Buffalo Wallow (Carboniferous of the United States)

Also known as M-11

Where: Independence County, Arkansas (35.8° N, 91.6° W: paleocoordinates 13.3° S, 34.0° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Ruddle Shale Member (Moorefield Formation), Chesterian (335.5 - 323.2 Ma)

• "Goniatites granosus-Dombarites choctawensis Group of late Visean (early Chesterian) age" (i.e., Asbian or Brigantian)

•"section is more than 30 m thick. The sampled horizon that yielded the gastropod and conodont fauna is about 1 m thick... about 2 m above the base of the section"

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: offshore shelf; black shale

• "distance from [the coast]... was presumably 50 km to 150 km... at or near the shelf edge... water depth... about 100-200 m or more... low energy soft mud bottom... anaerobic or exaerobic"
• "black shale [with] laminations"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: replaced with limonite

Collection methods: bulk, chemical, sieve,

• "A bulk sample of about 60 kg... was processed using the methods described by Mapes & Mapes (1982) [i.e., (1) dried and treated with solvent; (2) solvent removed and water added; (3) washed and sieved; (4) repeat 1 to 3]... after disaggregation, a 60-mesh sieve was used to concentrate [the residue]"

Primary reference: A. Nützel and R. H. Mapes. 2001. Larval and juvenile gastropods from a Carboniferous black shale: palaeoecology and implications for the evolution of the Gastropoda. Lethaia 34(2):143-162 [P. Wagner/P. Wagner/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 73201: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 06.06.2007, edited by Barbara Seuss and Pete Wagner

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
"Janthimorpha" sp.
"sensu Herholz (1992)": count is of illustrated specimens
"Anomphalomorpha" sp.
"sensu Herholz (1992)"
Bacrtites "sp. A"2
OUZC 5171-5173
Bactrites "sp. B"2
OUZC 5174-5175
Bactrites "sp. C"2
OUZC 5176-5178
Foraminifera
 Foraminiferida -
"Foraminiferida indet." = Foraminifera
"Foraminiferida indet." = Foraminifera Eichwald 1830 foram
"Agglutinated foraminifera are abundant"
Conodonta
 Ozarkodinida - Idiognathodontidae
Gnathodus texanus Roundy 1926 conodont
"abundant"
 Ozarkodinida - Polygnathidae
Cavusgnathus sp. Harris and Hollingsworth 1933 conodont
unclassified
  -
Vertebrata indet. Lamarck 1801
"fish remains"
Deuteropoda
  -
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
"Ostracodes are numerous"
Cephalopoda
 Pseudorthocerida - Spyroceratidae
Reticycloceras sp.2 Gordon 1960
OUZC 5167, could also be Mitorthoceras sp.
 Nautiloidea -
Nautiloidea indet. Agassiz 1847 nautiloid
"orthoconic nautiloids"
 Ammonoidea -
Ammonoidea indet. Zittel 1884 ammonite
"abundant small cephalopods, including ammonitellas [and] bacritellas"
 Goniatitida - Girtyoceratidae
Girtyoceras sp.2 Wedekind 1918 ammonite
OUZC 5170
Bivalvia
 Autobranchia -
Pteriomorphia indet. clam
"pteriomorph bivalves... Posidonia-like"
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
Caneyella richardsoni2 Girty 1909 oyster
 Ostreida - Posidoniidae
Gastropoda
 Neritoidea - Naticopsidae
Naticopsis sp. M'Coy 1844 snail
 Bellerophontida - Euphemitidae
Euphemites spp. Warthin 1930 snail
 Euomphalina - Platyceratidae
Compsonema sp. Gordon and Yochelson 1983 snail
half of total count of 194 vetigastropods
 Murchisoniina - Gosseletinidae
Mourlonia sp. de Koninck 1883 snail
half of total count of 194 vetigastropods
 Zygopleuroidea - Pseudozygopleuridae
Pseudozygopleuridae indet. Knight 1930 snail
20 total, including Zygopleura and Janthimorpha
 Sorbeoconcha - Anozygidae
Anozyga arkansasensis n. sp.1 Bandel 2002 snail
"sensu Nützel (1998)": types A, B, and C, respectively with 3, 3, and 1 illustrated specimens
 Caenogastropoda - Imoglobidae
Imogloba "sp. 1" Nützel et al. 2000 snail
Imogloba "sp. 2" Nützel et al. 2000 snail
unclassified
  -
Porifera indet. Grant 1836
"limonitized sponge spicules"