Lee Creek Mine, Yorktown Formation (Pliocene of the United States)

Where: Beaufort County, North Carolina (35.4° N, 76.8° W: paleocoordinates 35.4° N, 75.9° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Yorktown Formation (Chesapeake Group), Zanclean (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)

• most fossils "are derived from the lower beds of the Yorktown Formation" (McLellan 1983) and the "total thickness of the Yorktown exposure is 15 m" (Snyder et al. 1983)

•Strontium dating places the base of the Yorktown Formation at 4.9 Ma [55]. The top of the Yorktown Formation at Lee Creek Mine is no younger than the middle of the Orionina vaughani ostracod assemblage zone, originally dated to ca. 3.7 Ma [53]. This is roughly in agreement with the top of nannoplankton zone NN14 (3.9 Ma) [20, 54], the second of the three nannoplankton zones correlating with the Orionina vaughani zone [53]. Taken together, these observations indicate an age bracket of 4.9–3.9 Ma. (Marx & Fordyce, 2015)

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: estuary or bay; unlithified, blue, argillaceous, muddy sandstone

• the lower part of the formation in the Lee Creek Mine was deposited in an embayment "at depths of 80 to 100 meters" whereas "in the Lee Creek Mine, middle beds of the Yorktown accumulated in water of 30 meters or less" (Gibson 1983)
• bluish clayey sand

•"The Yorktown Formation at Lee Creek... is generally a very muddy quartz sand... shell material and cemented sediment comprise less than 3 percent of

•most samples" although there is a "boulder bed" at the top of the formation and a single zone of "extensively leached, partially indurated zone that contains abundant molds of turritellid gastropods and cemented clumps of sediment (Snyder et al. 1983)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Collection methods: bulk, salvage, surface (float), sieve

• "Most [large] fossils are collected by prospecting the spoil piles" (McLellan 1983) but forams were collected through bulk sampling and washing with detergent and not acid (Snyder et al. 1983)

Primary reference: F. C. Whitmore. 1987. Cetacea from the Sahabi Formation, Libya. Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi 145-151 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 52582: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 11.08.2005, edited by Jenna David

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Rotaliida - Nonionidae
 Rotaliida - Discorbidae
 Rotaliida - Cibicididae
 Nodosariida - Nodosariidae
Lagena substriata12 Williamson 1848
 Globigerinina - Hedbergellidae
 Rotaliina - Bolivinidae
 Rotaliina - Cassidulinidae
 Globigerinoidea - Globorotaliidae
"Globorotalia (Turborotalia) acostaensis" = Neogloboquadrina acostaensis28 Blow 1959
subspecies acostaensis
Globorotalia hexagona28
subspecies hexagona
Globorotalia (Globorotalia) hirsuta28 d'Orbigny 1839
"Globorotalia (Globorotalia) margaritae" = Globorotalia (Hirsutella) margaritae28 Bolli and Bermudez 1965
"Globorotalia (Globorotalia) crassula" = Globorotalia (Truncorotalia) crassula28 Cushman et al. 1930
Hastigerina siphonifera28
subspecies siphonifera
 Globigerinoidea - Globigerinitidae
Globigerinita uvula28 Ehrenberg 1861
 Globigerinoidea - Globigerinidae
"Globoquadrina venezuelana" = Dentoglobigerina venezuelana28 Hedberg 1937
"Globigerina decoraperta" = Globoturborotalita decoraperta28 Takayanagi and Saito 1962
Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens28
subspecies subdehiscens
Globigerina bulloides28 d'Orbigny 1826
subspecies apertura
Globigerinoides obiquus28
subspecies obliquus
Globigerinoides quadrilobatus28
subspecies quadrilobatus
Globigerinoides obliquus28 Bolli 1957
subspecies extremus
Globigerinoides ruber28 d'Orbigny 1839
