Rattlesnake (Neogene of the United States)

Also known as SDSM V-832; UC 3045, 3058, 3060

Where: Grant County, Oregon (44.5° N, 119.3° W: paleocoordinates 44.4° N, 116.6° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Hemphillian (10.3 - 4.9 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Reposited in the SDSM

Primary reference: J. C. Merriam, C. Stock, and C. L. Moody. 1925. The Pliocene Rattlesnake Formation and fauna of eastern Oregon, with notes on teh geology of the Rattlesnake and Mascall deposits. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 347(3):43-92 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Marcot]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 19015: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 27.09.1993, edited by Jonathan Marcot and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• preliminary list given by Merriam 1917
ignimbrite above fauna dated at 6.6 +/- 0.1 and 6.8 +/- 0.2 Ma (KA on sanidine): Tedford et al. 1987; according to Tedford and Martin 2001, this is the same as the Rattlesnake Ash Flow Tuff dated at 7.2 Ma (SCLF AA) by Fremd et al. 1994 and 7.05 +/- 0.02 Ma (Ar/Ar) by Perkins et al. 1998
possibly relevant: Indarctos(?) sp. at UC 3042
status of "Hipparion sp." of Tedford et al. 1987 unclear in light of figured material

"Prosthennops rex": a nomen dubium from possible Rattlesnake exposures from Wilson's Springs, Crooked River, Oregon according to Colbert 1938; Merriam et al. were uncertain of the type's provenance but described an additional tayassuid at UC 3060
 Testudines -
Clemmys hesperia n. sp.5 Hay 1903 turtle
UCMP 2219 (holotype), a left hyoplastron
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Peromyscus sp.7 Gloger 1841 deer mouse
SDSM V-832
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
"Spermophilus gidleyi" = Citellus (Otospermophilus) gidleyi1
"Spermophilus gidleyi" = Citellus (Otospermophilus) gidleyi1 Merriam et al. 1925 ground squirrel
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Dipoides cf. stirtoni8 Wilson 1934 beaver
UCMP V-4825; "D. sp." of Stirton 1935
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
Mylagaulidae indet.3 Cope 1881 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Hypolagus vetus Kellogg 1910 rabbit
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras sp. Hatcher 1894 rhinoceros
"? Teleoceras, near fossiger" at UC 3060 and rhino at UC 3068; cf. Teleoceras sp. is present at SDSM V-832, see Martin 1983
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hippotherium sp. Kaup 1832 hipparionine horse
JA pers. obs. 4.2.95: "Hipparion occidentale" from UC 3057, "H. anthonyi" from UC 3058, 3062
Neohipparion cf. leptode9 Merriam 1915 hipparionine horse
includes "Hipparion leptode or Hipparion occidentale" from UC 884, probably "H. occidentale" from UC 887, and possibly "H. sinclairi" from UC 3068; JA pers. obs. 4.2.95
"Dinohippus spectans" = Pliohippus spectans1 Cope 1880 horse
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Myotis sp.3 Kaup 1829 vesper bat
a bat; "Vespertilionidae indet." of Martin 1983: SDSM V-832
 Carnivora - Ursidae
? Indarctos oregonensis n. sp. Merriam et al. 1916 bear
said in discussion of "Hipparion anthonyi" to be from UC 3058
Plionarctos sp.6 Frick 1926 bear
UC 3045; includes "Amphicyonid or Ursid" according to Tedford and Martin 2001
 Carnivora - Ailuridae
Simocyon primigenius11 Wagner 1858 red panda
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lutravus cf. halli4 Furlong 1932 mustelid carnivore
Martes sp.3 Frisch 1775 marten
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes stenognathus10 Savage 1941 fox
"Rattlesnake 3, UCMP locality 3042"
Borophaginae indet. Simpson 1945 bone-crushing dog
"Osteoborus" Fremd et al. 1994
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felidae indet. Gray 1821 cat
large and small forms, latter at UC 3058
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
cf. Megalonyx sp.3 Harlan 1825 edentate
 Proboscidea - Proboscidea
Proboscidea indet. proboscidean
said to be "Tetralophodon sp." by Fremd et al. 1994
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Platygonus oregonensis2 Colbert 1938 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Camelidae indet.3, "Hemiauchenia cf. vera" = Pleiolama vera7
Camelidae indet.3 Gray 1821 camel
"Hemiauchenia cf. vera" = Pleiolama vera7 Matthew 1909 camel
a larger camel. is also present at UC 3068 and type Rattlesnake locality
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Sphenophalos sp. Merriam 1909 pronghorn
UC 3045; additional antilocaprine at UC 3057