Punta Peligro: Danian, Argentina

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Salientia - Leptodactylidae
Leptodactylidae informal Gen. et sp. indet. 1
Gelfo et al. 2007
Leptodactylidae informal Gen. et sp. indet. 2
Gelfo et al. 2007
Salientia - Pipidae
? Pipidae indet. Gray 1825
Gelfo et al. 2007
Reptilia - Testudines
Chelonia indet. (Latreille 1800)
synonym of Testudines
chelid turtles
cf. Gyremys sp.
Bona and de la Fuente 2005
Staesche (1929)
    = Salamanchelys palaeocenica Bona 2006
Bona 2006
referred material of Bona (2006)
Hydromedusa cf. casamayorensis de la Fuente and Bona 2002
Gelfo et al. 2007
? Naiadochelys maior Staesche 1929
Bona and de la Fuente 2005
recombined as Yaminuechelys maior
Staesche (1929); originally misspelled as Najadochelys
Osteopygis sculptus n. sp. Staesche 1929
Bona and de la Fuente 2005
synonym of Yaminuechelys maior
Staesche (1929)
Trionyx argentina n. sp. Ameghino 1889
Ameghino 1889
nomen dubium belonging to Chelidae
Original publication does not state the locality. Added to this locality following Wood and Paterson (1973) and Agnolin (2005).
Naiadochelys patagonica n. sp. Staesche 1929
Bona and de la Fuente 2005
nomen dubium belonging to Chelidae
Staesche (1929); originally misspelled as Najadochelys
Naiadochelys cf. patagonica Staesche 1929
Bona and de la Fuente 2005
nomen dubium belonging to Chelidae
Staesche (1929); originally misspelled as Najadochelys
Peligrochelys walshae n. gen., n. sp. Sterli and de la Fuente 2013
Sterli and de la Fuente 2013
MACN-PV CH 2017 - holotype (several skull bones (basisphenoid, basioccipital, right quadrate, right prootic, left opisthotic, a fragment of the right opisthotic, left exoccipital, right frontal, both postorbitals, fragment of left maxilla, fragments of both squamosals and other skull roof] and a left prezygapophysis); referred material: MPEF-PV 3975 (basisphenoid and basioccipital), MPEF-PV 3976 (right frontal) and MACN-2018 (left frontal)
Reptilia - Alligatoridae
aff. Allognathosuchus sp. Mook 1921
Necrosuchus ionensis Simpson 1937
Material originally described by Kuhn (1933) and although Simpson (1937) suspected a close affinity with Necrosuchus, he stopped short of making a formal referral (Brochu 2011)
    = Caimaninae indet. Brochu 1999
Brochu 2011
Eocaiman sp. Simpson 1933
    = Eocaiman palaeocenicus Bona 2007
Bona 2007
MACN-PV CH 1627, 1914-1916 (portions of mandibles and teeth)
    = Caimaninae indet. Brochu 1999
Brochu 2011
Both procoelous and amphicoelous presacral vertebrae are known from the Salamanca Formation at Punta Peligro, demonstrating that at least one non-eusuchian crocodyliform – perhaps a sebecid – was also present in the fauna (Brochu 2011)
Protocaiman peligrensis n. gen., n. sp. Bona et al. 2018
Bona et al. 2018
MLP 80-X-10-1 - holotype
Reptilia - Rhynchocephalia
Kawasphenodon peligrensis n. sp. Apesteguía et al. 2014
Apesteguía et al. 2014
