Gram Formation: Tortonian, Denmark

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Insecta - Diptera - Xylophagidae
Xylophaga sp. Turton 1822
Decapoda - Nephropidae
Nephrops kvistgaardae Fraaije et al. 2005
Homarus cf. gammarus
Decapoda - Munididae
Munida sp. Leach 1820
Decapoda - Cancridae
Tasadia carniolica (Bittner 1884)
original and current combination Cancer carniolica
Decapoda - Geryonidae
Chaceon miocenicus Fraaije et al. 2005
Decapoda - Retroplumidae
Retropluma borealis Fraaife et al. 2005
Bivalvia - Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris (Chevronia) obovata (Lamarck 1819)
recombined as Glycymeris (Glycymeris) obovata
Bivalvia - Arcida - Limopsidae
Limopsis (Pectunculina) cf. anomala
synonym of Limopsis
Limopsis (Limopsis) aurita (Brocchi 1814)
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Pectinidae
Pseudamussium clavatum (Poli 1795)
Pseudamussium cf. lilli (Pusch 1837)
Pecten lilli
Aequipecten seniensis
Korobkovia woodi
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Anomiidae
Pododesmus (Heteranomia) squamula (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Heteranomia squamula
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Pinnidae
Atrina sp. Gray 1842
Bivalvia - Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus sp. Linnaeus 1758
Bivalvia - Carditida - Astartidae
Goodallia (Goodallia) esbjergensis
Bivalvia - Carditida - Carditidae
Pteromeris corbis
Venericardia ampla
Venericardia ronchetti
Venericardia squamulosa
Cyclocardia (Cyclocardia) orbicularis
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Oliva 1792)
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Teredinidae
Teredinidae indet. Rafinesque 1815
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Montacutidae
Mioerycina coarctata (Wood 1840)
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Kelliellidae
Spaniodontella nitida
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Glossidae
Glossus (Glossus) olearii
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Mactridae
Spisula aff. subtruncata (da Costa 1778)
Bivalvia - Cardiida
Carinastarte vetula
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra (Abra) cf. prismatica (Montagu 1808)
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Cardiidae
Parvicardium straeleni
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Leptonidae
Lepton transversarium Cossmann 1896
recombined as Lepton (Lepton) transversarium
Bivalvia - Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
Hiatella (Hiatella) arctica (Linnaeus 1767)
Bivalvia - Thraciida - Periplomatidae
Periploma ariei Gürs 1996
Bivalvia - Thraciida - Thraciidae
Thracia (Thracia) inflata
Bivalvia - Poromyida - Cuspidariidae
Cuspidaria (Cuspidaria) cf. cuspidata
Cardiomya (Cardiomya) costellata (Deshayes 1833)
Bivalvia - Lucinida - Thyasiridae
Thyasira (Thyasira) flexuosa (Lamarck 1818)
Bivalvia - Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucinidae indet. Fleming 1828
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Nuculidae
Leionucula cf. laevigata (Sowerby 1818)
Nucula (Lamellinucula) georgiana
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Sareptidae
Yoldiella pygmaea
Yoldiella spiegleri
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Yoldiidae
Yoldia (Yoldia) glaberrima (von Münster 1837)
Gastropoda - Epitoniidae
Cirsotrema sp. Mörch 1852
Acirsa (Hemiacirsa) aff. duvergieri
Gastropoda - Thecosomata - Limacinidae
Limacina atlanta
Limacina wilhelminae
Gastropoda - Cephalaspidea - Retusidae
Retusa (Cylichnina) elongata
Gastropoda - Cephalaspidea - Cylichnidae
Cylichna (Cylichna) pseudoconvoluta
Gastropoda - Cephalaspidea - Diaphanidae
Toledonia flensburgensis
Diaphana moerchi
Gastropoda - Cephalaspidea
Roxania (Roxania) utriculus
Gastropoda - Triphoridae
Norephora (Norephora) fritschi
Gastropoda - Cerithiopsidae
Krachia zelandica
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Liomesus ventrosus
Colus distinctus
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Amyclina sp. Iredale 1918
Nassarius cf. wienrichi
Nassarius cf. holsaticus
Nassarius cf. syltensis
Nassarius (Tritonella) ronaldjansseni
Nassarius (Uzita) prysmaticus (Brocchi 1814)
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Streptolathyrus rothi
original and current combination Streptochetus (Streptolathyrus)
Aquilofusus semiglaber
Aquilofusus klugorum
Aquilofusus cf. puggaardi
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Narona rothi
Narona calcarata
Babylonella fusiformis
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra grateloupi d'Orbigny 1852
recombined as Mitra (Tiara) grateloupi
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Scaphella bolli
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
Vexillum (Uromitra) cimbrica
original and current combination Uromitra
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Trophonopsis (Pagodula) semperi
original and current combination Pagodula
Lyrotyphis (Eotyphis) sejunctus
Spinucella reimersi
Murex (Tubicauda) spinicosta (Bronn 1831)
recombined as Murex (Promurex) spinicosta
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
Benthomangelia obtusangula
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Spirotropis gramensis Janssen 1993
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Turridae
Crassispira borealis
Gemmula (Gemmula) badensis
Fusiturris (Fusiturris) helena
Acamptogenotia intorta
Unedogemmula annae
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Raphitomidae
Teretia guersi
Raphitoma spinosoreticulata
Raphitoma variccostata
Daphnella abrahamssoni
Pleurotomella (Pleurotomella) mioweberi
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda
Pleurotomoides mariae
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Horaiclavidae
Haedropleura maitreja
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
Asthenotoma ornata
Bathytoma (Bathytoma) cataphracta (Brocchi 1814)
Microdrillia serratula
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus
spelled with current rank as Conus (Conolithes)
Oenopota kochi
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra forchhammeri
Gastropoda - Entomotaeniata - Cimidae
Actaeopyramis elatus
Gastropoda - Aporrhaidae
Aporrhais dingdenensis Marquet et al. 2002
Gastropoda - Ficidae
Ficus (Ficus) conditus (Brongniart 1823)
Gastropoda - Aclididae
Aclis minor
Gastropoda - Eulimidae
Eulima (Eulima) glabra
Gastropoda - Naticidae
Naticarius koeneni
Euspira helicina (Brocchi 1814)
original and current combination Nerita helicina
Gastropoda - Xenophoridae
Xenophora (Stellaria) testigera (Bronn 1831)
Gastropoda - Cassidae
Galeodea bicatenata (Sowerby 1815)
Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata (Sacco 1890)
recombined as Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata
Gastropoda - Rissoidae
Obtusella gottscheana
Gastropoda - Vitrinellidae
Circulus (Circulus) hennei Glibert 1952
Gastropoda - Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi 1814)
Turritella (Archimediella) cochlias
original and current combination Archimediella
Gastropoda - Heterostropha - Acteonidae
Acteon (Acteon) semistriatus
Gastropoda - Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
Ringicula (Ringiculina) buccinea (Sowerby 1823)
Gastropoda - Pyramidellidae
Syrnola (Syrnola) neumayri
Eulimella (Eulimella) scillae
Eulimella (Eulimella) acicula
Brachystomia sp. Monterosato 1884
Pyramidella (Voluspa) plicosa
Kleinella (Kleinella) nordmanni
Turbonilla (Turbonilla) costellata
Turbonilla (Turbonilla) facki
Chrysallida (Pyrgulina) interita
Chrysallida (Parthenina) semireticulata Sorgenfrei 1958
Chrysallida (Parthenina) modesta
Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) rothi
original and current combination Strioturbonilla
Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) sp. (Sacco 1892)
original and current combination Strioturbonilla
Odostomia (Megastomia) conoidea (Brocchi 1814)
Odostomia (Megastomia) tuexeni
Gastropoda - Tjaernoiidae
Tjaernoeia punctata
Gastropoda - Turbinidae
Skenea ariejansseni
Gastropoda - Pseudococculinidae
Mesopelex anderseni
Pseudococculina dittmeri
Gastropoda - Trochidae
Solariella (Solariella) jutensis
Scaphopoda - Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium cf. michelotti
Scaphopoda - Gadilida - Gadilidae
Polyschides weinbrechti
Chondrichthyes - Squaliformes - Squalidae
Squalus cf. acanthias Linnaeus 1758
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Odontaspidida - Carcharodontidae
Isurus hastalis (Agassiz 1843)
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
recombined as Cosmopolitodus hastalis
Chondrichthyes - Rajiformes - Rajidae
Raja sp. Linnaeus 1758
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Cetorhinidae
Cetorhinus maximus (Gunner 1765)
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Otodontidae
Carcharodon megalodon (Agassiz 1843)
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
recombined as Otodus megalodon
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus sp. Agassiz 1843
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Isurus escheri Agassiz 1843
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Odontaspis sp. Agassiz 1843
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Galeocerdo sp. Müller and Henle 1837
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Scyllidae
Scyliorhinus cf. coupatezi
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Chondrichthyes - Squalomorphii - Hexanchidae
Hexanchus primigenus
Bendix-Almgreen 1983
Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Brissidae
Brissopsis lyrifera
Hansen and Hansen 2005
see common names