Globigerinoides conglobatus28 Brady 1879
subspecies conglobatus
Orbulina suturalis28 Bronnimann 1951
Globoquadrina altispira28 Cushman and Jarvis 1936
subspecies globosa
"Globigerina calida" = Globigerinella calida28 Parker 1962
subspecies praecalida
 Rotalioidea - Elphidiidae
 Buliminoidea - Buliminidae
 Coniferales - Cupressaceae
Taxodium distichum12 Linnaeus 1753 bald cypress
Juniperus cf. virginiana12 Linnaeus 1753 juniper
 Pinales - Pinaceae
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Placopecten aff. magellanicus9 Gmelin 1791 scallop
Placopecten clintonius9 Say 1824 scallop
subspecies clintonius
"Argopecten eboreus" = Carolinapecten eboreus9 Conrad 1833 scallop
subspecies watsonensis & solarioides
Chesapecten madisonius9 Say 1824 scallop
Chesapecten jeffersonius9 Say 1824 scallop
subspecies jeffersonius & spetenarius
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Mclelannia aenigma" = Mercenaria38
"Mclelannia aenigma" = Mercenaria38 quahog
 Platycopida - Cytherellidae
Cytherella "a"11 Jones 1849 ostracod
Cytherella "b"11 Jones 1849 ostracod
Cytherelloidea "a"11 Alexander 1929 ostracod
 Podocopida - Bairdiidae
 Podocopida -
 Podocopida - Xestoleberididae
Xestoleberis "e"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
 Podocopida - Bythocytheridae
Bythocythere "b"11 ostracod
 Podocopida - Trachyleberididae
Orionina vaughani11 Ulrich and Bassler 1904 ostracod
Murrayina barclayi11 ostracod
Actinocythereis mundorffi11 ostracod
small form
Actinocythereis captionis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Neocaudites variabilus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Neocaudites angulatus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopida - Cytheridae
Microcytherura "d"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "h"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "m"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "p"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "r"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura expanda11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Microcytherura minuta11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopida - Cytheruridae
Paracytheridea "f"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Paracytheridea mucra11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
Paracytheridea cronini11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytherura howei11 ostracod
Cytherura sp.11 ostracod
Cytherura "aa"11 ostracod
Cytherura "bb"11 ostracod
Cytherura "d"11 ostracod
Cytherura "l"11 ostracod
Cytherura "m"11 ostracod
Cytherura "n"11 ostracod
Cytherura "u"11 ostracod
Cytherura "w"11 ostracod
Cytherura forulata11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
Cytherura elongata11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
Cytherura wardensis11 Howe and Brown 1935 ostracod
 Podocopida - Brachycytheridae
 Podocopida - Cytherideidae
"Cushmanidea seminuda" = Cushmanidea11 ostracod
""Pontocythere" "i"" = Cushmanidea11 ostracod
""Pontocythere" "g"" = Cushmanidea11 ostracod
""Pontocythere" "j"" = Cushmanidea11 ostracod
""Pontocythere" "d"" = Cushmanidea11 ostracod
Hulingsina glabra11 ostracod
Hulingsina "c"11 ostracod
Hulingsina "f"11 ostracod
Hulingsina "r"11 ostracod
Hulingsina "u"11 ostracod
Paracyprideis "c"11 ostracod
Cyprideis "b"11 Jones 1857 ostracod
Cytheridea campwallacensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheridea carolinensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Peratocytheridea "j"11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Peratocytheridea setipunctata11 Brady 1869 ostracod
Peratocytheridea sandbergi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Eucythere declivus11 ostracod
