Pollack Farm Site: Early/Lower Hemingfordian, Delaware

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
unclassified
Bassariscinae indet.
1 specimen
Busycotyphus scalarispira
Ward 1998 C category
Parvalucina crenulata
Ward 1998 U category
Chradriiformes indet.
Rasmussen 1998
Bivalvia - Arcida - Arcidae
Dallarca sp. Ward 1992
Ward 1998 A category
Dallarca subrostrata (Conrad 1841)
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris parilis (Conrad 1843)
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Pectinidae
Chesapecten coccymelus (Dall 1898)
Ward 1998 C category
Chesapecten sayanus (Dall 1898)
Ward 1998 A category
Pecten humphreysii Conrad 1842
Ward 1998 P category
Subspecies: P. humphreysii woolmani
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Ostreidae
Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791)
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Malleidae
Isognomon (Hippochaeta) sp. ()
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus (Mytiloconcha) incurva (Conrad 1839)
Ward 1998 A category
Modiolus ducatellii (Conrad 1840)
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte sp. Sowerby 1816
Ward 1998 A category
Astarte distans Conrad 1862
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Carditida - Crassatellidae
Marvacrassatella melinus
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Carditida - Carditidae
Carditamera aculeata Conrad 1863
Ward 1998 C category
Cyclocardia castrana (Glenn 1904)
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Corbulidae
Caryocorbula cuneata (Say 1824)
Ward 1998 P category
Caryocorbula subcontracta (Whitfield 1894)
Ward 1998 P category
Varicorbula elevata (Conrad 1838)
Ward 1998 R category
Bicorbula idonea (Conrad 1833)
Ward 1998 R category
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Myidae
Mya producta Conrad 1838
Ward 1998 C category
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Pholadidae
Thovana sp. Gray 1847
Ward 1998 R category
spelled with current rank as Pholas (Thovana)
Martesia ovalis (Say 1820)
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Dreissenidae
Mytilopsis ermiocenicus
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Glossidae
Glossus sp. Poli 1795
Ward 1998 R category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Mactridae
"Mactra" sp. Linnaeus 1767
Ward 1998 A category
Leptomactra marylandica (Dall 1898)
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Veneridae
Mercenaria ducatelli (Conrad 1838)
Ward 1998 A category
Lirophora latilirata (Conrad 1841)
Ward 1998 A category
recombined as Lirophora (Lirophora) latilirata
Dosinia acetabulum (Conrad 1832)
Ward 1998 A category
Subspecies: D. acetabulum blackwelderi
Macrocallista marylandica (Conrad 1833)
Ward 1998 A category
Clementia grayi Dall 1900
Ward 1998 P category
recombined as Clementia (Egesta) grayi
Bivalvia - Cardiida
Iphigenia sp.
Ward 1998 C category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Solecurtidae
Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot 1786)
Ward 1998 C category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax sp. Linnaeus 1758
Ward 1998 P category
Donax idoneus Conrad 1872
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Tellinidae
Strigilla cf. georgiana Gardner 1947
Ward 1998 P category
Florimetis biplicata (Conrad 1834)
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Semelidae
Semele subovata (Say 1824)
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Cardiidae
Dinocardium sp. Dall 1900
Ward 1998 A category
Chesacardium craticuloides (Conrad 1845)
Ward 1998 A category
"Cardium" calvertensium Glenn 1904
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
Panopea americana (Conrad 1838)
Ward 1998 P category
Panopea whitfieldi Dall 1898
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Solenida - Pharidae
Ensis directus (Conrad 1844)
Ward 1998 P category
Bivalvia - Thraciida - Periplomatidae
Periploma peralta Conrad 1863
Ward 1998 C category
Bivalvia - Lucinida - Lucinidae
Stewartia anodonta (Say 1824)
Ward 1998 A category
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Nuculidae
Nucula taphria Dall 1898
Ward 1998 R category
Nucula prunicola Dall 1898
Ward 1998 C category
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Nuculana sp. Link 1807
