Durdham Down, Quarry Steps: Rhaetian, United Kingdom
collected by J. S. Miller, Benton

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes
? Hybodontiformes indet. (Patterson 1966)
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Lonchidiidae
Lissodus minimus (Agassiz 1839)
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
Chondrichthyes - Synechodontiformes
Rhomphaiodon minor (Agassiz 1837)
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
subsidiary cusp of tooth
Actinopterygia indet. (Cope 1871)
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
spelled with current rank as Actinopteri
Archosauromorpha indet. Huene 1946
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
BRSMG Cb4277.15, fragment of small tooth
Reptilia - Archosauria
Archosauria indet. Cope 1869
Whiteside and Marshall 2008 5 specimens
jaw fragments, caudal, scapulocoracoid
Sauropodomorpha indet. Huene 1932
Galton 2007
Thecodontosaurus n. gen. sp. Riley and Stutchbury 1836
Riley and Stutchbury 1836 10 individuals
BRSMG *Ca7465/1, C4529/2; BRSMG Cb4195.2 and BRSMG Cb4196.4, fragments of single teeth from reference 57931 (7 measurements)
    = Thecodontosaurus antiquus n. sp. Morris 1843
Owen 1842
Prosauropoda indet. Huene 1920
Galton 2005 6 individuals
YPM 2195, 56745, 56725, 56726, 56739; BMNH R1542
    = Asylosaurus yalensis n. gen., n. sp. Galton 2007
Galton 2007
Plateosauria indet. Tornier 1913
Galton 2005 22 specimens
BRSMG Ca7464/118, Cb4243, Cb4189/78, Ca7482/80, Ca7483/82, Cb4174c/41, Ca7451a/81, Ca7454/87, Ca7450/61, Ca7457c/63, Ca7460/57, Ca7560/60, Ca7490/71, Ca7492/69I, Ca7493/70, Ca7498/83; ANSP 9864, 9875, 9856; YPM 56724; BGS 907924; BMNH 49984c
    = Anchisauria indet. Galton and Upchurch 2004
Galton 2007
Agrosaurus macgillivrayi n. gen., n. sp. Seeley 1891
Seeley 1891 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Prosauropoda
BMNH 49984
Theropoda indet. (Marsh 1881)
Galton 2007 3 specimens
BMNH R1549; BRSMG Ca7487c/85; tooth with BMNH 49984e; also BRSMG Cb4277, tibia, "Originally the fossil was identified as a rib and assigned to Thecodontosaurus antiquus by Huene" (from reference 57931)
Reptilia - Ornithischia
Ornithischia indet. Seeley 1888
Galton 2007 1 specimen
BRSMG Ca7474/16b
? Herrerasauria indet. Galton 1985
Galton 2007 3 specimens
YPM 56744; BRSMG Ca7513/77b; BMNH R1539
Sphenosuchia indet.
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
invalid subgroup of Crocodylomorpha
BRSMG Cb4195, right femur, initially identified as 'Thecodontosaurus costa’ by Huene (1908)
Palaeosaurus cylindricum n. gen., n. sp. Riley and Stutchbury 1836
Riley and Stutchbury 1836 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Phytosauria
tooth; BRSMG *Ca7449/4
Reptilia - Parasuchidae
Phytosauridae indet. Jaeger 1828
Foffa et al. 2014 2 specimens
replaced by Mystriosuchinae
BRSMG Cb4261.1 and BRSMG Cb4196.5, two large teeth
Rileya bristolensis n. sp. Huene 1902
Huene 1908 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Phytosauria
BRSMG *Ca7461/95, 96
Palaeosaurus platyodon n. sp. Riley and Stutchbury 1836
Riley and Stutchbury 1836 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Phytosauria
tooth; BRSMG *Ca7448/3
Lacertilia indet. Owen 1842
Benton et al. 2000 1 specimen
"lizard"; BRSMG Cb4715
    = Diphydontosaurus avonis Whiteside 1986
Galton 2007
    = Lepidosauria indet. Haeckel 1866
Whiteside and Marshall 2008
Reptilia - Rhynchocephalia - Clevosauridae
Clevosaurus sp. Swinton 1939
Foffa et al. 2014 2 specimens
BRSMG Cb4196.2, incomplete right ramus of lower jaw; BRSMG Cb4196.3, tooth
Reptilia - Rhynchocephalia
Diphydontosaurus avonis Whiteside 1986
Benton et al. 2000 19 specimens
BMNH R14111; additional eighteen teeth and jaw fragments from reference 57931
Clevosaurus sp. Swinton 1939
Benton et al. 2000 1 specimen
BRSMG Cb4714
    = Diphydontosaurus avonis Whiteside 1986
Galton 2007
? Planocephalosaurus sp. Fraser 1982
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
BRSMG Cb4213.2, acrodont tooth
Reptilia - Kuehneosauridae
? Kuehneosauridae indet. Romer 1966
Foffa et al. 2014 1 specimen
BRSMG Cb4196, rib: "Considering the archosauromorphs identified from the Durdham Down deposit, an alternative identification is as an ulna of Terrestrisuchus (Crush, 1984), which is of similar size and cross section, but the absence of epiphyses means that the decision between kuehneosaur rib or crocodylomorph ulna must be left open."