Eucythere gibba11 ostracod
Eucythere "f"11 Brady 1868 ostracod
 Podocopida - Loxoconchidae
Cytheromorpha "i"11 Hirschmann 1909 ostracod
Cytheromorpha incisa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheromorpha macroincisa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheromorpha suffolkensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheromorpha warneri11 Howe and Spurgeon 1935 ostracod
Loxoconcha "c"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "h"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "m"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "s"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "t"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha reticularis11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
? Hirschmannia hespera11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
? Hirschmannia quadrata11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopida - Candonidae
Paracypris "b"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
 Podocopida - Pontocyprididae
Propontocypris d11 ostracod
 Podocopida - Paradoxostomatidae
 Podocopida - Leptocytheridae
 Podocopida - Hemicytheridae
Echinocythereis leecreekensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Proteoconcha multipunctata11 ostracod
sensu lato
Proteoconcha "z"11 Howe 1961 ostracod
Proteoconcha jamesensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere "m"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "oo"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "pp"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "qq"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "rr"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere rugosa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere ricespitensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere bradyi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere gouldensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere blackwelderi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Thaerocythere carolinensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Hermanites ascitus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Malzella evexa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Malzella conradi11 Howe et al. 1935 ostracod
angulate form
Caudites paraasymmetricus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina "p"11 Bassiouni 1965 ostracod
Muellerina bassiounii11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina blowi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina wardi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina ohmerti11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Aurila laevicula11 ostracod
 Podocopida - Leguminocythereidae
Campylocythere laeva11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
 Podocopida -
Puriana carolinensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Ophiurida - Ophiuridae
? Ophiuridae indet.33 Lyman 1865 brittle star
 Spatangoida - Loveniidae
Echinocardium kelloggi14 Kier 1983 heart urchin
 Clypeasteroida - Mellitidae
Encope macrophora33 Ravenel 1842 sand dollar
 Arbacioida - Arbaciidae
Arbacia improcera14 Conrad 1843 sea urchin
Arbacia cf. sloani33 Clark and Twitchell 1915 sea urchin
 Camarodonta - Echinidae
Psammechinus philanthropus14 Conrad 1843 sea urchin
 Anguilliformes - Congridae
Congridae indet.7 Kaup 1856 conger eel
Species A, B, C, D, E
Conger cf. oceanicus22 Mitchill 1818 conger eel
 Albuliformes - Albulidae
Pterothrissus sp.7 Hilgendorf 1877 bonefish
 Acanthopteri - Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena cf. barracuda22 Edwards 1771 barracuda
 Siluriformes - Ariidae
Bagre sp.22 Mitchill 1815 Ariid catfish
 Clupeiformes - Clupeoidei
Alosa cf. sapidissima22 Wilson 1811 herring
