Coll. 1 - Black Swamp, Mount Hope [Mount Hope Fm]: Early/Lower Pleistocene, Panama

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Marinula colonia
Arca deshayesi
    = Anadara notabilis Röding 1798
Hendy et al. 2008
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Mussidae
Manicina areolata (Linnaeus 1758)
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Merulinidae
Cladocora arbuscula (Lesueur 1820)
listed as Cladocora orbuscula
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Faviidae
Favia fragum (Esper 1795)
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Agariciidae
Agaricia agaricites (Linnaeus 1758)
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Poritidae
Porites porites (Pallas 1766)
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Siderastreidae
Siderastrea siderea (Ellis and Solander 1786)
Thecostraca - Balanomorpha - Balanidae
Balanus eburneus Gould 1841
Scaphopoda - Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium callithrix
Scaphopoda - Gadilida - Gadilidae
Cadulus vaughani
Bivalvia - Arcida - Arcidae
Scapharca pittieri (Dall 1912)
recombined as Anadara (Cunearca) pittieri
Arca campechiensis Gmelin 1791
synonym of Lunarca ovalis
Arca antiquata Linnaeus 1758
    = Anadara transversa Say 1822
Hendy et al. 2008
recombined as Anadara (Larkinia) transversa
Arca occidentalis Philippi 1847
synonym of Byssoarca zebra
Arca imbricata Bruguière 1789
recombined as Lamarcka imbricata
Arca umbonata Lamarck 1819
synonym of Lamarcka imbricata
Arca reticulata Gmelin 1792
    = Acar domingensis Lamarck 1819
Hendy et al. 2008
Byssoarca fusca (Bruguiére 1792)
    = Barbatia sp. Gray 1842
Hendy et al. 2008
Bivalvia - Arcida - Noetiidae
Arca adamsi Dall 1886
recombined as Arcopsis adamsi
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Pectinidae
Pecten gibbus Linnaeus 1758
recombined as Argopecten gibbus
Pecten ziczac (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Euvola ziczac
Pecten exasperatus Sowerby 1842
synonym of Lindapecten muscosus
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Malleidae
Melina ephippium
    = Isognomon (Melina) bicolor Adams 1845
Coan and Valentich-Scott 2012
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea virginica Gmelin 1791
recombined as Crassostrea virginica
Bivalvia - Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus exustus Linnaeus 1758
recombined as Brachidontes exustus
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula swiftiana Adams 1852
synonym of Caryocorbula caribaea
Corbula aequivalvis Philippi 1836
recombined as Juliacorbula aequivalvis
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Veneridae
Gafrarium (Gouldia) cerina (Adams 1845)
Chione cancellata (Linnaeus 1767)
Pitar subaresta (Dall 1912)
recombined as Pitar subarestus
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama sp. Linnaeus 1758
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Ungulinidae
Diplodonta soror (Adams 1852)
Diplodonta mediamericana Brown and Pilsbry 1913
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Cardiidae
Cardium medium Linnaeaus 1758
recombined as Americardia media
Cardium muricatum Linnaeus 1758
recombined as Trachycardium (Dallocardia) muricatum
Cardium serratum Linnaeus 1758
recombined as Laevicardium serratum
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra aequalis (Say 1822)
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Tellinidae
Tellina (Cyclotellina) fausta (Pulteney 1799)
recombined as Arcopagia fausta
Tellina (Angulus) promera (Dall 1900)
synonym of Angulus merus
Tellina (Angulus) versicolor De Kay 1843
recombined as Angulus versicolor
Tellina (Eurytellina) alternata (Say 1822)
Bivalvia - Poromyida - Cuspidariidae
Cuspidaria (Cardiomya) costellata (Deshayes 1833)
Bivalvia - Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucina chrysostoma Philippi 1845
synonym of Anodontia alba
Codakia antillarum Reeve 1850
synonym of Parvilucina costata
Phacoides antillarum (Reeve 1850)
synonym of Parvilucina costata
Phacoides cf. crenulatus (Conrad 1840)
recombined as Parvilucina crenulata
Codakia orbiculata (Montagu 1808)
recombined as Ctena orbiculata
Phacoides lintea (Conrad 1846)
synonym of Lucinisca nassula
Phacoides sp. Blainville 1825
Phacoides pectinatus (Gmelin 1791)
Phacoides leucocyma (Dall 1886)
recombined as Pleurolucina leucocyma
Bivalvia - Carditida - Crassatellidae
Crassinella guadalupensis (d'Orbigny 1853)
Bivalvia - Nuculanida - Nuculanidae
Leda vulgaris Brown and Pilsbry 1913
recombined as Saccella vulgaris
Leda acuta (Conrad 1832)
recombined as Nuculana acuta
Yoldia perprotracta Dall 1912
synonym of Adrana newcombi
Gastropoda - Neritidae
Neritina viridis Linnaeus 1758
recombined as Smaragdia (Smaragdia) viridis
