Phoebus Landing, Black River: Early/Lower Campanian, North Carolina
collected by Berry & Stephenson 1905, 1907

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Bivalvia
Pelecypoda indet. Goldfuss 1820
Robb 1989
synonym of Bivalvia
Gastropoda
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797
Robb 1989
Gastropoda - Naticidae
Albula sp. Röding 1798
Robb 1989
synonym of Polinices
NJSM 14613
Chondrichthyes - Sclerorhynchiformes - Sclerorhynchidae
Ischyrhiza mira Leidy 1856
Miller 1966 8 elements
USNM 421726; NJSM 14011, 14167, 14263, 14265, 14608; ANSP 15311
? Hypolophus sp. Muller and Henle 1837
Miller 1968 3 elements
FHKSCM 13015-3
    = Ischyrhiza mira Leidy 1856
Baird and Horner 1979
Chondrichthyes - Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina hassei Leriche 1929
Robb 1989
USNM 421729; NJSM 14614
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Hybodontidae
Hybodus sp. Agassiz 1837
Robb 1989
USNM 421725; NJSM 14618, 14612
Hybodus montanensis Case 1978
Robb 1989
NJSM 14174, 14611
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Acrodontidae
Asteracanthus sp. Agassiz 1837
Miller 1968 1 element
FHKSCM 13021
? Edaphodon sp. Buckland 1838
Miller 1968 1 element
FHKSCM 13022
    = Asteracanthus sp. Agassiz 1837
Baird and Horner 1979
Chondrichthyes - Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatidae indet. Jordan 1888
Miller 1968 2 elements
FHKSCM 13023-2
Hypolophus ? sp. Muller and Henle 1837
Miller 1968 1 specimen
Chondrichthyes - Myliobatiformes - Rhombodontidae
Rhombodus levis (Cappetta and Case 1975)
Robb 1989 1 element
original and current combination Rhombodus laevis
NJSM 14261
Chondrichthyes - Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Brachyrhizodus witchitaensis
Robb 1989
USNM 421718; NJSM 14010
? Protamia sp. (Leidy 1873)
Miller 1968 10 elements
FHKSCM 13025, 13024-9
    = Brachyrhizodus wichitaensis Romer 1942
Baird and Horner 1979
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Anacoracidae
Squalicorax kaupi (Agassiz 1843)
Robb 1989
USNM 421721; NJSM 14007, 14009, 14275
Squalicorax cf. pristodontus (Agassiz 1843)
Miller 1966 34 elements
recombined as Squalicorax pristiodontus
ANSP 15314
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Synodontaspis holmdelensis (Cappetta and Case 1975)
Robb 1989
NJSM 14610
Odontaspis samhammeri
Robb 1989
USNM 421719; NJSM 14143
Chondrichthyes - Mitsukurinidae
Scapanorhynchus texanus (Roemer 1852)
Robb 1989
USNM 421722-421724; NJSM 14006, 14008, 14273, 14279
? Carcharias sp. Rafinesque 1810
Miller 1966
ANSP 15313, several hundred specimens
    = Scapanorhynchus texanus Roemer 1852
Baird and Horner 1979
Isurus sp. Agassiz 1843
Miller 1966
ANSP 15315, several hundred specimens
    = Scapanorhynchus texanus Roemer 1852
Baird and Horner 1979
Chondrichthyes - Chimaeriformes - Callorhynchidae
Ischyodus cf. bifurcatus
Robb 1989
NJSM 14262, 14177, 14040
Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes indet. Huxley 1880
Robb 1989
Actinopteri - Elopiformes - Phyllodontidae
Phyllodus sp. Agassiz 1843
Miller 1966 3 elements
ANSP 15312; NJSM 14264
    = ? Egertonia sp. Cocchi 1866
Miller 1967
    = Pycnodus phaseolus Hay 1899
Baird and Horner 1979
    = Paralbula casei Estes 1969
Robb 1989
Actinopteri - Salmoniformes - Enchodontidae
Enchodus cf. petrosus Cope 1874
Robb 1989
NJSM 14148
Actinopteri - Tetraodontiformes - Trigonodontoidae
Stephanodus sp. Zittel 1883
Robb 1989
USNM 421730; NJSM 14033
Actinopteri - Alepisauriformes - Dercetidae
Cylindracanthus ornatus Leidy 1856
Robb 1989
synonym of Cylindracanthus rectus
Actinopteri - Ichthyodectiformes - Saurodontidae
Saurodon sp. Hays 1829
Robb 1989 1 element
USNM 392103
Actinopteri - Ichthyodectiformes - Ichthyodectidae
Polygonodon rectus Leidy 1858
Miller 1966
synonym of Xiphactinus vetus
ANSP 15324
Xiphactinus audax (Leidy 1870)
Robb 1989
NJSM 14144, 14176
Actinopteri - Pycnodontiformes - Pycnodontidae
Anomoeodus sp. Forir 1887
Robb 1989 3 elements
NJSM 14731; FHKSCM 13019-2