 Pleuronectiformes - Cynoglossidae
Symphurus sp.7 flatfish
 Pleuronectiformes - Pleuronectidae
 Pleuronectiformes - Paralichthyidae
Paralichthys sp.22 Girard 1858 flatfish
Citharichthys sp.7 Bleeker 1862 flatfish
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
Seriola sp.22 Cuvier 1817
 Istiophoriformes - Xiphiidae
Xiphias gladius22 Linnaeus 1758 sword fish
 Istiophoriformes - Istiophoridae
Istiophorus platypterus6 Shaw and Nodder 1792
Makaira indica6 Cuvier 1832
Makaira purdyi6 Fierstine 1999
Makaira purdyi n. sp.5 Fierstine 1999
Makaira nigricans6 Lacépède 1802
Tetrapturus albidus6 Poey 1860
 Batrachoidiformes - Batrachoididae
Opsanus tau22 toadfish
 Scombriformes - Pomatomidae
 Scombriformes - Scombridae
Acanthocybium solandri22 Cuvier 1831
Sarda aff. sarda22 Bloch 1791
Auxis sp.22 Cuvier 1829
Thunnus sp.22 South 1845
Thunnus thynnus25 Linnaeus 1758
 Ophidiiformes -
 Ophidiiformes - Ophidiidae
 Perciformes - Branchiostegidae
Caulolatilus cf. cyanops22 Poey 1866 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Serranidae
Serranidae indet.7 Swainson 1839 perch-like fish
species A, B
Epinephelus sp.22 Bloch 1793 perch-like fish
Centropristis cf. striata7 perch-like fish
Mycteroperca sp.22 Gill 1862 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Sparidae
Stenotomus cf. chrysops22 Linnaeus 1766 perch-like fish
Pagrus sp.22 Lacépède 1802 perch-like fish
Pagrus hyneus22 Purdy et al. 2001 perch-like fish
Archosargus cf. probatocephalus22 Walbaum 1792 perch-like fish
Lagodon cf. rhomboides22 Linnaeus 1766 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Agonidae
? Agonidae indet.7 perch-like fish
 Labriformes - Labridae
 Tetraodontiformes - Monacanthidae
Aluterus sp.22 Cloquet 1816 Leatherjacket
 Tetraodontiformes - Molidae
Mola chelonopsis22 Ichishima and Kimura 2009
 Tetraodontiformes - Diodontidae
Chilomycterus schoepfi22 Walbaum 1792
 Tetraodontiformes - Tetraodontidae
Sphoeroides hyperostosus22 Tyler et al. 1992
 Uranoscopiformes - Uranoscopidae
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
 Acanthomorphata - Haemulidae
Anisotremus sp.7 Gill 1861
 Acanthomorphata - Malacanthidae
 Acanthuriformes - Sciaenidae
Pogonias cf. cromis7 Cope 1869 black drum
Sciaenops sp.22 Gill 1863
Sciaenops cf. ocellata7 Linnaeus 1766
Sciaenops ocellatus22 Linnaeus 1766
 Lophiiformes - Lophiidae
Lophius cf. americanus22 Valenciennes 1837 anglerfish
 Acanthomorphata - Ammodytidae
Ammodytes hexapterus7 Pallas 1814
 Gadiformes - Merlucciidae
 Gadiformes - Gadidae
 Myctophiformes - Myctophidae
Ceratoscopelus maderensis7 Lowe 1839 Madeira lantern fish
 Scorpaeniformes - Triglidae
Prionotus sp.7 Lacépède 1802 sea robin
Prionotus cf. evolans22 Linnaeus 1766 sea robin
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser cf. oxyrhynchus22 Mitchell 1814 sturgeon
 Testudines - Testudinidae
Geochelone sp.39 Fitzinger 1835 turtle
 Testudines - Emydidae
Chrysemys sp.39 Gray 1844 painted turtle
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Lepidochelys sp.39 Fitzinger 1843 Ridley sea turtle
Procolpochelys sp.39 Hay 1908 sea turtle
? Chelonia sp.39 Brongniart 1800 green sea turtle
Caretta patriciae39 Zug 2001 loggerhead
Syllomus aegyptiacus39 Lydekker 1899 sea turtle
 Testudines - Dermochelyidae
Psephophorus sp.39 von Meyer 1847 leatherback
 Testudines - Trionychidae
cf. Apalone sp.39 Rafinesque 1832 softshell turtle
 Theropoda - Pelagornithidae
Pelagornis "speciesone"21 Lartet 1857 bird
Pelagornis "speciestwo"21 Lartet 1857 bird
 Theropoda - Procellariidae
? Bulweria sp.21 Bonaparte 1843 petrel
possibly from Pungo River Fm. instead of Yorktown
Pterodromoides minoricensis21 Segui et al. 2001 petrel
Procellaria cf. parkinsoni21 Gray 1862 Parkinson's petrel