Ward 1998 R category
Nuculana liciata (Conrad 1843)
Ward 1998 R category
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Yoldiidae
Yoldia sp. Möller 1842
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Epitoniidae
Epitonium charlestonensis Johnson 1931
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Cerithiopsidae
Seila adamsii (Lea 1845)
Ward 1998 U category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva simonsoni Ward 1998
Ward 1998 A category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
Mitrella communis (Conrad 1862)
Ward 1998 P category
recombined as Astyris communis
Subspecies: M. communis mediocris
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Metula sp. Adams and Adams 1853
Ward 1998 R category
Ptychosalpinx sp. Gill 1867
Ward 1998 R category
Chrysodomus patuxentensis Martin 1904
Ward 1998 R category
Siphonalia devexa (Conrad 1843)
Ward 1998 C category
recombined as Siphonalia devexus
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius trivitattoides
Ward 1998 C category
Also: N. trivitattoides elongata
Nassarius spopora
Ward 1998 A category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Trigonostoma biplicifera (Conrad 1841)
Ward 1998 P category
Cancellaria alternata Conrad 1834
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Scaphella virginiana (Conrad 1842)
Ward 1998 P category
Scaphella solitaria (Conrad 1830)
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Urosalpinx subrusticus (d'Orbigny 1852)
Ward 1998 C category
Cymia woodii (Gabb 1860)
Ward 1998 A category
Murexiella cumberlandiana (Gabb 1860)
Ward 1998 R category
Tritonopsis ecclesiastica (Dall 1915)
Ward 1998 U category
Ecphora tricostata Martin 1904
Ward 1998 C category
Typhis acuticosta (Conrad 1830)
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Cymatosyrinx limatula (Conrad 1830)
Ward 1998 P category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Turridae
Leucosyrinx rugata (Conrad 1862)
Ward 1998 P category
Polystira communis (Conrad 1830)
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Horaiclavidae
Inodrillia whitfieldi (Martin 1904)
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra inornata Whitfield 1894
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Ficidae
Ficus harrisi (Martin 1904)
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Littorinidae
Littorina sp. Ferussac 1821
Ward 1998 U category
Gastropoda - Eulimidae
Melanella eborea (Conrad 1846)
Ward 1998 R category
Melanella migrans (Conrad 1846)
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Naticidae
Lunatia hemicrypta (Gabb 1860)
Ward 1998 P category
Sinum chesapeakensis Campbell 1993
Ward 1998 P category
Lunatia heros (Say 1822)
Ward 1998 A category
recombined as Euspira heros
Polinices duplicatus (Say 1822)
Ward 1998 A category
recombined as Neverita duplicatus
Gastropoda - Vermetidae
Serpulorbis granifera (Say 1824)
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Calyptraeidae
Crucibulum costatum (Say 1820)
Ward 1998 U category
recombined as Crucibulum (Dispotaea) costata
Calyptraea centralis (Conrad 1841)
Ward 1998 R category
Crepidula plana Say 1822
Ward 1998 R category
Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus 1758)
Ward 1998 A category
Calyptraea aperta (Solander 1766)
Ward 1998 A category
recombined as Calyptraea (Trochita) aperta
Gastropoda - Hydrobiidae
Carinorbis dalli (Whitfield 1894)
Ward 1998 A category
Gastropoda - Caecidae
Caecum calvertense Martin 1904
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Tornidae
Teinostoma nana (Lea 1833)
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Sorbeoconcha - Diastomatidae
Diastoma insulaemaris (Pilsbry and Harbison 1933)
Ward 1998 A category
Gastropoda - Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella cumberlandia Conrad 1863
Ward 1998 C category
Turritella tampae Heilprin 1887
Ward 1998 C category
Turritella plebeia Say 1824
Ward 1998 R category
recombined as Mariacolpus plebeia
Gastropoda - Turbinidae
Solariorbis lipara (Lea 1843)
Ward 1998 R category
Gastropoda - Fissurellidae
Diodora griscomi (Conrad 1834)
Ward 1998 R category
Mispelt as: Diadora
Gastropoda - Trochidae
Calliostoma eboreus (Wagner 1839)
Ward 1998 C category
Gastropoda - Tegulidae
Tegula marylandicum (Martin 1904)
Ward 1998 C category