    = Pycnodus phaseolus Hay 1899
Baird and Horner 1979
recombined as Anomoeodus phaseolus
? Bottosaurus sp. Agassiz 1849
Miller 1968 1 element
FHKSCM 13017-2
    = Pycnodus phaseolus Hay 1899
Baird and Horner 1979
recombined as Anomoeodus phaseolus
? Gyrodus sp. Agassiz 1843
Miller 1968 1 element
FHKSCM 13018
    = Pycnodus phaseolus Hay 1899
Baird and Horner 1979
recombined as Anomoeodus phaseolus
Actinopteri - Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteidae indet. Cuvier 1825
Robb 1989
USNM 421720, 421717; NJSM 14024, 14271, 14025
Reptilia - Testudines - Trionychidae
Miller 1966 1 specimen
ANSP 15321
    = Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825
Alroy 2009
Amyda sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809
Stephenson 1912
Reptilia - Testudines - Adocidae
Adocus sp. Cope 1868
Robb 1989
Reptilia - Testudines
Trionyx halophilus Cope 1869
Miller 1967 3 specimens
nomen dubium belonging to Pantrionychidae
ANSP 15305
Reptilia - Testudines - Bothremydidae
Chedighaii sp. Gaffney et al. 2006
Gaffney et al. 2009
NCSM 23681, maxilla & jugal
Chedighaii hutchisoni n. sp. Gaffney et al. 2006
Gaffney et al. 2009 1 individual
KUVP 14765, skull
? Baena sp. Leidy 1870
Miller 1966
    = Bothremys barberi Schmidt 1940
Robb 1989
recombined as Chedighaii barberi
Chedighaii barberi (Schmidt 1940)
Gaffney et al. 2006 2 specimens
NCSM 12766, otic chamber
    = Bothremydina indet. Gaffney et al. 2006
Gaffney et al. 2009
& NCSM 14227, right otic chamber
Bothremys sp. Leidy 1865
Gaffney et al. 2009
NCSM 14499, lower jaw
Bothremys cooki (Leidy 1865)
Gaffney et al. 2009
Reptilia - Testudines
Taphrosphys dares n. sp. Hay 1908
Miller 1966 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Pelomedusoides
ANSP 15304; first reported by Hay (1908) with unknown locality data
Reptilia
Coelurosauria indet. Huene 1914
Miller 1966 1 specimen
ANSP 15327
    = Theropoda indet. Marsh 1881
Miller 1967
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Tyrannosauridae
Aublysodon sp. Leidy 1868
Miller 1966 2 specimens
ANSP 15303, 15331, USNM 7199
    = ? Gorgosaurus sp. Lambe 1914
Miller 1967
    = Tyrannosauridae indet. Osborn 1906
Baird and Horner 1979
cf. Dryptosaurus or Albertosaurus
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Ornithomimidae
? Ornithomimus sp. Marsh 1890
Miller 1966 1 specimen
ANSP 15319
    = cf. Ornithomimus sp. Marsh 1890
Baird and Horner 1979
Reptilia - Hadrosauridae
Hadrosauridae indet. Cope 1869
Lull and Wright 1942 1 specimen
USNM 5963
Trachodon ? tripos (Cope 1869)
Stephenson 1912 3 specimens
USNM 7093, 7094
    = Hadrosaurus tripos Cope 1869
Lull and Wright 1942
    = ? Hadrosaurus sp. Leidy 1858
Miller 1967
ANSP 15306
    = Hadrosaurinae indet. Lambe 1918
Baird and Horner 1979
Hypsibema crassicauda Cope 1869
Stephenson 1912 4 specimens
nomen dubium belonging to Hadrosauridae
ANSP 15307, 15322, 15329; USNM 6136
Hadrosaurus ? minor Cope 1869
Lull and Wright 1942 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Hadrosauridae
USNM 7096
Reptilia
Crocodilidae indet. (Cuvier 1807)
Miller 1966 1 specimen
ANSP 15317
    = Leidyosuchus cf. formidabilis Erickson 1976
Baird and Horner 1979
recombined as Borealosuchus formidabilis
? Leidyosuchus sp. Lambe 1907
Miller 1966 8 specimens
ANSP 15318
    = Leidyosuchus cf. formidabilis Erickson 1976
Baird and Horner 1979
recombined as Borealosuchus formidabilis
Thecachampsa rugosa (Emmons 1858)
Stephenson 1912
recombined as Deinosuchus rugosus
Polydectes biturgidus Cope 1869
Stephenson 1912
synonym of Deinosuchus rugosus
Reptilia - Teratosauridae
? Zatomus sp. Cope 1871
Stephenson 1912
Reptilia - Squamata - Mosasauridae
Macrosaurus impar (Leidy 1856)
Miller 1966
    = Prognathodon sp. Dollo 1889
Robb 1989
Halisaurus sp. Marsh 1869
Robb 1989
? Platecarpus sp. Cope 1869
Miller 1966 3 specimens
ANSP 15316
    = Mosasauridae indet. Gervais 1852
Miller 1967
    = Platecarpus sp. Cope 1869
Robb 1989
? Tylosaurus sp. Marsh 1872
Miller 1966
USNM 3889
see common names

