Liuhuanggou bonebed: Late Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian, China

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Hybodontidae
Hybodus sp. Agassiz 1834
Martin et al. 2006 300 specimens
"sp. nov."
    = Hybodus cf. huangnidanensis Wang 1977
Klug et al. 2010
SGP 2007/26–30
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Acrodontidae
Chondrichthyes indet. Huxley 1880
    = Palaeobates sp.
Martin et al. 2006
Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Lonchidiidae
Polyacrodus sp. Jaekel 1889
Martin et al. 2006 40 specimens
"sp. nov."
    = Jiaodontus montaltissiums n. gen., n. sp.
Klug et al. 2010
SGP 2007/31-38
Jiaodontus vedenemus n. sp. Klug et al. 2010
Klug et al. 2010 50 specimens
SGP 2007/39-46
Ptycholepiformes - Ptycholepididae
Osteichthyes indet. Huxley 1880
    = cf. Ptycholepididae indet. Brough 1939
Martin et al. 2006
Amphibia - Temnospondyli
Temnospondyli indet. (von Zittel 1887)
Skutschas et al. 2009
SGP2005–10, SGP2005–11, jaw fragments with teeth.
Temnospondyli indet. von Zittel 1887
1 specimen
SGP 2000/13, an anterior dorsal intercentrum and associated pleurocentrum, a left quadratojugal and some indeterminate fragments
    = ? Brachyopoidea indet. Lydekker 1885
Maisch and Matzke 2005
Caudata indet. (Scopoli 1777)
Skutschas et al. 2009
SGP2005–9, right femur proximal fragment
Reptilia - Testudines - Xinjiangchelyidae
Xinjiangchelys qiguensis n. sp. Matzke et al. 2004
Matzke et al. 2004 1 specimen
SGP 2000/5, holotype partial skeleton
Xinjiangchelys radiplicatoides Brinkman et al. 2013
Maisch and Matzke 2014
SGP 2001/34, incomplete posterior half of a plastron, five fragmentary costals and three articulated peripherals
Reptilia - Pterosauria - Rhamphorhynchidae
Rhamphorhynchidae indet. Seeley 1870
Martin et al. 2006
"gen. et sp. nov."
Thyreophora indet. Nopcsa 1915
Martin et al. 2006
Stegosauria indet. Marsh 1877
Martin et al. 2006 1 specimen
SGP 2002/001
Ankylosauria indet. Osborn 1923
Martin et al. 2006
Ankylosauria sp. (Osborn 1923)
Augustin et al. 2020 1 specimen
The specimen (SGP 2002/8) is a partially preserved caudal vertebra comprising most of the centrum and the complete right transverse process.
Reptilia - Theropoda
Ceratosauria indet. (Marsh 1884)
Martin et al. 2006
Carnosauria indet. Huene 1920
Martin et al. 2006
Reptilia - Mamenchisauridae
? Mamenchisauridae indet. Chao 1965
Maisch and Matzke 2019 1 specimen
SGP 2002/005, tooth
Reptilia - Crocodyliformes
Crocodyliformes indet. (Hay 1930)
Wings et al. 2010
Mesoeucrocodylia indet. Whetstone and Whybrow 1983
Wings et al. 2010
Reptilia - Goniopholididae
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768
    = Sunosuchus sp. Young 1948
Martin et al. 2006
cf. Sunosuchus sp. Young 1948
Wings et al. 2010
Theriosuchidae indet. Kälin 1955
Martin et al. 2006
    = Theriosuchus sp. Owen 1878
Wings et al. 2010
Reptilia - Shartegosuchidae
Nominosuchus sp. Efimov 1996
Wings et al. 2010
Reptilia - Choristodera
Choristodera indet. Cope 1876
Richter et al. 2010 3 specimens
SGP 2007/6-7, 10
Reptilia - Paramacellodidae
Paramacellodidae indet. Estes 1983
Richter et al. 2010 2 specimens
SGP 2007/1-2
Docodonta indet. Kretzoi 1946
Martin et al. 2010 2 specimens
SGP 2004/10, 2004/26
Docodonta - Docodontidae
Docodonta indet. Kretzoi 1946
14 specimens
SGP 2001/21, 2004/39, 2005/15, 2004/9, 2001/24, 2004/19, 2004/18, 2005/6, 2004/21, 2004/24, 2004/22, 2004/31, 2001/22, 2004/7
    = Dsungarodon zuoi Pfretzschner et al. 2005
Pfretzschner et al. 2005
SGP 21 - holotype (a right lower molar)
Docodonta - Tegotheriidae
Tegotherium sp. Tatarinov 1994
Martin et al. 2010 23 specimens
SGP 2001/23, 2005/7, 2004/32, 2004/23, 2004/25, 2004/34, 2005/13, 2004/30, 2004/36, 2004/20, 2004/11, 2005/8, 2004/3, 2004/29, 2001/25, 2004/26, 2004/27, 2004/35, 2004/37, 2005/12, 2004/28, 2004/5, 2004/13
Mammalia - Eutriconodonta
Eutriconodonta indet. (Kermack et al. 1973)
Martin et al. 2010 1 specimen
SGP 2005/4
Zatheria indet. McKenna 1975
Martin et al. 2006
Nanolestes mackennai n. sp. Martin et al. 2010
Martin et al. 2010 6 specimens
SGP 2004/4, 2004/41, 2004/33, 2005/2, 2005/14, 2004/14
Eleutherodon sp. Kermack et al. 1998
8 specimens
Previously a single molar (SGP 2001/33) was reported by Maisch et al. (2005)
    = Sineleutherus uyguricus n. gen., n. sp. Martin et al. 2010
Martin et al. 2010
SGP 2003/33, 2001/34, 2005/3, 2005/5, 2004/15, 2004/16, 2004/17, 2004/12
Dipnoi - Ceratodontidae
Ceratodontidae indet. Gill 1872
Martin et al. 2006
see common names

