Pollack Farm Site (Miocene of the United States)

Also known as Delaware Geological Survey locality Id11-a

Where: Kent County, Delaware (39.2° N, 75.6° W: paleocoordinates 39.4° N, 71.6° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Fairhaven Member (Calvert Formation), Burdigalian (20.4 - 16.0 Ma)

• said to be early Hemingfordian, lower Calvert; Shattuck zone not state in text, interpreted from de Verteuil and Norris (1996).

•Formerly Cheswold Sands member, but lower Calvert is Fairhaven member. Bed 3b is Burdigalian in age, or Hemingfordian

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: estuary or bay; medium-grained, coarse, shelly/skeletal sandstone

• "channel-fill deposit within an estuarine environment... deltaic environment where brackish-water and marine mollusks are mixed" (Cutler 1998)
• "lower shell bed... medium- to coarse-grained shelly sand with densely-packed bivalve shells... Cross bedding" (Cutler 1998)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, sieve

• generically determinate NISP 101 (mammals); total said to be "nearly 200 identifiable specimens... 50-60 mammal teeth per 1000 kg of matrix" by Cutler 1998; material is mostly from "spoil piles" and not in situ

Primary reference: R. J. Emry and R. E. Eshelman. 1998. The early Hemingfordian (early Miocene) Pollack Farm local fauna; first Tertiary land mammals described from Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 21:153-173 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 18579: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 19.05.2000, edited by Austin Hendy, Mark Uhen, Jason Head and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Sr isotope date of 17.9 +/- 0.5 on molluscs
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Carcharias cuspidata" = Araloselachus cuspidatus5
"Carcharias cuspidata" = Araloselachus cuspidatus5 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus oxyrinchus5 Rafinesque 1810 mackerel shark
"Isurus hastalis" = Carcharodon hastalis5 Agassiz 1838 white shark
Carcharodon subauriculatus5 Agassiz 1839 white shark
 Orectolobiformes - Orectolobidae
Orectolobidae indet.5 Jordan and Fowler 1903 wobbegong
 Orectolobiformes - Rhincodontidae
Rhincodon sp.5 Smith 1829 whale shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Carcharhinidae
Carcharhinus limbatus5, "Carcharhinus perezii" = Carcharhinus perezi5, Carcharhinus brachyurus5, "Galeocerdo contortus" = Physogaleus contortus5
Carcharhinus limbatus5 requiem shark
"Carcharhinus perezii" = Carcharhinus perezi5 Poey 1876 requiem shark
Carcharhinus brachyurus5 Gunther 1870 requiem shark
"Galeocerdo contortus" = Physogaleus contortus5 Gibbes 1847 requiem shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Hemigaleidae
Hemipristis serra5 Agassiz 1835 ground shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Galeocerdidae
Galeocerdo aduncus5 Agassiz 1835 tiger shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Notorynchus sp.5 Ayers 1855 cow shark
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina sp.5 Dumeril 1806 angel shark
 Squaliformes - Squalidae
Squalus sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 dogfish shark
 Tribosphenida - Erinaceidae
? Erinaceidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817 hedgehog
 Soricomorpha - Plesiosoricidae
Plesiosorex cf. coloradensis Wilson 1960 placental
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Cynelos sp. Jourdan 1862 bear-dog
Amphicyon longiramus1 White 1942 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Phocidae
"Leptophoca lenis" = Leptophoca proxima2
"Leptophoca lenis" = Leptophoca proxima2 Van Beneden 1876 seal
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyoninae indet. Gray 1825 procyonid carnivore
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursidae indet.1 Gray 1825 bear
 Carnivora - Canidae
Metatomarctus cf. canavus1 Simpson 1932 bone-crushing dog
Paracynarctus kelloggi7 Merriam 1911 bone-crushing dog
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet. Gray 1821 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
cf. Tylocephalonyx sp. Coombs 1979 chalicothere
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Anchitherium sp. von Meyer 1844 anchitheriine horse
Archaeohippus cf. blackbergi Hay 1924 anchitheriine horse
Parahippus leonensis Sellards 1916 anchitheriine horse
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Tayassuidae indet. Palmer 1897 peccary
"? Desmathyus or Hesperhys"
"Cynorca sociale" = Marshochoerus socialis Marsh 1875 peccary
 Artiodactyla - Anthracotheriidae
? Anthracotheriidae indet. Leidy 1869 anthracothere
 Cetacea - Squalodontidae
Squalodon calvertensis2 Kellogg 1923 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Platanistidae
Zarhachis flagellator2 Cope 1868 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Physeteridae
Physeteridae indet.2 Gray 1821 sperm whale
 Cetacea - Squalodelphinidae
Phocageneus venustus2 Leidy 1869 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Eurhinodelphinidae