Procellaria cf. aequinoctialis21 Linnaeus 1758 white-chinned petrel
Pterodroma lessonii21 Garnot 1826 white-headed petrel
Puffinus sp.21 Brisson 1760 shearwater
Puffinus (Thyellodroma) sp.21 Brisson 1760 shearwater
Puffinus lherminieri21 Lesson 1839 Audubon's shearwater
Puffinus cf. puffinus21 Brunnich 1764 Manx shearwater
Puffinus aff. pacificoides21 Olson 1975 shearwater
Calonectris aff. diomedea21 Scopoli 1769 Cory's shearwater
"Calonectris aff. borealis" = Calonectris diomedea borealis21 Cory 1891 Cory's shearwater
Calonectris krantzi n. sp.21 Olson and Rasmussen 2001 shearwater
Pachyptila sp.21 Illiger 1811 prion
"Puffinus (Ardenna) sp." = Ardenna21 Reichenbach 1853 petrel
"Puffinus aff. tenuirostris" = Ardenna tenuirostris21 Temminck 1823 short-tailed shearwater
"Puffinus aff. gravis" = Ardenna gravis21 O'Reilly 1818 great shearwater
 Theropoda - Diomedeidae
"Phoebastria aff. nigripes" = Diomedea nigripes21 Audubon 1839 albatross
Phoebastria anglica21 Lydekker 1891 albatross
Phoebastria aff. immutabilis21 Rothschild 1839 albatross
Phoebastria aff. albatrus21 Pallas 1769 short-tailed albatross
Phoebastria rexularum21 Olson and Rasmussen 2001 albatross
 Theropoda - Ciconiidae
Ciconia "speciestwo"21 Brisson 1760 stork
 Theropoda - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax "largespecies"21 Brisson 1760 cormorant
Phalacrocorax wetmorei21 Brodkorb 1955 cormorant
 Theropoda - Sulidae
Morus "undescribedspeciesone"21 Vieillot 1816 gannet
Morus "undescribedspeciestwo"21 Vieillot 1816 gannet
"Morus loxostylus" = Moris loxostyla21 Cope 1870 gannet
Morus avitus21 Wetmore 1938 gannet
Morus atlanticus21 Shufeldt 1915 gannet
Morus peninsularis21 Brodkorb 1955 gannet
 Theropoda - Ardeidae
Ardea aff. cinerea21 Linnaeus 1758 gray heron
 Theropoda - Threskiornithidae
Eudocimus sp.21 Wagler 1832 ibis
 Theropoda - Pelecanidae
Pelecanus schreiberi n. sp.20 Olson 1999 pelican
 Theropoda - Gaviidae
Gavia howardae21 Brodkorb 1953 loon
Gavia fortis n. sp.21 Olson and Rasmussen 2001 loon
Gavia concinna21 Wetmore 1940 loon
 Theropoda - Cathartidae
"Vulturidae indet." = Vulturinae21
"Vulturidae indet." = Vulturinae21 Illiger 1811 vulture
 Theropoda - Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus cf. floridanus21 Brodkorb 1953 flamingo
 Theropoda - Podicipedidae
"Podiceps aff. auritus" = Podiceps auritus21, "Podiceps howardae" = Podiceps auritus29
"Podiceps aff. auritus" = Podiceps auritus21 Linnaeus 1758 horned grebe
"Podiceps howardae" = Podiceps auritus29 Linnaeus 1758 horned grebe
 Theropoda - Gruidae
Grus aff. americana21, "Grus aff. antigone" = Antigone antigone21
Grus aff. americana21 Linnaeus 1758 Whooping crane
"Grus aff. antigone" = Antigone antigone21 Linnaeus 1758 Sarus crane
 Theropoda - Columbidae
Ectopistes aff. migratorius21 Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Theropoda - Corvidae
Corvus aff. ossifragus21 Wilson 1812 fish crow
 Theropoda - Anatidae
Histrionicus aff. histrionicus21 Linnaeus 1758 harlequin duck
"Anas discors" = Spatula discors21 Linnaeus 1766 blue-winged teal
"Anas clypeata" = Spatula clypeata21 Linnaeus 1758 northern shoveler
Anas platyrhynchos21 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
Anas acuta21 Linnaeus 1758 northern pintail
Melanitta aff. nigra21 Linnaeus 1758 common scoter
Melanitta aff. perspicillata21 Linnaeus 1758 surf scoter
Somateria sp.21 Leach 1819 eider
Somateria aff. mollissima21 Linnaeus 1758 common eider
Mergus aff. serrator21 Linnaeus 1758 red-breasted merganser
Bucephala aff. albeola21 Linnaeus 1758 bufflehead
Bucephala aff. clangula21 Linnaeus 1758 common goldeneye
Aythya aff. affinis21 Eyton 1838 lesser scaup
"Anas americana" = Mareca americana21 Gmelin 1789 American wigeon
Cygnus aff. columbianus21 Ord 1815 tundra swan
Anserini indet.21 Vigors 1825 goose
