Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (Pliocene of South Africa)

Also known as Duinefontein

Where: South Africa (33.7° S, 18.4° E: paleocoordinates 33.8° S, 18.0° E)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Varswater Formation, Zanclean (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)

• early Pliocene

•The fossils provide a Zanclean age (5 Ma) for the deposit4 which is equivalent to the Muishond Fontein Pelletal Phosphorite Member of the Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg.

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: paralic; red, yellow sandstone

• JA: originally entered by Uhen as eolian (terrestrial) but the material is clearly from a beach and almost entirely marine, so I have changed it to paralic

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: quarrying

Primary reference: G. G. Simpson. 1979. Tertiary penguins from the Duinefontein site, Cape Province, South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 79(1):1-7 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 100313: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 08.12.2010

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Odontaspidida - Alopiidae
Alopias vulpinus2 Bonnaterre 1788 thresher shark
 Rhinopristiformes - Pristidae
Pristidae indet.2 Bonaparte 1838 sawfish
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Myliobatidae indet.2 Bonaparte 1838 eagle ray
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
"Carcharocles megalodon" = Otodus megalodon2
"Carcharocles megalodon" = Otodus megalodon2 Agassiz 1843 megalodon
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
"Isurus oxyrhynchus" = Isurus oxyrinchus2, Carcharodon carcharias2
"Isurus oxyrhynchus" = Isurus oxyrinchus2 Rafinesque 1810 mako shark
Carcharodon carcharias2 Linnaeus 1758 great white shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Carcharias taurus2 Rafinesque 1810 sand shark
 Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna zygaena2 Linnaeus 1758 hammerhead shark
 Istiophoriformes - Xiphiidae
Xiphiidae indet.2 Swainson 1839 sword fish
 Tetraodontiformes - Balistidae
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet.2 Batsch 1788 turtle
 Procellariiformes - Oceanitidae
Oceanites sp.5 Keyserling and Blasius 1840 bird
 Procellariiformes - Procellariidae
Procellariidae indet.4 Vigors 1825 petrel
Pachyptila sp.5 Illiger 1811 prion
species B & C
Pachyptila salax5 Olson 1985 prion
Calonectris sp.5 Mathews and Iredale 1915 shearwater
Puffinus (Puffinus) sp.5 Brisson 1760 shearwater
species A & B & C
Procellaria sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 petrel
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Francolinus sp.5 Stephens 1819 francolin
 Sphenisciformes -
"Palaeospheniscus" huxleyorum5 Simpson 1973 penguin
 Sphenisciformes - Spheniscidae
"Nucleornis" insolitus5 Simpson 1979 penguin
"Dege" hendeyi5 Simpson 1979 penguin
"Inguza" predemersus5 Simpson 1971 penguin
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocoracidae indet.4, Phalacrocorax sp.5, "Phalacrocorax (cf. Microcarbo) sp." = Microcarbo5
Phalacrocoracidae indet.4 Reichenbach 1850 cormorant
3 spp.
Phalacrocorax sp.5 Brisson 1760 cormorant
"Phalacrocorax (cf. Microcarbo) sp." = Microcarbo5 Bonaparte 1856 cormorant
 Suliformes - Sulidae
Sulidae indet.4 Reichenbach 1849 booby
Sula sp.5 Brisson 1760 booby
 Rodentia - Bathyergidae
Bathyergidae indet.2 Waterhouse 1841 mole rat
 Glires -
Lagomorpha indet.2 Brandt 1885 placental
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Ceratotherium sp.2 Gray 1868 white rhino
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion sp.2 de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
 Carnivora - Otariidae
Otariidae indet.1 eared seal
Arctocephalus sp.2 Cuvier 1826 fur seal
 Carnivora - Phocidae
Phocidae indet.1 Gray 1821 seal
Homiphoca sp.2 Muizon and Hendey 1980 seal
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Pelorovis antiquus2 Duvernoy 1851 antelope
Raphicerus sp.2 Smith 1827 antelope
Antilopini indet.2 Gray 1821 antelope
Antidorcas sp.2 Sundevall 1847 springbok
Connochaetes sp.2 Lichtenstein 1812 wildebeest
Redunca sp.2 Smith 1827 reedbuck
 Cetacea - Balaenopteridae
Balaenopteridae indet.3 Gray 1864 rorqual
"Balaenoptera" borealina2 Van Beneden 1880 rorqual
Fragilicetus sp.2 Bisconti and Bosselaers 2016 rorqual
Diunatans sp.2 Bosselaers and Post 2010 rorqual
sp. 1
 Cetacea -
Odontoceti indet.2 Flower 1867 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Physeteridae
Physeter macrocephalus3 Linnaeus 1758 sperm whale
 Cetacea - Delphinidae
Delphinidae indet.3 Gray 1821 dolphin
 Cetacea - Phocoenidae
Phocoenidae indet.3 Gray 1825 porpoise
cf. Australithax sp.2 Muizon 1988 porpoise
 Cetacea - Ziphiidae
cf. Izikoziphius sp.2 Bianucci et al. 2007 beaked whale