MPEF PV 1989 - holotype (incomplete left lower jaw preserving two teeth); MPEF PV1990 - paratype (incomplete right lower jaw preserving four teeth)
Mammalia - Monotremata - Ornithorhynchidae
Ornithorhynchidae indet. Gray 1825
    = Monotrematum sudamericanum n. gen., n. sp. Pascual et al. 1992
Pascual et al. 1992
Placentalia indet. Owen 1837
Mammalia - Ungulata - Didolodontidae
? Mioclaenidae indet. Osborn and Earle 1895
    = Raulvaccia peligrensis n. gen., n. sp. Bonaparte et al. 1993
Gelfo 2007
UNPSJB PV 915 - holotype (left dentary with part of the m1 with the distal side of the talonid and the protoconid, broken); hypodigm: MLP 90-II-12-69 (left dentary with the talonid of the m2 and the complete m3) and MLP 90-II-12- 70 (left M1? with almost complete labial roots)
Escribania chubutensis n. gen., n. sp. Bonaparte et al. 1993
Gelfo et al. 2007
UNPSJB PV 916 - holotype (left jaw fragment with m2–3); hypodigm material: MLP 93–XII–10–2 (left m2), MPEF-PV 1860 (right jaw fragment with m1–2), MLP 93–XII- 10–1 (right jaw fragment with m3), MLP 90–II-12–67 (broken left m3 with the distal root and complete talonid), MLP 90–II-12–63 (right maxillary fragment with m2–3), MLP 90–II- 12–68 (left maxillary fragment with m2); referred material: MPEF-PV 1860 (right jaw fragment), MLP 93–XII-10–1 (right jaw fragment), MLP 90–II-12–67 (left m3) and MLP 90–II-12–63 (right maxillary fragment)
Escribania talonicuspis n. sp. Gelfo et al. 2007
Gelfo et al. 2007
MPEF-PV 1861 - type (well preserved m3 with complete roots and with well-preserved cusps)
Mammalia - Ungulata - Notonychopidae
Requisia vidmari n. gen., n. sp. Bonaparte and Morales 1997
Bonaparte and Morales 1997
UNPSJB Pv 944 - holotype (right maxilla with teeth); hypodigm: UNPSJB Pv 945 (left maxilla); referred material: UNPSJB Pv 946 and 947 (teeth)
Mammalia - Meridiolestida - Peligrotheriidae
Peligrotherium tropicalis n. gen., n. sp. Bonaparte et al. 1993
Gelfo and Pascual 2001
UNPSJB PV 914 - holotype (right dentary with m1 and m2); hypodigm: fragment of anterior left dentary with a not clear number of alveolus (MACNCH 1506); fragment of right dentary with m2 and part of m3-5 (MACN-CH 1501); fragment of left dentary with m2-5 alveoli (MACN-CH 1502); left mandibular fragment with m2-5 alveoli (MACN-CH 1503); fragment of right dentary with fragmentary roots of m2 and alveoli of m3-5 (MACN-CH 1504); left dentary fragment with m3-5 alveolus (MACN-CH 1505); maxillaries fragments with right M1-M2, and left M1 fragment, M2-M4 and fragmentary alveolus of M5 (MLP 90-II-12-58); right dentary fragment with distal part of m1 alveolus, m2, and fragmentary alveolus of m3 (MLP 90-II-12-60); right isolated tooth, probably p4 (MLP 90-II-12-61)
Metatheria indet. (Huxley 1880)
Forasiepi and Rougier 2009
MPEF-PV 2235 (right petrosal); "an edentulous fragment of a dentary of an 'opossum-like' form, slightly larger than Derorhynchus aff. D. minutus."