Anser cf. arizonae21 Bickart 1990 goose
Branta aff. bernicla21 Linnaeus 1758 brant
"Anabernicula cf. minuscula" = Branta minuscula21 Wetmore 1924 goose
 Theropoda - Alcoidae
Cerorhinca sp.27 Bonaparte 1828 auk
"Alca antiqua" = Uria antiqua21 Marsh 1870 auk
Pinguinus alfrednewtoni n. sp.19 Olson 1977 Great auk
Miocepphus mergulellus n. sp.37 Wijnker and Olson 2009 auk
Fratercula aff. cirrhata21 Pallas 1769 tufted puffin
Fratercula aff. arctica21 Linnaeus 1758 Atlantic puffin
Aethiinae indet.21 Verheyen 1958 auk
Alca sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 auk
undescribed new species
Alca carolinensis n. sp.26 Smith and Clarke 2011 auk
Alca ausonia21 Portis 1887 auk
Alca minor n. sp.26 Smith and Clarke 2011 auk
Alca olsoni n. sp.26 Smith and Clarke 2011 auk
Alca aff. torda21 Linnaeus 1758 razorbill
 Theropoda - Charadriidae
Pluvialis aff. squatarola21 Linnaeus 1758 black-bellied plover
 Theropoda - Laridae
"Sterna aff. nilotica" = Gelochelidon nilotica21, "Sterna aff. maxima" = Thalasseus maximus21, "Larus aff. minutus" = Hydrocoloeus minutus21, Larus ribibundus21, Larus sp.21, Larus aff. delawarensis21, Larus aff. atricilla21, Larus aff. argentatus21
"Sterna aff. nilotica" = Gelochelidon nilotica21 Gmelin 1789 gull-billed tern
"Sterna aff. maxima" = Thalasseus maximus21 Boddaert 1783 royal tern
"Larus aff. minutus" = Hydrocoloeus minutus21 Pallas 1776 little gull
Larus ribibundus21 gull
Larus sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 gull
Larus aff. delawarensis21 Ord 1815 ring-billed gull
Larus aff. atricilla21 Linnaeus 1758 laughing gull
Larus aff. argentatus21 Pontoppidan 1763 herring gull
 Theropoda - Stercorariidae
Stercorarius aff. pomarinus21 Temminck 1815 pomarine jaeger
Stercorarius aff. longicaudus21 Vieillot 1819 long-tailed jaeger
"Catharacta sp." = Stercorarius21 Brisson 1760 skua
Stercorarius aff. parasiticus21 Linnaeus 1758 parasitic jaeger
 Theropoda - Scolopacidae
"Capella aff. media" = Gallinago media21 Latham 1787 great snipe
Calidris aff. melanotos21 Vieillot 1819 pectoral sandpiper
Numenius aff. borealis21 Forster 1772 eskimo curlew
Tringa aff. ochropus21 Linnaeus 1758 green sandpiper
 Theropoda - Haematopodidae
Haematopus sp.32 Linnaeus 1758 oystercatchers
Haematopus aff. palliatus21 Temminick 1820 American oystercatcher
Haematopus aff. ostralegus21 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian oystercatcher
 Theropoda - Accipitridae
Accipitridae indet.21 Viellot 1816 hawk
species one and two
? Neophrontops sp.21 Miller 1916 Old World vulture
? Buteo sp.21 de Lacepède 1799 hawk
Buteo jamaicensis21 Gmelin 1788 red-tailed hawk
 Theropoda - Pandionidae
Pandion sp.21 Savigny 1809 osprey
 Theropoda - Phasianidae
Meleagris sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 turkey
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp.4 Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet.4 Gray 1821 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Nannippus lenticularis4 Cope 1893 hipparionine horse
Neohipparion cf. eurystyle4 Cope 1893 hipparionine horse
 Artiodactyla - Camelidae
Camelidae indet.4 Gray 1821 camel
 Artiodactyla - Antilocapridae
Antilocapridae indet.4 Gray 1866 pronghorn
 Artiodactyla - Palaeomerycidae
Pediomeryx sp.4 Stirton 1936 ruminant
 Artiodactyla - Protoceratidae
Kyptoceras amatorum4 Webb 1981 protoceratid
 Cetacea - Balaenopteridae
Megaptera sp.34 Gray 1846 humpback whale
Megaptera sp.36 Gray 1846 humpback whale
Balaenoptera acutorostrata34 Lacépède 1804 minke whale
Balaenoptera cf. acutorostrata36 Lacépède 1804 minke whale
Balaenoptera borealina34 Van Beneden 1880 rorqual
Balaenoptera borealina36 Van Beneden 1880 rorqual
 Cetacea - Balaenidae
Balaenula sp.34 Van Beneden 1872 right whale