Schizodelphis sulcatus4 Gervais 1853 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Kentriodontidae
Kentriodontidae indet.2 Slijper 1936 toothed whale
 Artiodactyla - Merycoidodontidae
Merycoidodontidae indet.1 Cook 1912 oreodont
 Artiodactyla - Palaeomerycidae
"Parablastomeryx galushi" = Barbouromeryx trigonocorneus1
"Parablastomeryx galushi" = Barbouromeryx trigonocorneus1 Barbour and Schultz 1934 ruminant
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Harrymys magnus1 Wood 1932 rodent
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Anchitheriomys sp. Roger 1885 beaver
Monosaulax sp. Stirton 1935 beaver
confirmed by Korth 1999b
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Sicistinae indet.1 Allen 1901 jumping mouse
 Sirenia - Dugongidae
Dugongidae indet.2 Gray 1821 dugong
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Vespertilionidae indet. Gray 1821 vesper bat
a bat
 Squamata - Boidae
Erycinae indet.3 Bonaparte 1825 sand boa
Pterygoboa delawarensis n. sp.3 Holman 1998 sand boa
Calamagras sp.3 Cope 1873 dwarf boa
 Squamata - Crotalidae
"Crotalinae indet." = Crotalidae3
"Crotalinae indet." = Crotalidae3 Oppel 1811 pit viper
 Squamata - Colubridae
Ameiseophis robinsoni3 Holman 1976 colubrid snake
Pollackophis depressus n. gen. n. sp.3 Holman 1998 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Anguidae
Ophisaurus sp.3 Daudin 1803 glass lizard
 Testudines - Emydidae
Emydidae sp.3 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
"Chrysemys group"
cf. Chrysemys sp.9 Gray 1844 painted turtle
One posterior peripheral (USNM 483390). Collected by G. Simonson
 Testudines - Testudinidae
Geochelone sp.3, "Hesperotestudo (Caudochelys) wilsoni" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni9
Geochelone sp.3 Fitzinger 1835 turtle
"Hesperotestudo (Caudochelys) wilsoni" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni9 Milstead 1956 turtle
Two neurals (USNM 540747 and USNM 483391), two partial costal elements (USNM 483391 and USNM 540751)
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Apalone lima9 Cope 1869 softshell turtle
One carapace fragment (USNM 540752) and xiphiplastron fragment (USNM 540753)
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Kinosternon sp.3 von Spix 1824 mud turtle
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylus (cf. Crocodylus) sp.3 Laurenti 1768 crocodile
Aves indet.6 Linnaeus 1758 bird
 Suliformes - Sulidae
"Morus cf. loxostylus" = Moris loxostyla6
"Morus cf. loxostylus" = Moris loxostyla6 Cope 1870 gannet
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
Gavia sp.6 Forster 1788 loon
cf. Gavia sp.6 Forster 1788 loon
 Odontopterygiformes - Pelagornithidae
Pelagornithidae indet.6 Fürbringer 1888 bird
 Proteida - Batrachosauroididae
Batrachosauroides aff. dissimulans9 Taylor and Hesse 1943 salamander
USNM 464090, right dentary; USNM 464091, anterior trunk vertebra; USNM 464097, USNM 540754, USNM 540755, three trunk vertebrae. Collectors: Dentary, G. Simonson; vertebrae, D. Bohaska, S. Swelson, and P. Kroehler
 Caudata - Urodela
cf. Notophthalmus robustus9 Estes 1963 newt
USNM 464092, trunk vertebra
 Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
Diodora griscomi8 Conrad 1834 snail
Mispelt as: Diadora
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Calliostoma eboreus8 Wagner 1839 top snail
 Trochoidea - Tegulidae
Tegula marylandicum8 Martin 1904 snail
 Trochoidea - Skeneidae
Solariorbis lipara8 Lea 1843 snail
 Pseudomelanoidea - Pseudomelaniidae
Leucosyrinx rugata8 Conrad 1862 snail
 Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
"Crucibulum costatum" = Crucibulum (Dispotaea) costata8 Say 1820 slipper shell
"Calyptraea aperta" = Calyptraea (Trochita) aperta8 Solander 1766 slipper shell
Crepidula plana8 Say 1822 slipper shell
Crepidula fornicata8 Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
Calyptraea centralis8 Conrad 1841 slipper shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Vermetidae
Serpulorbis granifera8 Say 1824 worm shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Littorinidae
Littorina sp.8 Ferussac 1821 periwinkle
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra inornata8 Whitfield 1894 auger snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Polystira communis8 Conrad 1830 turrid
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Cymatosyrinx limatula8 Conrad 1830 snail
 Neogastropoda - Horaiclavidae
Inodrillia whitfieldi8 Martin 1904 snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Mitrella communis" = Astyris communis8
"Mitrella communis" = Astyris communis8 Conrad 1862 snail
Subspecies: M. communis mediocris
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
"Siphonalia devexa" = Siphonalia devexus8 Conrad 1843 true whelk
Chrysodomus patuxentensis8 Martin 1904 true whelk
Ptychosalpinx sp.8 Gill 1867 true whelk
Metula sp.8 Adams and Adams 1853 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius trivitattoides8 snail
Also: N. trivitattoides elongata
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Cancellaria alternata8 Conrad 1834 snail