Geography
Country:United States State/province:North Carolina County:Bladen
Coordinates: 34.6° North, 78.5° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:35.0° North, 50.2° West
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Altitude:33 meters
Geographic resolution:small collection
Time
Period:Cretaceous Epoch:Late/Upper Cretaceous
Stage:Campanian 10 m.y. bin:Cretaceous 7
Key time interval:Early/Lower Campanian
Age range of interval:83.50000 - 70.60000 m.y. ago
Stratigraphy
Geological group:Black Creek Formation:Tar Heel
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: uppermost part of the formation and within the Exogyra ponderosa zone

Recent pollen analysis (Self-Trail et al., 2004) determined that the vertebrate fauna from the Tar Heel Formation at Phoebus Landing is from the upper part of the early Campanian.
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:planar lamination argillaceous,sandy siltstone
Secondary lithology:lenticular sandstone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "channel fill primarily composed of clayey sitls, clay concretions, coarse sands, and pebbles"; "The bone bearing bed at Phoebus Landing consists of an unconsolidated sand lens...The sand bed overlies and is downcut into a shale bed of the Black Creek Formation...The channel sand is overlain by a consolidated sandstone bed six inches thick...The channel sand contains mud blebs which are large fragments of shale reworked from the underlying shale bed."
Environment:transition zone/lower shoreface
Geology comments: Varied depositional circumstances including an "onlap condition with in an encroachment of ocean onto a gently sloping coastal plain" and "nearshore, freshwater and tidal brackish-water streamthat flowed across the marine shale after a slight regression of the sea"
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:variable
Abundance in sediment:abundant
Disassociated major elements:many
Disassociated minor elements:many
Size sorting:poor
Fragmentation:occasional
Spatial resolution:parautochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection excludes:ichnofossils
Collection methods:selective quarrying,surface (float),surface (in situ),mechanical,field collection,survey of museum collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:AMNH,USNM
Collectors:Berry & Stephenson Collection dates:1905, 1907
Collection method comments: Also North Carolina State Museum of Natural History (NCSM)
Metadata
Also known as:L&W locality 4, milepost 68, Cape Fear
Database number:57918
Authorizer:M. Carrano, J. Alroy, M. Uhen, R. Benson Enterer:K. Maguire, J. Alroy, M. Uhen, R. Benson, M. Carrano
Modifier:M. Carrano Research group:vertebrate
Created:2006-01-06 13:30:29 Last modified:2019-02-22 13:52:17
Access level:the public Released:2006-01-06 13:30:29
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

14442.ETE O. P. Hay. 1908. The fossil turtles of North America. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 75:1-568 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

29343 J. Alroy. 2009. High-handed opinions on taxonomy and other matters. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
23842 D. Baird and J. R. Horner. 1979. Cretaceous dinosaurs of North Carolina. Brimleyana 2:1-28 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
41941 E. S. Gaffney, G. E. Hooks III, and V. P. Schneider. 2009. New material of North American side-necked turtles (Pleurodira: Bothremydidae). American Museum Novitates 3655:1-26 [R. Benson/R. Benson]
27976 E. S. Gaffney, H. Tong, and P. A. Meylan. 2006. Evolution of the side-necked turtles: The families Bothremydidae, Euraxemydidae, and Araripemydidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 300:1-318 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
12319ETE R. S. Lull and N. E. Wright. 1942. Hadrosaurian dinosaurs of North America. Geological Society of America Special Paper 40:1-242 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
35425 H. W. Miller. 1966. Cretaceous vertebrate fauna from Phoebus Landing, North Carolina. The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 82(2):93 [M. Carrano/H. Street]
23845ETE H. W. Miller. 1967. Cretaceous vertebrates from Phoebus Landing, North Carolina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 119:219-235 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
48093 H. W. Miller. 1968. Additions to the Upper Cretaceous vertebrate fauna of Phoebus Landing, North Carolina. The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 84:467-471 [M. Uhen/A. Bee/A. Bee]
23846ETE H. W. Miller, Jr. 1968. Additions to the Upper Cretaceous vertebrate fauna of Phoebus Landing, North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 84(4):467-471 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
15576ETE A. J. Robb. 1989. The Upper Cretaceous (Campanian, Black Creek Formation) fossil fish fauna of Phoebus Landing, Bladen County, North Carolina. The Mosasaur 4:75-92 [M. Carrano/K. Maguire/M. Carrano]
64076 L. W. Stephenson. 1912. The Cretaceous formations. North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 3:73-171 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]