Geography
Country:Denmark
Coordinates: 55.3° North, 9.0° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:55.5° North, 8.0° East
Basis of coordinate:based on nearby landmark
Geographic resolution:basin
Time
Period:Neogene Epoch:Miocene
Stage:Tortonian 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
Key time interval:Tortonian
Age range of interval:11.62000 - 7.24600 m.y. ago
Stratigraphy
Formation:Gram
Stratigraphic resolution:formation
Stratigraphy comments: STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From the Gram Fm, which conformably overlies the Hodde Fm (Serravallian) and is unconformably overlain by Quaternary deposits. AGE: Tortonian. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: General list for formation.
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:micaceous poorly lithified silty claystone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Silty, dark, micaceous clay. LITHIFICATION: Poorly-lithified, on the basis of figured specimens.
Environment:marine indet.
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:surface (in situ),field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Collection method comments: COLLECTORS: Unknown. REPOSITORY: Unknown.
Taxonomic list comments:COVERAGE: Exhaustive for molluscs. NOMENCLATURE: Modern nomenclature, with species-resolution identifications.
Metadata
Database number:98312
Authorizer:A. Hendy Enterer:A. Hendy
Modifier:M. Uhen Research group:marine invertebrate
Created:2010-09-30 09:41:02 Last modified:2019-01-18 14:27:17
Access level:authorizer only Released:2011-09-30 09:41:02
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

33963. F. Roth and K. Hoedemakers. 2005. The Marine Gram Formation at Gram, Denmark: Late Miocene Geology and Palaeontology. Palaeontos 7:1-189 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]

Secondary references:

48619 S. E. Bendix-Almgreen. 1983. Carcharodon megalodon from the Upper Miocene of Denmark, with comments on elasmobranch tooth enameloid: coronoi'n. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 32:1-32 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
36506 J. Hansen and T. Hansen. 2005. A Late Miocene brissid echinoid from Denmark. Palaeontos 7:46-50 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
59717 R. Janssen. 1993. Taxonomy, evolution and spreading of the turrid genus Spirotropis (Gastropoda: Turridae. Scripta Geologica 2:237-261 [W. Kiessling/M. Krause/M. Krause]
15249 F. Roth. 1980. Comments on a baleen whale skeleton from the Gram Formation. Saertryk af Nordslesvigske Museers 13-28 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]