Country:China State/province:Xinjiang
Coordinates: 43.6° North, 87.3° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:42.7° North, 102.1° East
Basis of coordinate:based on nearby landmark
Altitude:867 meters
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period: Jurassic Epoch: Late Jurassic
Stage: Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian 10 m.y. bin: Jurassic 5
Key time interval: Late Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian
Age range of interval: 157.9 - 149.2 m.y. ago
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: 520 m above underlying Toutunhe Formation

Fang et al. 2015: Samples from Qigu were dated to ~151–161Ma using detrital zircon analysis
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:fine,pebbly,intraclastic,green lithified siltstone
Secondary lithology:fine,green,red sandstone
Includes fossils?Y
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "unstratified green clay- and siltstones with numerous small clay pebbles. The top of the bonebed develops into an unstratified greenish to reddish fine-grained sandstone" Ref 26705: "a very hard, unstratified, fine siltstone, with occasional larger components. These components include moderately rounded lithoclasts of different sizes...coprolites, and vertebrate teeth and bones."
Environment:fluvial indet.
Geology comments: "It is possible that the assemblage was transported by a river or stream."
Modes of preservation:body
Degree of concentration:-bonebed
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:variable
Disassociated major elements:some
Disassociated minor elements:some
Spatial resolution:parautochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:bulk,sieve,field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Database number:47056
Authorizer:M. Carrano, R. Benson, E. Dunne, P. Mannion Enterer:M. Carrano, R. Benson, J. Tennant, E. Dunne
Modifier:G. Varnham Research group:vertebrate
Created:2005-02-03 08:23:34 Last modified:2022-02-09 05:40:58
Access level:the public Released:2005-02-03 08:23:34
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

12523.ETE M. W. Maisch, A. T. Matzke, F. Grossmann, H. Stöhr, H.-U. Pfretzschner and G. Sun. 2005. The first haramiyoid mammal from Asia. Naturwissenschaften 92:403-44 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

80585 F. J. Augustin, A. T. Matzke, M. W. Maisch and H. U. Pfretzschner. 2020. First evidence of an ankylosaur (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Jurassic Qigu Formation (Junggar Basin, NW China) and the early fossil record of Ankylosauria. Geobios 61:1-10 [E. Dunne/E. Dunne]
34389ETE S. Klug, T. Tütken, O. Wings, H.-U. Pfretzschner, and T. Martin. 2010. A Late Jurassic freshwater shark assemblage (Chondrichthyes, Hybodontiformes) from the southern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, northwest China. Palaeobiology and Palaeoenvironments 90(3):241-257 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
42357 M. W. Maisch. 2005. The first haramiyoid mammal from Asia. Naturwissenschaften 92:40-44 [R. Benson/R. Benson]
43872 M. W. Maisch and A. T. Matzke. 2005. Temnospondyl amphibians from the Jurassic of the Southern Junggar Basin (NW China). Palaeontologische Zeitschrift 79(2):285-301 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
53850 M. W. Maisch and A. T. Matzke. 2014. The turtle Xinjiangchelys radiplicatoides BRINKMAN et al., 2013 (Reptilia: Testudines) from the Lower Qigu Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Liuhuanggou, Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China. Palaeodiversity 7:133-147 [P. Mannion/J. Tennant]
67888 M. W. Maisch and A. T. Matzke. 2019. First record of a eusauropod (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic Qigu-Formation (southern Junggar Basin, China), and a reconsideration of Late Jurassic sauropod diversity in Xinjiang. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 291(1):109-117 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Clapham]
17892ETE T. Martin, A. O. Averianov, and H.-U. Pfretzschner. 2006. Palaeoecology of Middle to Late Jurassic vertebrate assemblages from the Fergana and Junggar Basins (Central Asia). 9th International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Abstracts and Proceedings Volu 76-79 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
40449 T. Martin, A. O. Averianov, and H.-U. Pfretzschner. 2010. Mammals from the Late Jurassic Qigu Formation in the southern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, northwest China. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 90(3):295-319 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
44007 A. T. Matzke, M. W. Maisch, G. Sun, H. Pfretzschner, and H. Stöhr. 2004. A new xinjiangchelyid turtle (Testudines, Eucryptodira) from the Jurassic Qigu Formation of the southern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, North-West China. Palaeontology 47(5):1267-1299 [R. Benson/R. Benson/P. Mannion]
44172 H.−U. Pfretzschner, T. Martin, M. W. Maisch, A. T. Matzke, and G. Sun. 2005. A new docodont mammal from the Late Jurassic of the Junggar Basin in Northwest China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50(4):799-808 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
34474ETE A. Richter, O. Wings, H.-U. Pfretzchner and T. Martin. 2010. Late Jurassic Squamata and possible Choristodera from the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 90(3):275-282 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
45989 P. P. Skutschas, T. Martin, and S. Ge. 2009. The co-occurrence of non-lissamphibian temnospondyls and salamanders in the Late Jurassic of the southern Junggar Basin (Xinjiang autonomous region, NW China). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 313(2):143-148 [P. Mannion/J. Tennant]
26705ETE O. Wings, H.-U. Pfretzschner, and M. W. Maisch. 2007. The first evidence of a stegosaur (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang/China. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 243(1):113-118 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
44948 O. Wings, D. Schwaz-Wings, H.-U. Pfretzschner and T. Martin. 2010. Overview of Mesozoic crocodylomorphs from the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China, and description of isolated crocodyliform teeth from the Late Jurassic Liuhuanggoi locality. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 90:283-294 [P. Mannion/J. Tennant/M. Carrano]