Scaphopoda - Gadilida - Gadilidae
Cadulus conradi Pilsbry and Harbison 1933
Ward 1998 R category
Chondrichthyes - Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina sp. Dumeril 1806
Purdy 1988 R category
Chondrichthyes - Odontaspidida - Carcharodontidae
Isurus hastalis (Agassiz 1843)
Purdy 1988 U category
recombined as Cosmopolitodus hastalis
Chondrichthyes - Plagiostomi - Squalidae
Squalus sp. Linnaeus 1758
Purdy 1988 R category
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Otodontidae
Carcharodon subauriculatus Agassiz 1843
Purdy 1988 R category
recombined as Carcharocles chubutensis
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque 1810
Purdy 1988 U category
Carcharias cuspidata (Agassiz 1843)
Purdy 1988 C category
original and current combination Lamna cuspidata
Chondrichthyes - Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Galeocerdo contortus Gibbes 1848
Purdy 1988 C category
Galeocerdo aduncus Agassiz 1843
Purdy 1988 C category
Carcharhinus limbatus
Purdy 1988 C category
Carcharhinus brachyurus (Gunther 1870)
Purdy 1988 C category
Carcharhinus perezii (Poey 1876)
Purdy 1988 C category
recombined as Carcharhinus perezi
Chondrichthyes - Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
Hemipristis serra Agassiz 1843
Purdy 1988 A category
synonym of Hemipristis heteropleurus
Chondrichthyes - Orectolobiformes - Orectolobidae
Orectolobidae indet. Jordan and Fowler 1903
Purdy 1988 R category
Chondrichthyes - Orectolobiformes - Rhincodontidae
Rhincodon sp. Smith 1829
Purdy 1988 R category
Chondrichthyes - Squalomorphii - Hexanchidae
Notorynchus sp. Ayers 1855
Purdy 1988 U category
Proteida - Batrachosauroididae
Batrachosauroides aff. dissimulans Taylor and Hesse 1943
Weems and George 2013
USNM 464090, right dentary; USNM 464091, anterior trunk vertebra; USNM 464097, USNM 540754, USNM 540755, three trunk vertebrae. Collectors: Dentary, G. Simonson; vertebrae, D. Bohaska, S. Swelson, and P. Kroehler
Urodela
cf. Notophthalmus robustus Estes 1963
Weems and George 2013
USNM 464092, trunk vertebra
Reptilia - Testudines - Trionychidae
Apalone lima
Weems and George 2013
One carapace fragment (USNM 540752) and xiphiplastron fragment (USNM 540753)
Reptilia - Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Kinosternon sp. von Spix 1824
Holman 1998 12 specimens
Reptilia - Testudines - Testudinidae
Hesperotestudo (Caudochelys) wilsoni Milstead 1956
Weems and George 2013
recombined as Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni
Two neurals (USNM 540747 and USNM 483391), two partial costal elements (USNM 483391 and USNM 540751)
Geochelone sp. Fitzinger 1835
Holman 1998 9 specimens
Reptilia - Testudines - Emydidae
Emydidae sp. Rafinesque 1815
Holman 1998 4 specimens
"Chrysemys group"
cf. Chrysemys sp. Gray 1844
Weems and George 2013
One posterior peripheral (USNM 483390). Collected by G. Simonson
Reptilia - Avetheropoda
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758
Rasmussen 1998
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Pelagornithidae
Pelagornithidae indet. Fürbringer 1888
Rasmussen 1998
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Gaviidae
Gavia sp. Forster 1788
Rasmussen 1998
cf. Gavia sp. Forster 1788
Rasmussen 1998
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Sulidae
Morus cf. loxostylus (Cope 1870)
Rasmussen 1998
Reptilia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylus (cf. Crocodylus) sp. Laurenti 1768
Holman 1998 1 specimen
Reptilia - Squamata - Anguidae
Ophisaurus sp. Daudin 1803
Holman 1998 2 specimens
Reptilia - Squamata - Boidae
Calamagras sp. Cope 1873
Holman 1998 1 specimen
Erycinae indet. Bonaparte 1825
Holman 1998 1 specimen
invalid subgroup of Boidae
Pterygoboa delawarensis n. sp. Holman 1998
Holman 1998 1 specimen
Reptilia - Squamata - Colubridae
Ameiseophis robinsoni Holman 1976
Holman 1998 1 specimen
Pollackophis depressus n. gen., n. sp. Holman 1998
Holman 1998 1 specimen
Reptilia - Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalinae indet. Oppel 1811
Holman 1998 3 specimens
spelled with current rank as Crotalidae
Mammalia - Dugongidae
Dugongidae indet. Gray 1821
Bohaska 1998 2 specimens
Mammalia - Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Proheteromys magnus Wood 1932
3 specimens
    = Harrymys magnus Wood 1932
Alroy 2002