Mammalia - Sparassodonta
cf. Sparassodonta indet. (Ameghino 1894)
Forasiepi and Rougier 2009
"an isolated astragalus probably belonging to a medium sized sparassodont"
Mammalia - Polydolopimorphia
Polydolopimorphia sp. (Archer 1984)
Forasiepi and Rougier 2009
Mammalia - Bonapartheriidae
Bonapartheriidae sp. Pascual 1980
Forasiepi and Rougier 2009
Mammalia - Sternbergiidae
Didelphopsis sp. Paula Couto 1952
Forasiepi and Rougier 2009
Mammalia - Derorhynchidae
Derorhynchus aff. minutus Goin et al. 1999
Forasiepi and Rougier 2009
Mammalia - Sudamericidae
Sudamerica sp. Scillato-Yane and Pascual 1984
    = Sudamerica ameghinoi Scillato-Yane and Pascual 1984
Pascual et al. 1999
MPEFCH 534, right dentary
Sudamerica ameghinoi n. gen., n. sp. Scillato-Yane and Pascual 1984
Scillato-Yané and Pascual 1985
UNP 79-II-18-1 - holotype (molariform)
see common names

Country:Argentina State/province:Chubut
Coordinates: 45.5° South, 67.2° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:48.1° South, 56.3° West
Basis of coordinate:stated in text
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period:Paleogene Epoch:Paleocene
Stage:Danian 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 1
Key time interval:Danian Mammal zone: Peligran
Age range of interval:66.00000 - 61.60000 m.y. ago
Formation:Salamanca Member:Hansen
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: Banco Negro Inferior, BN1
Peligran SALMA, considered to be middle Paleocene in age (Woodburne et al. 2014). "Marshall et al. (1981) indicated that a tuff in the upper part of the Hansen Member yielded a K-Ar date of 61±5 m.y." (Woodburne et al. 2014). This suggests the Peligran SALMA might be early Selandian in age.

According to Andreis et al. (1975), the upper sectionof Salamanca Formation (= Hansen Member) in the San Jorge Gulf area was accumulated under infra-littoral and transitional sea conditions. The sediments were accumulated in low energy environments yielded by submarine bars or littoral banks that had reduced the circulation in a sea with little differences between high and low tides. Based on foraminifera, Bertels (1975) assigned the upper levels of the Salamanca Formation to the Upper Danian. This hypothesis was supported by the 40K/40A isotopic age of 61 ± 5Ma obtained from a vitreous tuff belonging to the Hansen Member at the Ca˜nad´on Hondo locality (Andreis 1977; Marshall et al. 1981). This age was subsequently corrected to 62.6 ± 5Ma byMarshall (1982). Additionally, two more reliable radiometric ages sampled by Marshall et al. (1981) in two basaltic units at or just under the base of the Salamanca Formation yielded ages of 64.0 ± 0.8Ma and 62.8 ± 0.8 Ma. Marshall et al. (1981, 1997) used these ages and palaeo-magnetic data to refer the overlaying BNI to polarity subchron C26r (= Danian Stage)
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: claystone
Secondary lithology: conglomerate
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: Package of dark sediments, comprising massive black clays with conchoidal fracture and some irregular conglomerates, with a whitish level of tuffaceous concretions on its lower part
Geology comments: brackish
Modes of preservation:body,original phosphate
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Collection methods and comments
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Also known as:Chubut
Database number:95914
Authorizer:M. Uhen, E. Vlachos, R. Benson, P. Mannion, J. Zijlstra Enterer:M. Uhen, E. Vlachos, R. Benson, P. Mannion, J. Zijlstra
Modifier:M. Uhen Research group:vertebrate
Created:2010-05-05 07:12:51 Last modified:2017-12-18 08:37:55
Access level:the public Released:2010-05-05 07:12:51
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

32574. R. Pascual, M. Archer, E. O. Jaureguizar, J. L. Prado, H. Godthelp and S. Hand. 1992. First discovery of monotremes in South America. Nature 356:704-706 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]

Secondary references:

64228 F. Ameghino. 1889. Sinopsis geológico-paleontológica. Suplemento (adi- ciones y correcciones). 1-13 [E. Vlachos/E. Vlachos]
52310 S. Apesteguía, R. O. Gómez, and G. W. Rougier. 2014. The youngest South American rhynchocephalian, a survivor of the K/Pg extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20140811 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
64217 P. Bona. 2006. Paleocene (Danian) chelid turtles from Patagonia, Argentina: taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 241:303-323 [E. Vlachos/E. Vlachos]