Balaenula sp.36 Van Beneden 1872 right whale
Balaena sp.34 Linnaeus 1758 bowhead whale
Balaena sp.36 Linnaeus 1758 bowhead whale
 Cetacea - Eschrichtiidae
Gricetoides aurorae n. gen. n. sp.36
Gricetoides aurorae n. gen. n. sp.36 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 gray whale
 Cetacea - Cetotheriidae
Cetotheriinae indet.36 Whitmore and Barnes 2008 whale
Herpetocetinae indet.35 Steeman 2007 whale
Herpetocetus transatlanticus n. sp.35 Whitmore and Barnes 2008 whale
Herpetocetus sendaicus2 Hatai et al. 1963 whale
 Cetacea -
cf. Plesiocetus sp.36 Van Beneden 1859 whale
 Cetacea - Physeteridae
Physeteridae indet.36 Gray 1821 sperm whale
several hundred sperm whale teeth
Physeterinae indet.34 Flower 1867 sperm whale
Physeterinae indet.36 Flower 1867 sperm whale
"cf. Physeter catodon" = Physeter macrocephalus36 Linnaeus 1758 sperm whale
Figure 88
cf. Kogiopsis floridana36 Kellogg 1929 sperm whale
Figure 86
cf. Orycterocetus sp.36 Leidy 1853 sperm whale
Figure 84
"cf. Physeterula dubusii" = Physeterula dubusi36 Van Beneden 1877 sperm whale
Figure 89
 Cetacea -
cf. Scaldicetus sp.36 Du Bus 1867 toothed whale
Figure 91
 Cetacea - Kogiidae
Kogiidae indet.31 Miller 1923 pygmy sperm whale
Kogiinae indet.34 Gill 1871 pygmy sperm whale
Kogiinae indet.36 Gill 1871 pygmy sperm whale
Kogiinae indet.17 Gill 1871 pygmy sperm whale
cf. Kogia breviceps36 Blainville 1838 pygmy sperm whale
Figure 85
Aprixokogia kelloggi n. gen. n. sp.36 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 pygmy sperm whale
 Cetacea - Delphinidae
Delphinidae indet.13 Gray 1821 dolphin
cf. Delphinidae indet.13 Gray 1821 dolphin
Globicephala sp.34 Lesson 1828 pilot whale
Globicephala sp.36 Lesson 1828 pilot whale
Pseudorca sp.34 Reinhardt 1862 false killer whale
Pseudorca sp.36 Reinhardt 1862 false killer whale
Stenella sp.34 Gray 1866 dolphin
cf. Stenella sp.36 Gray 1866 dolphin
Stenella rayi n. sp.36 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 dolphin
Tursiops sp.34 Gervais 1855 dolphin
Tursiops sp.36 Gervais 1855 dolphin
cf. Delphinus sp.34 Linnaeus 1758 common dolphin
Delphinus sp.36 Linnaeus 1758 common dolphin
aff. Lagenorhynchus sp. Gray 1846 dolphin
Lagenorhynchus sp.36 Gray 1846 dolphin
Lagenorhynchus harmatuki n. sp.36 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 dolphin
 Cetacea - Monodontidae
cf. Monodon sp.13 Linnaeus 1758 narwhal
Delphinapterus sp.34 Lacépède 1804 beluga
Delphinapterus sp.36 Lacépède 1804 beluga
cf. Delphinapterus sp.13 Lacépède 1804 beluga
Bohaskia monodontoides30 Velez-Juarbe and Pyenson 2012 toothed whale
previously identified as Delphinapterus sp. by Whitmore and Kaltenbach, 2008
 Cetacea - Pontoporiidae
Pontoporiidae indet.13 Gray 1870 toothed whale
cf. Pontoporiidae indet.13 Gray 1870 toothed whale
cf. Pontoporia sp.36 Gray 1846 toothed whale
Auroracetus bakerae n. gen. n. sp.10 Gibson and Geisler 2009 toothed whale
Pliopontos littoralis18 Muizon 1983 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Ziphiidae
Ziphius cf. cavirostris34 Cuvier 1824 Cuvier's beaked whale
Ziphius cf. cavirostris36 Cuvier 1824 Cuvier's beaked whale
Ninoziphius cf. platyrostris36 Muizon 1983 beaked whale
aff. Ninoziphius platyrostris13 Muizon 1983 beaked whale
Ninoziphius platyrostris18 Muizon 1983 beaked whale
Mesoplodon longirostris34 Cuvier 1824 beaked whale
Mesoplodon longirostris36 Cuvier 1824 beaked whale
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Tayassuidae indet.4 Palmer 1897 peccary
 Placentalia -
Carnivora indet.4 Bowdich 1821 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felidae indet.4 Gray 1821 cat
 Carnivora - Canidae
Borophagus cf. orc4 Webb 1969 bone-crushing dog
Borophagus cf. dudleyi4 White 1941 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Odobenidae