Mammalia - Rodentia - Castoridae
Anchitheriomys sp. Roger 1885
1 specimen
Monosaulax sp. Stirton 1935
6 specimens
confirmed by Korth 1999b
Mammalia - Rodentia - Zapodidae
Plesiosminthus sp. Viret 1926
1 specimen
    = Sicistinae indet. Allen 1901
Alroy 2002
compared most closely to "P." galbreathi = Schaubeumys, but also to valid species of Plesiosminthus sensu Korth
Mammalia - Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
? Erinaceidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817
3 specimens
Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
cf. Tylocephalonyx sp. Coombs 1979
6 specimens
Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet. Gray 1821
8 specimens
Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae
Parahippus leonensis Sellards 1916
21 specimens
(1 measurement)
Anchitherium sp. von Meyer 1844
2 specimens
Archaeohippus cf. blackbergi (Hay 1924)
19 specimens
(1 measurement)
Mammalia - Plesiosoricidae
Plesiosorex cf. coloradensis Wilson 1960
1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Mammalia - Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Vespertilionidae indet. Gray 1821
2 specimens
a bat
Mammalia - Carnivora - Ursidae
Hemicyon sp. Lartet 1851
1 specimen
    = Ursidae indet. Gray 1825
Alroy 2002
(no diagnostic features described);
Mammalia - Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyoninae indet. Gray 1825
1 specimen
Mammalia - Carnivora - Phocidae
Leptophoca lenis True 1906
Bohaska 1998 1 specimen
synonym of Leptophoca proxima
Mammalia - Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Amphicyon intermedius White 1940
4 specimens
(1 measurement)
    = Amphicyon longiramus White 1942
Alroy 2002
Cynelos sp. Jourdan 1862
2 specimens
Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae
Tomarctus cf. thomsoni (Matthew 1907)
1 specimen
    = Paracynarctus kelloggi Merriam 1911
Wang et al. 1999
replaces ID of Emry and Eshelman 1998
Tomarctus canavus (Simpson 1932)
3 specimens
    = Metatomarctus cf. canavus Simpson 1932
Alroy 2002
see also Wang et al. 1999;
Mammalia - Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
Oreodontidae indet. Leidy 1869
1 specimen
    = Merycoidodontidae indet. Cook 1912
Alroy 2002
Mammalia - Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Tayassuidae indet. Palmer 1897
2 specimens
"? Desmathyus or Hesperhys"
Cynorca sociale (Marsh 1875)
30 specimens
recombined as Marshochoerus socialis
Mammalia - Ungulata - Anthracotheriidae
? Anthracotheriidae indet. Leidy 1869
1 specimen
Mammalia - Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Blastomeryx galushai
2 specimens
(1 measurement)
    = Parablastomeryx galushi Frick 1937
Alroy 2002
synonym of Barbouromeryx trigonocorneus
(sic); no reason is given for this genus assignment
Mammalia - Cetacea - Squalodontidae
Squalodon calvertensis Kellogg 1923
Bohaska 1998 8 specimens
Mammalia - Cetacea - Platanistidae
Zarhachis flagellator Cope 1868
Bohaska 1998 4 specimens
Mammalia - Cetacea - Squalodelphinidae
Phocageneus venustus Leidy 1869
Bohaska 1998 3 specimens
Mammalia - Cetacea - Physeteridae
Physeteridae indet. Gray 1821
Bohaska 1998 3 specimens
Mammalia - Cetacea - Kentriodontidae
Kentriodontidae indet. Slijper 1936
Bohaska 1998 2 specimens
Mammalia - Cetacea - Eurhinodelphinidae
Rhabdosteus indet. Cope 1867
Bohaska 1998 1 specimen
    = Schizodelphis sulcatus Gervais 1853
Muizon 1988
see common names

Geography
Country:United States State/province:Delaware County:Kent
Coordinates: 39.2° North, 75.6° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:39.4° North, 71.6° West
Basis of coordinate:based on political unit
Geographic resolution:small collection
Time
Period:Neogene Epoch:Miocene
Stage:Burdigalian 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 5
*Period:Tertiary *Local age/stage:Early/Lower Hemingfordian
Key time interval:Early/Lower Hemingfordian
Age range of interval:20.43000 - 15.97000 m.y. ago
* legacy (obsolete) database fields
Stratigraphy
Geological group:Chesapeake Formation:Calvert Member:Cheswold Sands
Regional section:Shattuck Regional bed:3b
Regional order:bottom to top
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: said to be early Hemingfordian, lower Calvert; Shattuck zone not state in text, interpreted from de Verteuil and Norris (1996).