see common names

Country:United Kingdom State/province:England
Coordinates: 51.5° North, 2.6° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:35.9° North, 0.8° East
Basis of coordinate:stated in text
Altitude:320 feet
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period:Triassic Epoch:Late/Upper Triassic
Stage:Rhaetian 10 m.y. bin:Triassic 4
Key time interval:Rhaetian
Age range of interval:208.50000 - 201.30000 m.y. ago
Formation:Magnesian Conglomerate
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: Late Triassic deposits infill Early Carboniferous (Dinantian) marine limestones
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: "limestone"
Secondary lithology:dolomitic,yellow sandy breccia
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "brecciated beds" within marine limestone are described as "conglomerate" and as "angular fragments of Carboniferous limestone in a matrix of yellow marl." Considered a "dolomitized cave breccia or fissure fill"
Environment:fissure fill
Modes of preservation:body
Degree of concentration:concentrated
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:medium
Abundance in sediment:abundant
Articulated whole bodies:none
Associated major elements:some
Disassociated major elements:many
Disassociated minor elements:many
Temporal resolution:time-averaged
Spatial resolution:parautochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:bulk,salvage,selective quarrying,mechanical,field collection,survey of museum collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Collectors:J. S. Miller, Benton
Collection method comments: Agrosaurus specimen was originally believed to have been collected from the NE coast of Australia by the H.M.S. Fly in 1844, but this was later shown to be in error, and these materials represent additional Thecodontosaurus specimens from Durdham Down.
Also known as:Redland, Derdham
Database number:51970
Authorizer:M. Carrano, P. Barrett Enterer:M. Carrano, T. Cleary
Modifier:M. Carrano Research group:vertebrate
Created:2005-07-07 12:09:49 Last modified:2018-01-02 14:49:17
Access level:the public Released:2005-07-07 12:09:49
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

31172.ETE W. Buckland. 1824. Reliquiæ Diluvianæ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel, and on Other Geological Phenomena, Attesting the Action of an Universal Deluge. Second Edition. John Murray, London 1-303 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

55040 Anonymous. 1834. Discovery of saurian bones in the magnesian conglomerate near Bristol. The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 5:463 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
55041 Anonymous. 1835. Saurian remains in the magnesian conglomerate of Bristol. The West of England Journal of Science and Literature 1:84-85 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
33403 Anonymous. 1835. Discovery of Saurian Bones in the Magnesian Conglomerate near Bristol. American Journal of Science and Arts 28:389 [M. Carrano/M. Oreska]
63690 Anonymous. 1961. Bombed dinosaurs—and a happy ending. New Scientist 9(218):137 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
53922 H. C. Beasley. 1902. Inaugural address on the fauna indicated in the Lower Keuper Sandstone of the neighbourhood of Liverpool. Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society 16:3-26 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
13887ETE M. J. Benton, L. Juul, G. W. Storrs and P. M. Galton. 2000. Anatomy and systematics of the prosauropod dinosaur Thecodontosaurus antiquus from the upper Triassic of southwest England. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77-108 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
15587ETE M. J. Benton and P. S. Spencer. 1995. Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain. Chapman & Hall, London 1-386 [M. Carrano/K. Maguire/J. Tennant]
57931 D. Foffa, D. I. Whiteside, P. A. Viegas and M. J. Benton. 2014. Vertebrates from the Late Triassic Thecodontosaurus-bearing rocks of Durdham Down, Clifton (Bristol, UK). Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 125:317-328 [P. Barrett/T. Cleary]
14824ETE P. Galton. 2005. Basal sauropodomorph dinosaur taxa Thecodontosaurus Riley & Stutchbury, 1836, T. antiquus Morris, 1843 and T. caducus Yates, 2003: their status re: humeral morphs from the 1834 fissure fill (Upper Triassic) in Clifton, Bristol, UK. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(3, suppl.):61A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
12987ETE P. M. Galton. 2000. Are Spondylosoma and Staurikosaurus (Santa Maria Formation, Middle-Upper Triassic, Brazil) the oldest saurischian dinosaurs?. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 74(3):393-423 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/J. Alroy]
30681 P. M. Galton. 2007. Notes on the remains of archosaurian reptiles, mostly basal sauropodomorph dinosaurs, from the 1834 fissure fill (Rhaetian, Upper Triassic) at Clifton in Bristol, southwest England. Revue de Paléobiologie 26(2):505-591 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