Gastropoda - Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula plana Say 1822
Crepidula convexa Say 1822
Calyptraea candeana (d'Orbigny 1847)
synonym of Calyptraea centralis
Gastropoda - Pseudomelaniidae
Drillia leucocyma Dall 1884
recombined as Pilsbryspira leucocyma
Gastropoda - Potamididae
Cerithidea varicosa
Gastropoda - Scaliolidae
Alabina cerithidioides (Dall 1889)
synonym of Finella dubia
[entered as Alabina cerithioides]
Gastropoda - Litiopidae
Alaba tervaricosa (Adams 1845)
synonym of Alaba incerta
Gastropoda - Cerithiidae
Bittium varium (Pfeiffer 1840)
recombined as Bittiolum varium
Cerithium medium
Cerithium algicola Adams 1845
synonym of Cerithium eburneum
Cerithium variabile (Adams 1845)
synonym of Cerithium lutosum
Cerithium litteratum (Born 1778)
[entered as Cerithium literatum]
    = Cerithium litteratum Born 1778
Hendy et al. 2008
Gastropoda - Modulidae
Modulus catenulatus
Modulus modulus (Linnaeus 1758)
Gastropoda - Littorinidae
Littorina angulifera (Lamarck 1822)
recombined as Littoraria angulifera
Gastropoda - Cerithiopsidae
Cerithiopsis sp. Hanley 1849
Gastropoda - Vermetidae
Vermetus nigricans (Dall 1884)
recombined as Petaloconchus nigricans
Gastropoda - Naticidae
Sigaretus perspectivus Say 1831
recombined as Sinum perspectivum
Natica pusilla Say 1822
recombined as Tectonatica pusilla
Gastropoda - Strombidae
Strombus pugilis Linnaeus 1758
Strombus bituberculatus Lamarck 1822
synonym of Lobatus rarinus
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Fasciolaria sp. Lamarck 1799
Latirus cingulifera
Murex nodatus Gmelin 1791
recombined as Latirus nodatus
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Engina turbinella (Kiener 1836)
Phos intricatus Dall 1884
recombined as Bailya intricata
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassa vibex Say 1822
recombined as Nassarius vibex
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
Anachis samanensis
Anachis pulchella
Anachis avara (Say 1822)
Colombella avara
Columbella mercatoria (Linnaeus 1758)
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Olividae
Olivella myrmecoon Dall 1912
recombined as Olivella (Minioliva) myrmecoon
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Voluta alfaroi Dall 1912
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Marginella cincta
Marginella pallida
Marginella minuta Pfeiffer 1840
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Murex rufus
Murex pomum Gmelin 1791
recombined as Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) pomum
Aspella scalarioides (Blainville 1826)
recombined as Dermomurex (Dermomurex) scalaroides
Urosalpinx sp. Stimpson 1865
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Clathurellidae
Clathurella jewettii
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus proteus Hwass 1792
synonym of Conus spurius
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Cochlespiridae
Drillia ostrearum Stearns 1872
recombined as Pyrgospira ostrearum
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra spei Brown and Pilsbry 1913
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
Cythara biconica
Cythara balteata (Reeve 1846)
replaced by Ithycythara lanceolata
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Drillia harfordiana (Reeve 1843)
Gastropoda - Triviidae
Trivia pediculus (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Pusula pediculus
Gastropoda - Ranellidae
Cymatium tuberosum
Cymatium vespaceum (Lamarck 1822)
    = Monoplex comptus Adams 1855
Beu 2010
Gastropoda - Rissoidae
Rissoina laevigata (Adams 1850)
recombined as Zebina laevigata
Rissoina striatocostata
Rissoina cancellata
Rissoina elegantissima (d'Orbigny 1842)
Gastropoda - Eulimidae
Eulima bifasciata d'Orbigny 1841
Gastropoda - Tegulidae
Tegula fasciata
Gastropoda - Turbinidae
Turbo crenulatus Gmelin 1791
synonym of Turbo (Senectus) castanea
Astralium brevispina
Astralium tuberosum
Gastropoda - Phasianellidae
Phasianella pulchella
Gastropoda - Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
Subemarginula emarginata
Subemarginula rollandii
Fissuridea alternata (Say 1822)
synonym of Diodora cayenensis
Gastropoda - Opisthobranchia - Cylichnidae
Tornatina canaliculata (Say 1826)
recombined as Acteocina canaliculata
Cylichnella bidentata (d'Orbigny 1841)
recombined as Acteocina bidentata
Gastropoda - Opisthobranchia - Haminoeidae
Atys sandersoni
Haminea canalis
original and current combination Haminoea
Haminea antillarum
original and current combination Haminoea
Gastropoda - Opisthobranchia - Bullidae
Bullaria occidentalis (Adams 1850)
synonym of Bulla striata
Gastropoda - Patellida - Lottiidae
Acmaea punctulata (Gmelin 1791)
replaced by Patelloida pustulata
Polyplacophora - Chitonida - Chitonidae
Tonicia schrammi (Shuttleworth 1856)
see common names