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:"cross stratification",medium,coarse,shelly/skeletal sandstone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "lower shell bed... medium- to coarse-grained shelly sand with densely-packed bivalve shells... Cross bedding" (Cutler 1998)
Environment:estuary/bay
Geology comments: "channel-fill deposit within an estuarine environment... deltaic environment where brackish-water and marine mollusks are mixed" (Cutler 1998)
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Articulated whole bodies:none
Associated major elements:none
Disassociated major elements:some
Disassociated minor elements:many
Feeding/predation traces:fractures,tooth marks
Temporal resolution:time-averaged
Spatial resolution:allochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:bulk,sieve
Collection size:101 specimens
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Collection method comments: generically determinate NISP 101 (mammals); total said to be "nearly 200 identifiable specimens... 50-60 mammal teeth per 1000 kg of matrix" by Cutler 1998; material is mostly from "spoil piles" and not in situ
Taxonomic list comments:Sr isotope date of 17.9 +/- 0.5 on molluscs
Metadata
Also known as:Delaware Geological Survey locality Id11-a
Database number:18579
Authorizer:J. Alroy, A. Hendy, E. Vlachos, J. Head, M. Uhen Enterer:J. Alroy, A. Hendy, E. Vlachos, J. Head, M. Uhen
Modifier:M. Uhen Research group:vertebrate
Created:2000-05-19 00:00:00 Last modified:2017-01-03 09:39:22
Access level:the public Released:2000-05-19 00:00:00
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

1446. R. J. Emry and R. E. Eshelman. 1998. The early Hemingfordian (early Miocene) Pollack Farm local fauna; first Tertiary land mammals described from Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 21:153-173 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]

Secondary references:

6294 J. Alroy. 2002. Synonymies and reidentifications of North American fossil mammals. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
11874 D. J. Bohaska. 1998. Fossil marine mammals of the lower Miocene Pollack Farm Site, Delaware. Geology and Paleontology of the of the lower Miocene Pollack Farm Fossil Site, Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 21:179-191 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
90675% 1360A. H. Cutler. 1998. A note on the taphonomy of lower Miocene fossil land mammals from the marine Calvert Formation at the Pollack Farm Site, Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 21:175-178 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Carrano]
14892 L. de Verteuil and G. Norris. 1996. Dinoflagellate cyst zonation and allostratigraphy of the Chesapeake Group. Micropaleontology 42:1-25 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
14760 J. A. Holman. 1998. Reptiles of the Lower Miocene (Hemmingfordian) Pollack Farm Fossil Site, Delaware. Geology and Paleontology of the Lower Miocene Pollack Farm Site, Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication. 21:141-147 [J. Head/J. Head]
12196 C. Muizon. 1988. Le polyphyletisme des Acrodelphidae, Odontocetes longirostres du Miocene europeen. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histore Naturelle, Section C Sciences de la Terre, Paleontologie, Geologie, Minerologie 10:31-88 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
52700 R. W. Purdy. 1988. The Early Miocene fish fauna from the Pollock Farm Site, Delaware. In R. N. Benson (ed.), Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication (21)131-139 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
40330 P. C. Rasmussen. 1998. Early Miocene avifauna form the Pollack Farm Site, Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 21:149-151 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
3558 X. Wang, R. H. Tedford, and B. E. Taylor. 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae (Carnivora: Canidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243:1-392 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
17099 L. W. Ward. 1998. Mollusks from the Lower Miocene Pollack Farm Site, Kenty County, Delaware: A preliminary analysis. Geology and paleontology of the lower Miocene Pollack Farm Fossil Site, Delaware [A. Miller/A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
64777 R. E. Weems and R. A. George. 2013. Amphibians and nonmarine turtles from the Miocene Calvert Formation of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia (USA). Journal of Paleontology 87(4):53-66 [E. Vlachos/E. Vlachos]