16920ETE F. v. Huene. 1905. Trias-Dinosaurier Europas [European Triassic dinosaurs]. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 57:345-349 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/T. Liebrecht]
16865ETE F. v. Huene. 1908. On phytosaurian remains from the Magnesian Conglomerate of Bristol (Rileya platyodon). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8 1:228-230 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
62966 F. v. Huene. 1914. I: Animalia. Pars 4. Saurischia et Ornithischia triadica (“Dinosauria” triadica). 1-20 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
63762 G. A. Mantell. 1854. The Medals of Creation; or, First Lessions in Geology, and the Study of Organic Remains 2:447-930 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
57269 C. Moore. 1876. On the age of the Durdham Down deposit, yielding Thecodontosaurus etc. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 45:77-78 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14071ETE R. Owen. 1842. Report on British fossil reptiles, part II. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 11:60-204 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
18059ETE T. H. Rich and P. Vickers-Rich. 2003. A Century of Australian Dinosaurs. Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery and Monash Science Centre, Monash University 1-124 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
44685 H. Riley and S. Stutchbury. 1836. A description of various fossil remains of three distinct saurian animals discovered in the autumn of 1834, in the Magnesian Conglomerate on Durdham Down, near Bristol. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 2:397-399 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
44686 H. Riley and S. Stutchbury. 1840. A description of various fossil remains of three distinct saurian animals, recently discovered in the Magnesian Conglomerate near Bristol. Transactions of the Geological Society of London 3:349-357 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
12290 P. L. Robinson. 1957. The Mesozoic fissures of the Bristol Channel area and their vertebrate faunas. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 43:260-228 [R. Whatley/R. Whatley/R. Butler]
16514 C. F. v. Roemer. 1856. II. Erste Periode. Kohlen-Gebirge [II. First period. Coal mountains]. In H. G. Bronn & C. F. v. Roemer (ed.), H. G. Bronn’s Lethaea Geognostica, oder Abbildung und Beschreibung der für die Gebirgs-Formationen Bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen [H. G. Bronn's Lethaea Geognostica, or Illustration and Description of the Most Significant Fossils of the Mountain Formations] 1:1-788 [P. Wagner/P. Wagner/M. Carrano]
53449 H. G. Seeley. 1891. On Agrosaurus macgillivrayi (Seeley), a saurischian reptile from the N.E. coast of Australia. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 47:164-165 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
53458 H. G. Seeley. 1895. On Thecodontosaurus and Palaeosaurus. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 6 15:144-163 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
62300 W. J. Sollas. 1880. On the geology of the Bristol District. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 6(8):375-391 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
15490ETE R. Steel. 1970. Part 14. Saurischia. Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie/Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1-87 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
23520ETE D. B. Weishampel, P. M. Barrett, R. A. Coria, J. Le Loeuff, X. Xu, X. Zhao, A. Sahni, E. M. P. Gomani, and C. R. Noto. 2004. Dinosaur distribution. In D. B. Weishampel, H. Osmolska, and P. Dodson (eds.), The Dinosauria (2nd edition). University of California Press, Berkeley 517-606 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
59609 D. I. Whiteside, C. J. Duffin, P. G. Gill, J. E. A. Marshall, and M. J. Benton. 2016. The Late Triassic and Early Jurassic fissure faunas from Bristol and South Wales: stratigraphy and setting. Palaeontologia Polonica 67:257-287 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
25869ETE D. I. Whiteside and J. E. A. Marshall. 2008. The age, fauna and palaeoenvironment of the Late Triassic fissure deposits of Tytherington, South Gloucesterhire, UK. Geological Magazine 145(1):105-147 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/R. Butler]
52562 D. Williams. 1834. On the bones of certain animals which have been recently discovered, in the calcareo-magnesian Conglomerate on Durdham Down, near Bristol. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 2:112 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
30971ETE A. S. Woodward and C. D. Sherborn. 1890. A Catalogue of British Fossil Vertebrata. Dulao & Company, London 1-396 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]