USGS 25715, Kere River, Santo Island (Pleistocene of Vanuatu)

Where: Vanuatu (15.6° S, 167.0° E: paleocoordinates 15.6° S, 166.9° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From an undifferentiated reef limestones. AGE: Pleistocene, on the basis of macrofossil and foraminiferal biostratigraphy, and stratigraphic position. Very well-preserved ahermatypic corals (Flabellum spp.) collected in 2006 from Kere 2 have been dated by the Uranium/Thorium method and established an age of 232 +/- 10 ka. The same species of coral from the overlying deposit of Kere 1 gave an age of 133 +/- 5.5 ka. These reliable benchmarks suggest that the Kere sequence was deposited during the warmer Marine Isotope Stages (also named OIS for "Oxygen Isotope Stage") MIS 7 (Kere 2) and MIS 5 (Kere 1). (Lozouet et al., 2011). STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: The classic Kere Shellbed (Kere 1)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: unlithified, shelly/skeletal, silty, calcareous gravel

• EMVIRONMENT: Not stated, but presumably a shallow marine, carbonate setting.
• LITHOLOGY: It is an unconsolidated (or poorly consolidated) calcareous silty gravel consisting of 50/70% shell fragments. Dissolution and recrystallisation have cemented parts of the deposit (Lozouet et al., 2011). LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, on the basis of prevailing description.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: original aragonite

Collected by T.R. Waller, J. Bolango, W.C. Blow; reposited in the USNM

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTOR: Multiple collectors, including: Waller, Bolango, and Blow. REPOSITORY: USNM.

