softening of the shell because of water percolating from the upper layer and partly to the mode of fossilization itself.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Collection methods: sieve

• The largest molluscs were collected manually in the various levels of the section, while, by sieving approximately 5 dm³ of the reddish sand interspersed with and included within the limestone, some species smaller in size have been identified; the poor state of conservation of this finer fraction allowed us to find only a few specimens.

Primary reference: A. Ciampalini, M. Forli, and F. Sammartino. 2014. The marine fossils malacofauna in a Plio-Pleistocene section from Vallin Buio (Livorno, Italy). Biodiversity Journal 5(1):9-18 [M. Uhen/M. Bean]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 173663: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Meredith Bean on 07.10.2015

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Crisilla semistriata
(Montagu, 1808)
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Antalis vulgaris tusk shell
 Gadilida - Gadilidae
Cadulus gibbus tusk shell
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula gibba" = Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba
"Corbula gibba" = Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba Oliva 1792 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus verrucosa venus clam
Dosinia exoleta Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Pitar rudis Poli 1795 venus clam
Chamelea gallina Linneus 1758 venus clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama gryphoides Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
Papillicardium papillosum Poli 1781 cockle
Cerastoderma glaucum Poiret 1789 cockle
Laevicardium crassum Gmelin 1791 cockle
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
"Moerella donacina" = Tellina (Moerella), Angulus tenuis
"Moerella donacina" = Tellina (Moerella) tellin clam
Angulus tenuis tellin clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax sp. Linnaeus 1758 clam
Donax trunculus Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Gastrochaenidae
Rocellaria dubia Pennant 1777 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Myrtea spinifera Montagu 1803 clam
"Ctena decussata" = Codakia (Ctena) decussata Costa 1829 clam
Lucinella divaricata Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
"Cardita calyculata" = Cardita (Cardita) calyculata
"Cardita calyculata" = Cardita (Cardita) calyculata Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Carditida - Astartidae
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea stentina Payraudeau 1826 oyster
 Pectinida - Limidae
Lima lima Linnaeus 1758 file clam
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia ephippium Linnaeus 1758 jingle
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Spondylus gaederopus Linnaeus 1758 scallop
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Arca noae" = Arca (Arca) noae Linnaeus 1758 ark
"Barbatia barbata" = Barbatia (Barbatia) barbata Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Arcida - Limopsidae
"Limopsis cf. aurita" = Limopsis (Limopsis) aurita
"Limopsis cf. aurita" = Limopsis (Limopsis) aurita Brocchi 1814 clam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Saccella commutata pointed nut clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
"Nucula nucleus" = Nucula (Nucula) nucleus
"Nucula nucleus" = Nucula (Nucula) nucleus Linnaeus 1758 nut clam
 Chitonida - Chitonidae
 Neoloricata - Leptochitonidae
 Neoloricata - Acanthochitonidae
Acanthochitona fascicularis Linnaeus 1758 glass-hair chiton
 Heterostropha - Pyramidellidae
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
Smaragdia viridis Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
Diodora graeca Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Trochoidea - Turbinidae
"Bolma rugosa" = Bolma rugosus Linnaeus 1767 snail
 Trochoidea - Phasianellidae
Tricolia pullus Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Calliostoma sp. Swainson 1840 top snail
Gibbula ardens top snail
Clanculus cruciatus Linnaeus 1758 top snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Campanilidae
"Cerithium vulgatum" = Cerithium (Thericium) vulgatum
"Cerithium vulgatum" = Cerithium (Thericium) vulgatum Bruguière 1789 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Caecidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Vermetidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Triphoridae
Monophorus sp. Grillo 1877 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Rissoidae
Rissoa sp. Fréminville 1814 snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Cyclope neritea Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Euthria cornea true whelk
Chauvetia brunnea true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
"Mangelia sp." = Cythara (Mangelia)
"Mangelia sp." = Cythara (Mangelia) Loven 1846 snail
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Hexaplex trunculus Linnaeus 1758 murex snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Aporrhaidae
Aporrhais peralata snail
One specimen of average size (d= 8.5 mm; h = 17.3 mm) with broken digit ends, but, overall, the shell is definitely recognizable. The species is reported for various locations of Central and Northern Italy in deep Pliocenic clay sediments.
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Bittium reticulatum da Costa 1778 cerith snail
 Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
Calyptraea chinensis Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
 Patellida - Acmaeidae
Tectura virginea limpet
One specimen, of average size (3 mm. in length), a little eroded with damaged margins. The species is reported from the Miocene and currently lives on muddy bottoms of the intertidal plain