Ontocetus emmonsi15 Leidy 1859 walrus
 Carnivora - Phocidae
Monachinae indet.1 Trouessart 1897 seal
Paleophoca nystii23 Van Beneden 1859 seal
Sarcodectes magnus n. gen. n. sp.24 Rule et al. 2020 seal
"Callophoca obscura" = Callophoca obscura23 Van Beneden 1876 seal
"Callophoca ambigua" = Callophoca obscura23 Van Beneden 1876 seal
Auroraphoca atlantica n. gen. n. sp.3 Dewaele et al. 2018 seal
Homiphoca capensis16 Hendey and Repenning 1972 seal
Gryphoca similis16 Van Beneden 1876 seal
Phocanella pumila23 Van Beneden 1876 seal
Platyphoca vulgaris23 Van Beneden 1876 seal
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursidae indet.4 Gray 1825 bear
 Theriamorpha -
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotherium sp.4 Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Manta sp.22 Bancroft 1829 manta
? Mobula sp.22 Rafinesque 1810 devil ray
 Myliobatiformes - Aetobatidae
Aetobatus sp.22 Blainville 1816 stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatis centroura22 Mitchill 1814 whiptail stingray
 Squaliformes - Dalatiidae
Isistius sp.22 Gill 1864 shark
 Squaliformes - Squalidae
Squalus sp.22 Linnaeus 1758 dogfish shark
 Echinorhiniformes - Echinorhinidae
Echinorhinus cf. blakei22 Agassiz 1856 shark
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina sp.22 Dumeril 1806 angel shark
 Rhinopristiformes - Pristidae
? Pristis sp.22 Linck 1790 sawfish
Pristis cf. pectinatus22 Latham 1794 sawfish
 Rajiformes - Rajidae
Raja sp.22 Linnaeus 1758 skate
 Lamniformes - Alopiidae
Alopias vulpinus22 Bonnaterre 1788 thresher shark
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon22, Parotodus benedenii22
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon22 Agassiz 1835 megalodon
Also studied in Pimiento et al. 2010 and in Pimiento and Balk
Parotodus benedenii22 Le Hon 1871 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Carchariidae
Carcharias taurus22 Rafinesque 1810 sand shark
 Lamniformes - Megachasmidae
Megachasma sp.22 Taylor et al. 1983 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Carcharias cuspidata" = Araloselachus cuspidatus22
"Carcharias cuspidata" = Araloselachus cuspidatus22 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Lamna sp.22 Cuvier 1816 mackerel shark
"Isurus xiphodon" = Cosmopolitodus xiphodon22 Agassiz 1838 mackerel shark
Isurus oxyrinchus22 Rafinesque 1810 mackerel shark
Carcharodon carcharias22 Linnaeus 1758 great white shark
"Isurus hastalis" = Carcharodon hastalis22 Agassiz 1838 white shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Hemigaleidae
Paragaleus sp.22, "Galeorhinus cf. affinis" = Chaenogaleus affinis22, Hemipristis serra22
Paragaleus sp.22 Budker 1935 ground shark
"Galeorhinus cf. affinis" = Chaenogaleus affinis22 Probst 1878 ground shark
Hemipristis serra22 Agassiz 1835 ground shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna lewini22 Griffith and Smith 1834 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna zygaena22 Linnaeus 1758 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna cf. media22 Springer 1940 hammerhead shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Scyliorhinidae
Scyliorhinus sp.22 Blainville 1816 cat shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Carcharhinidae
Carcharhinus obscurus22 Le Sueur 1818 requiem shark
Carcharhinus leucas22 Valenciennes 1839 requiem shark
Carcharhinus plumbeus22 Nardo 1827 requiem shark
Carcharhinus perezi22 Poey 1876 requiem shark
Carcharhinus macloti22 Muller and Henle 1839 requiem shark
Negaprion brevirostris22 Poey 1868 lemon shark
 Carcharhiniformes - Galeocerdidae
Galeocerdo cf. cuvier22 Peron and LeSueur 1822 tiger shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Hexanchus sp.22 Rafinesque 1810 sixgill shark