Primary reference: H. S. Ladd. 1966. Chitons and Gastropods (Haliotidae through Adeorbidae) from Western Pacific Islands. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 531:1-98 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/J. Millet]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 78043: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 25.01.2008, edited by Matthew Clapham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COEVERAGE: Representative, but not exhaustive for gastropoda. NOMENCLATURE: An authoritative publication with relatively modern nomenclature, subgenus- and species-level identifications. IDENTIFIER: H. S. Ladd.
 Trochoidea - Turbinidae
"Astraea (Bolma) girgyllus" = Bolma3, Turbo (Turbo) petholatus3
"Astraea (Bolma) girgyllus" = Bolma3 snail
Turbo (Turbo) petholatus3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Enida warreni3 top snail
 Lepetellida - Scissurellidae
 Patellida - Lottiidae
 Patellida - Acmaeidae
 Pseudomelanoidea - Pseudomelaniidae
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
Mammilla melanostoma2 Gmelin 1791 moon snail
Neverita albumen3 moon snail
Natica (Natica) vitellus3 Linnaeus 1758 moon snail
"Natica (Tectonatica) aff. violacea" = Tectonatica3 moon snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Eratoidae
"Trivia (Trivirostra) oryza" = Trivirostra oryza2
"Trivia (Trivirostra) oryza" = Trivirostra oryza2 Lamarck 1810 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Cypraeidae
"Cypraea (Erronea) cf. pyriformis" = Erronea pyriformis3, "Cypraea (Erronea) pulchella" = Adusta pulchella3, "Cypraea (Erronea) gracilis" = Purpuradusta gracilis3, Cypraea (Erosaria) guttata2, Cypraea (Erosaria) helvola2, "Cypraea (Notadusta) punctata" = Notadusta punctata3, Cypraea (Lyncina) porteri2
"Cypraea (Erronea) cf. pyriformis" = Erronea pyriformis3 Gray 1824 cowry
"Cypraea (Erronea) pulchella" = Adusta pulchella3 Swainson 1823 cowry
"Cypraea (Erronea) gracilis" = Purpuradusta gracilis3 Gaskoin 1848 cowry
Cypraea (Erosaria) guttata2 Gmelin 1791 cowry
Cypraea (Erosaria) helvola2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea (Notadusta) punctata" = Notadusta punctata3 Linneaus 1771 cowry
Cypraea (Lyncina) porteri2 Cate 1966 cowry
 Sorbeoconcha - Triviidae
"Trivirostra (Dolichupis) producta" = Dolichupis producta3
"Trivirostra (Dolichupis) producta" = Dolichupis producta3 Gaskoin 1836 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Ovulidae
Volva (Volva) volva3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
Dentiovula tadashigei3 Cate 1973 snail
Ovula ishibashii3 Kuroda 1928 snail
Phenacovolva longirostrata3 Sowerby 1828 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Rostellariidae
"Tibia (Tibia) powisii" = Tibia (Sulcogladius) powisi3
"Tibia (Tibia) powisii" = Tibia (Sulcogladius) powisi3 Petit 1840 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Strombidae
Strombus (Euprotomus) bulla3 Röding 1798 conch
 Sorbeoconcha - Ficidae
Ficus ficoides3 fig shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
Casmaria ponderosa3, "Phallium (Semicassis) bisulcatum" = Semicassis bisulcata2, Phalium areola3
Casmaria ponderosa3 Gmelin 1791 snail
"Phallium (Semicassis) bisulcatum" = Semicassis bisulcata2 Schubert and Wagner 1829 snail
Phalium areola3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Tonnidae
Tonna allium3 tun shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Bursidae
"Bursa (Colubrellina) margaritula" = Bufonaria (Bufonaria) margaritula2, Bursa rubeta3, Bursa bufonia3
"Bursa (Colubrellina) margaritula" = Bufonaria (Bufonaria) margaritula2 Deshayes 1832 frog shell
Bursa rubeta3 Röding 1798 frog shell
Bursa bufonia3 Gmelin 1791 frog shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Personidae
"Distorsio (Rhysema) reticulata" = Distorsio2
"Distorsio (Rhysema) reticulata" = Distorsio2 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Ranellidae
Biplex perca2, "Cymatium (Ranularia) sinensis" = Ranularia3
Biplex perca2 triton shell
"Cymatium (Ranularia) sinensis" = Ranularia3 triton shell
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva ispida3 olive snail
"Oliva mustelina" = Oliva (Neocylindrus) mustelina2 Lamarck 1810 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Coralliophilidae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Drupa (Morula) granulata2 Duclos 1832 murex snail
"Latiaxis (Tolema) blowi" = Babelomurex (Babelomurex) blowi3 Ladd 1977 murex snail
Murex (Murex) pecten3 murex snail
Chicoreus axicornis3 murex snail
"Pterynotus (Naquetia) barclayi" = Chicoreus (Naquetia)3 murex snail