Coordinates: 9.3° North, 79.9° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:9.3° North, 79.6° West
Altitude:4 feet
Geographic resolution:outcrop
Period:Quaternary Epoch:Pleistocene
10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
Key time interval:Early/Lower Pleistocene
Age range of interval:2.58800 - 0.78100 m.y. ago
Formation:Mount Hope
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From what Scott (pers comm., 1911) referred to as the "Mount Hope Fm". Lithostratigraphic relationships are unknown, but presumably the unit locally overlies the Gatun Fm. THICKNESS: Unknown stratigraphic thickness. AGE: Pleistocene, presumably (given geographic position) the Early Pleistocene. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: From the oyster bearing later.
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:shelly/skeletal unlithified carbonaceous siltstone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Coral mud, with corals and coralline fragments and many molluscan remains,mixed with more or less silt containing small species. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, based on figured specimens and age.
Environment:lagoonal/restricted shallow subtidal
Geology comments: ENVIRONMENT: Shallow marine, siliciclastic-dominated setting adjacent to reef facies.
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:surface (in situ),field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Collection method comments: COLLECTOR: W.B. Scott and M.D.F. MacDonald (1911). REPOSITORY: ANSP, Philadelphia.
Taxonomic list comments:COVERAGE: Exhaustive for Bivalvia and Gastropoda, and including Cirripedia and Anthozoa. NOMENCLATURE: Antiquated, but identified to species-resolution.
Database number:80304
Authorizer:A. Hendy Enterer:A. Hendy
Modifier:M. Clapham Research group:marine invertebrate
Created:2008-04-12 13:56:54 Last modified:2017-04-03 23:45:44
Access level:the public Released:2008-04-12 13:56:54
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

27007. A. P. Brown and H. A. Pilsbry. 1913. Two collections of Pleistocene fossils from the Isthmus of Panama. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 65(2):493-500 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/S. Ávila]

Secondary references:

30037 A. G. Beu. 2010. Neogene Tonnoidean Gastropods of Tropical and South America; contributions to the Dominican Republic and Panama Paleontology Projects and Uplift of the Central American Isthmus. Bulletins of American Paleontology (377-378)1-550 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
41911 E. V. Coan and P. Valentich-Scott. 2012. Bivalve Seashells of Tropical West America. Marine Bivalve Mollusks from Baja California to Northern Peru. Santa Barbara museum of Natural history monographs 6:1-1258 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/M. Uhen]
19909 A. J. W. Hendy, D. P. Buick, K. V. Bulinski, C. A. Ferguson, and A. I. Miller. 2008. Unpublished census data from Atlantic coastal plain and circum-Caribbean Neogene assemblages and taxonomic opinions. [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
19418 G. Rosenberg, W. Ponder, P. Middelfart, P. Bouchet, and T. Goslinger. 2006. A Biotic Database of Indo-Pacific Marine Mollusks. [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/P. Wagner]