37004 P. Bona. 2007. A new species of Eocaiman Simpson (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae) from the Lower Paleocene of Patagonia [Una nueva especie de Eocaiman Simpson (Crododylia, Alligatoridae) del Paleoceno Inferior de Patagonia]. Ameghiniana 44(2):435-445 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
38137 P. Bona and M. S. de la Fuente. 2005. Phylogenetic and paleobiogeographic implications of Yaminuechelys maior (Staesche, 1929) new comb, a large long-necked chelid turtle from the early Paleocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(3):569-582 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
66626 P. Bona, M. D. Ezcurra, F. Barrios and M. V. Fernandez Blanco. 2018. A new Palaeocene crocodylian from southern Argentina sheds light on the early history of caimanines. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285:20180843:1-6 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
42932 J. F. Bonaparte and J. Morales. 1997. Un primitivo Notonychopidae (Litopterna) del Paleoceno inferior de Punta Peligro, Chubut, Argentina. Estudios Geológicos 53(5-6):263-274 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
39474 C. A. Brochu. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of Necrosuchus ionensis Simpson, 1937 and the early history of caimanines. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163:S228-S256 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
32607 A. M. Forasiepi and A. G. Martinelli. 2003. Femur of a monotreme (Mammalia, Monotremata) from the early Paleocene Salamanca Formation of Patagonia, Argentina. Amghiniana 40(4):625-630 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
45562 A. M. Forasiepi and G. W. Rougier. 2009. Additional data on early Paleocene metatherians (Mammalia) from Punta Peligro (Salamanca Formation, Argentina): comments based on petrosal morphology. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 47(4):391-398 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
42896 J. N. Gelfo. 2007. The ‘condylarth’ Raulvaccia peligrensis (Mammalia: Didolodontidae) from the Paleocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(3):651-660 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
42895 J. N. Gelfo, E. Ortiz-Jaureguizar, and G. W. Rougier. 2007. New remains and species of the ‘condylarth’ genus Escribania (Mammalia: Didolodontidae) from the Palaeocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 98:127-138 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
44138 J. N. Gelfo and R. Pascual. 2001. Peligrotherium tropicalis (Mammalia, Dryolestida) from the early Paleocene of Patagonia, a survival from a Mesozoic Gondwanan radiation. Geodiversitas 23(3):369-379 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
32577 R. Pascual, M. Archer, E. O. Jaureguizar, J. L. Prado, H. Godthelp and S. J. Hand. 1992. The first non-Australian monotreme: an early Paleocene South American platypus (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae). In M. L. Augee (ed.), Platypus and Echidnas. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1-14 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]
38685 R. Pascual, F. J. Goin, E. Ortiz-Jaureguizar and A. A. Carlini. 1999. The first gnathic remains of Sudamerica: implications for gondwanathere relationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(2):373-382 [R. Benson/R. Benson]
32575 R. Pascual, F. J. Goin, L. Balarino and D. E. Udrizar Sauthier. 2002. New data on the Paleocene monotreme Monotrematum sudamericanum, and the convergent evolution of triangulate molars. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47(3):487-492 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
46218 G. J. Scillato-Yané and R. Pascual. 1985. Un peculiar Xenarthra del Paleoceno medio de Patagonia (Argentina). Su importancia en la sistemática de los Paratheria. Ameghiniana 21(2-4):173-176 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
45560 J. Sterli and M. S. de la Fuente. 2013. New evidence from the Palaeocene of Patagonia (Argentina) on the evolution and palaeo-biogeography of Meiolaniformes (Testudinata, new taxon name). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 11(7):835-852 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
57561 M. O. Woodburne, F. J. Goin, M. Bond, A. A. Carlini, J. N. Gelfo, G. M. López, A. Iglesias and A. N. Zimicz. 2014. Paleogene Land Mammal Faunas of South America; a Response to Global Climatic Changes and Indigenous Floral Diversity. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 21:1-73 [R. Butler/R. Butler]