"Mancinella aff. bufo" = Purpura bufo3 Lamarck 1822 murex snail
"Coralliophila mallicki" = Coralliophila (Coralliophila) mallicki3 Ladd 1977 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
 Neogastropoda - Harpidae
Harpa major2, "Morum (Cancellomorum) cancellata" = Oniscidia3
"Morum (Cancellomorum) cancellata" = Oniscidia3 snail
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
"Cancilla (Cancilla) isabella" = Mitra (Tiara) isabella3, Mitra (Nebularia) contracta3
"Cancilla (Cancilla) isabella" = Mitra (Tiara) isabella3 Swainson 1831 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Gemmula kieneri3, "Lophiotoma (Lophioturris) indica" = Lophiotoma3, Lophiotoma (Lophiotoma) acuta3, Turris crispa3
"Lophiotoma (Lophioturris) indica" = Lophiotoma3 turrid
Turris crispa3 turrid
 Neogastropoda - Pseudomelatomidae
 Neogastropoda - Clathurellidae
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus vimineus" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) vimineus3 Reeve 1849 cone shell
"Conus orbignyi" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) orbignyi3 Audouin 1831 cone shell
"Conus cf. eugrammatus" = Conasprella (Conasprella) eugrammata3 Bartsch and Rehder 1943 cone shell
Conus acueliformis3 cone shell
Conus cf. emaciatus3 cone shell
Conus excelsus3 cone shell
Conus geographus3 cone shell
Conus gloriamaris3 cone shell
Conus gracilis3 cone shell
Conus grangeri3 cone shell
Conus gubernator3 cone shell
Conus kimioi3 cone shell
Conus macarae3 cone shell
Conus mucronatus3 cone shell
Conus ochroleucus3 cone shell
Conus praecellens3 cone shell
Conus recluzianus3 cone shell
Conus sulcatus3 cone shell
Conus corrugatus3 Sowerby 1870 cone shell
Conus acutangulus3 Lamarck 1810 cone shell
Conus ammiralis3 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus cf. coelinae3 Crosse 1858 cone shell
Conus cf. catus3 Hwass in Bruguiére 1792 cone shell
Conus cf. pertusus3 Bruguière 1792 cone shell
Conus quercinus3 Solander 1786 cone shell
"Conus figulinus" = Conus (Dendroconus) figulinus3 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra (Oxymeris) cf. felina" = Terebra3, Terebra (Microtrypetes) kerensis3, "Terebra (Myurella) pretiosa" = Terebra3, "Terebra (Myurella) alveolata" = Terebra3, Terebra (Myurella) myuros3, Terebra (Strioterebrum) nebulosa3, Terebra (Terebra) subulata3, Terebra (Triplostephanus) triseriata3, "Terebra (Oxymeris) interlineata" = Subula (Oxymeris)3, "Terebra (Strioterebrum) torquata" = Strioterebrum3
"Terebra (Oxymeris) cf. felina" = Terebra3 auger snail
"Terebra (Myurella) pretiosa" = Terebra3 auger snail
"Terebra (Myurella) alveolata" = Terebra3 auger snail
Terebra (Myurella) myuros3 Lamarck 1822 auger snail
Terebra (Strioterebrum) nebulosa3 Sowerby 1825 auger snail
Terebra (Terebra) subulata3 Linnaeus 1767 auger snail
"Terebra (Oxymeris) interlineata" = Subula (Oxymeris)3 auger snail
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) torquata" = Strioterebrum3 auger snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Metula kerensis3 true whelk
Metula santoensis3 true whelk
Metula cf. mitrella3 true whelk
Hindsia sinensis3 true whelk
Colubraria maculosa3 true whelk
Colubraria obscura3 true whelk
Colubraria tortuosa3 true whelk
Colubraria rehderi3 true whelk
Phos bakeri3 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Latirus polygonus3 Gmelin 1791 snail
Fusinus colus3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassarius (Alectrion) barsdelli" = Nassarius (Zeuxis) barsdelli3 Ladd 1977 snail
Nassarius (Alectrion) glans3 Röding 1798 snail
Nassarius (Zeuxis) dorsatus3 Röding 1798 snail
Nassarius (Uzita) verbeeki2 Martin 1895 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Xenophoridae
Xenophora calculifera2 Reeve 1842 carrier shell
Xenophora konai2 Habe 1953 carrier shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Rissoidae
Zebina (Morchiella) supracostata3 snail
original entry: Zebina (Moerchiella) supracostata
 Epitonioidea - Epitoniidae
 Cerithioidea - Siliquariidae
"Siliquaria cumingii" = Tenagodus3, "Siliquaria aff. armata" = Tenagodus3
"Siliquaria cumingii" = Tenagodus3 snail
"Siliquaria aff. armata" = Tenagodus3 snail
 Cerithioidea - Cerithiidae
Clypeomorus coralium3 cerith snail
 Cerithioidea - Planaxidae
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
 Ptenoglossa - Thaididae
 Heterostropha - Architectonicidae
Mangonuia sp.3 Mestayer 1930 snail
 Craniida - Craniidae
 Thecideida - Thecideidae
Lacazella "sp. 2"1 Munier-Chalmas 1881
 Thecideida - Thecidellinidae
 Terebratulida - Cancellothyrididae
Terebratulina "sp. 2"1 d'Orbigny 1847
 Terebratulida - Frenulinidae
Frenulina sp.1 Dall 1894