Trigonostoma biplicifera8 Conrad 1841 snail
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Typhis acuticosta8 Conrad 1830 murex snail
Urosalpinx subrusticus8 d'Orbigny 1852 murex snail
Cymia woodii8 Gabb 1860 murex snail
Ecphora tricostata8 Martin 1904 murex snail
Tritonopsis ecclesiastica8 Dall 1915 murex snail
Murexiella cumberlandiana8 Gabb 1860 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Scaphella solitaria8 Conrad 1830 volute
Scaphella virginiana8 Conrad 1842 volute
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva simonsoni8 Ward 1998 olive snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Ficidae
Ficus harrisi8 Martin 1904 fig shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
Lunatia hemicrypta8, "Lunatia heros" = Euspira heros8, "Polinices duplicatus" = Neverita duplicatus8, Sinum chesapeakensis8
Lunatia hemicrypta8 Gabb 1860 moon snail
"Lunatia heros" = Euspira heros8 Say 1822 moon snail
"Polinices duplicatus" = Neverita duplicatus8 Say 1822 moon snail
Sinum chesapeakensis8 Campbell 1993 moon snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiopsidae
Seila adamsii8 Lea 1845 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Tornidae
Teinostoma nana8 Lea 1833 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Hydrobiidae
Carinorbis dalli8 Whitfield 1894 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Caecidae
Caecum calvertense8 Martin 1904 snail
 Cerithioidea - Turritellidae
"Turritella plebeia" = Mariacolpus plebeia8 Say 1824 turret shell
Turritella tampae8 Heilprin 1887 turret shell
Turritella cumberlandia8 Conrad 1863 turret shell
 Cerithioidea - Diastomatidae
Diastoma insulaemaris8 Pilsbry and Harbison 1933 snail
 Epitonioidea - Epitoniidae
Epitonium charlestonensis8 Johnson 1931 wentletrap
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
Melanella eborea8 Conrad 1846 snail
Melanella migrans8 Conrad 1846 snail
 Gadilida - Gadilidae
Cadulus conradi8 Pilsbry and Harbison 1933 tusk shell
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Stewartia anodonta8 Say 1824 clam
 Thraciida - Periplomatidae
Periploma peralta8 Conrad 1863 clam
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
Panopea whitfieldi8 Dall 1898 clam
Panopea americana8 Conrad 1838 clam
 Solenida - Pharidae
Ensis directus8 Conrad 1844 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
Chesacardium craticuloides8 Conrad 1845 cockle
Dinocardium sp.8 Dall 1900 cockle
"Cardium" calvertensium8 Glenn 1904 cockle
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Semele subovata8 Say 1824 clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax sp.8 Linnaeus 1758 clam
Donax idoneus8 Conrad 1872 clam
 Cardiida - Solecurtidae
Tagelus plebeius8 Lightfoot 1786 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Strigilla cf. georgiana8 Gardner 1947 tellin clam
Florimetis biplicata8 Conrad 1834 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Dreissenidae
 Cardiida - Glossidae
Glossus sp.8 Poli 1795 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Macrocallista marylandica8 Conrad 1833 venus clam
"Clementia grayi" = Clementia (Egesta) grayi8 Dall 1900 venus clam
Mercenaria ducatelli8 Conrad 1838 quahog
Dosinia acetabulum8 Conrad 1832 venus clam
Subspecies: D. acetabulum blackwelderi
"Lirophora latilirata" = Lirophora (Lirophora) latilirata8 Conrad 1841 venus clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
"Mactra" sp.8 Linnaeus 1767 clam
Leptomactra marylandica8 Dall 1898 clam
 Pholadida - Pholadidae
"Thovana sp." = Pholas (Thovana)8, Martesia ovalis8
"Thovana sp." = Pholas (Thovana)8 Gray 1847 clam
Martesia ovalis8 Say 1820 clam
 Pholadida - Myidae
Mya producta8 Conrad 1838 softshell clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Varicorbula elevata8 Conrad 1838 clam
Bicorbula idonea8 Conrad 1833 clam
Caryocorbula cuneata8 Say 1824 clam
Caryocorbula subcontracta8 Whitfield 1894 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cyclocardia castrana8 Glenn 1904 clam
Carditamera aculeata8 Conrad 1863 clam
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte sp.8 Sowerby 1816 clam
Astarte distans8 Conrad 1862 clam
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Modiolus ducatellii8 Conrad 1840 mussel
Mytilus (Mytiloconcha) incurva8 Conrad 1839 mussel
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Chesapecten coccymelus8 Dall 1898 scallop
Chesapecten sayanus8 Dall 1898 scallop
Pecten humphreysii8 Conrad 1842 scallop
Subspecies: P. humphreysii woolmani
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Crassostrea virginica8 Gmelin 1791 oyster
 Ostreida - Malleidae
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris parilis8 Conrad 1843 clam
 Arcida - Arcidae
Dallarca sp.8 Ward 1992 clam
Dallarca subrostrata8 Conrad 1841 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Nucula prunicola8 Dall 1898 nut clam
Nucula taphria8 Dall 1898 nut clam
 Nuculanida - Yoldiidae
Yoldia sp.8 Möller 1842 clam
 Nuculanida - Nuculanidae
Nuculana sp.8 Link 1807 pointed nut clam
Nuculana liciata8 Conrad 1843 pointed nut clam