Ghost Ranch Quarry: Rhaetian, New Mexico
collected by E. H. Colbert 1947-1982

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Branchiopoda - Diplostraca - Shipingiidae
Shipingia sp. Shen 1976
Rinehart et al. 2009
Ostracoda
Darwinula sp. Brady and Robertson 1885
Rinehart et al. 2009
Actinopteri - Palaeonisciformes - Redfieldiidae
aff. Sinorichthyes sp.
Schaeffer 1967 1 specimen
AMNH 5719
    = Synorichthys cf. stewarti Schaeffer 1967
Rinehart et al. 2009
NMMNH P-41417, 41599
Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanthiformes - Mawsoniidae
Chinlea sorenseni Schaeffer 1967
Schaeffer 1967 1 specimen
AMNH 5657
Reptilia
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768
Rinehart et al. 2009 1 specimen
NMMNH P-55352
Archosauriformes indet. Gauthier 1986
Rinehart et al. 2009 3 specimens
NMMNH P-41307, 41601, 42571, teeth
Vancleavea sp. Long and Murry 1995
Rinehart et al. 2004 3 individuals
    = Vancleavea campi Long and Murry 1995
Nesbitt et al. 2009
GR 138, complete skeleton; GR 139, disarticulated skeleton; NMMNH P-55351
Reptilia - Coelophysidae
Coelurus bauri n. sp. Cope 1887
Hunt and Lucas 1989
recombined as Coelophysis bauri
Numerus skeletons including designated neotype material for Coelophysis bauri
Reptilia
Daemonosaurus chauliodus n. gen., n. sp. Sues et al. 2011
Sues et al. 2011 1 individual
CM 76821, nearly complete but crushed skull and anterior cervical vertebrae
Eucoelophysis sp. Sullivan and Lucas 1999
Rinehart et al. 2009 1 specimen
TMP 84-63-33, partial skeleton
Reptilia - Shuvosauridae
Effigia okeeffeae n. gen., n. sp. Nesbitt and Norell 2006
Nesbitt and Norell 2006 4 individuals
AMNH 30587 (holotype), articulated skeleton. AMNH 30588 -30590, postcranial material
Reptilia - Crocodylomorpha
Postosuchus kirkpatricki Chatterjee 1985
Long and Murry 1995 2 specimens
CM 73372, articulated skeleton. GR 1007, ilium
    = Crocodylomorpha informal unnamed species
Nesbitt 2011
Reptilia
Hesperosuchus agilis Colbert 1952
Clark et al. 2000 2 individuals
CM 29894, skull and articulated partial postcranial skeleton. NMMNH P-57654, osteoderms
    = Hesperosuchus informal unnamed species
Nesbitt 2011
Reptilia - Parasuchidae
Phytosauria indet. Jaeger 1828
Hunt and Lucas 1989 2 specimens
"Nicrosaurus/Pseudopalatus-grade"
    = Redondasaurus bermani n. sp. Hunt and Lucas 1993
Hunt and Lucas 1993
CM unnumbered, skull. NMMNH P-44920, skull
Redondasaurus gregorii Hunt and Lucas 1993
Lucas et al. 2013
NMMNH P-44920, skull of juvenile
Reptilia - Rhynchocephalia
Sphenodontidae indet. Cope 1869
Rinehart et al. 2004 1 specimen
    = Whitakersaurus bermani n. gen., n. sp. Heckert et al. 2008
Heckert et al. 2008
NMMNH P-43125, maxillary fragment and incomplete lower jaws
Reptilia - Drepanosauridae
Drepanosauridae indet. Berman and Reisz 1992
Renesto et al. 2010 1 specimen
NMMNH P-57651, partially articulated hindlimb
Avicranium renestoi n. gen., n. sp. Pritchard and Nesbitt 2017
Pritchard and Nesbitt 2017 1 individual
AMNH FARB 30834, partial skull and articulated cervical series
Drepanosauridae indet. Berman and Reisz 1992
Harris and Downs 2002 1 specimen
GR 1113, pectoral girdle
    = Drepanosaurus sp. Pinna 1980
Renesto et al. 2010
see common names

Geography
Country:United States State/province:New Mexico County:Rio Arriba
Coordinates: 36.3° North, 106.5° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:14.8° North, 46.4° West
Basis of coordinate:stated in text
Altitude:2015 meters
Geographic resolution:small collection
Time
Period:Triassic Epoch:Late/Upper Triassic
Stage:Rhaetian 10 m.y. bin:Triassic 4
Key time interval:Rhaetian
Age range of interval:208.50000 - 201.30000 m.y. ago
Stratigraphy
Formation:Chinle Member:Siltstone
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: Apachean LVF. Has been placed variously previously in the "upper Petrified Forest Member", in the "siltstone member" of the Chinle Formation, the Owl Rock Member and the Rock Point Member.
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:desiccation cracks,bioturbation,intraclastic,brown,green,red muddy siltstone
Secondary lithology:pebbly calcareous conglomerate
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "The quarry itself is in a sequence of 11 siltstone beds...These beds are intensively bioturbated, contain many silt rip-up clasts"; "predominately of reddish-brown, yellowish-brown, and light greenish-grey siltstones interbedded with carbonate pebble conglomerates; 10-20 m of interbedded sandstone and siltstone comprise the top of the section."
Environment:crevasse splay
Geology comments: "pond [underlying the main quarry layer] represented a topographic depression in which the dinosaurs and associated carcasses accumulated...carcasses were washed into the quarry by a single [flood] event that also ripped up underlying lacustrine siltstones and even introduced some bones into the uppermost level of the lacustrine interval"
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Lagerst�tten type:concentrate
Degree of concentration:-bonebed
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils,microfossils
Spatial orientation:preferred
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Abundance in sediment:abundant
Articulated whole bodies:some
Associated major elements:many
Disassociated major elements:many
Disassociated minor elements:some
Size sorting:medium
Fragmentation:occasional
Encrustation:none
Temporal resolution:snapshot
Spatial resolution:autochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:bulk,selective quarrying,surface (float),surface (in situ),mechanical,field collection,survey of museum collection
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Museum repositories:AMNH,CM,MCZ,YPM
Collectors:E. H. Colbert Collection dates:1947-1982
Collection method comments: 1947 AMNH expedition under E. H. Colbert
Material also in MNA, NMMNH, TMP
Metadata
Also known as:Whitaker Quarry, Coelophysis Quarry
Database number:48422
Authorizer:M. Carrano, R. Butler, A. Dunhill Enterer:M. Carrano, R. Butler, B. Allen
Modifier:M. Carrano Research group:taphonomy,vertebrate
Created:2005-03-18 07:59:30 Last modified:2018-07-05 15:22:03
Access level:the public Released:2005-03-18 07:59:30
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

5707.ETE 1463E. H. Colbert. 1947. The little dinosaurs of Ghost Ranch. Natural History 59(9):392-399-427-428 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/A. Murch]

Secondary references:

65138 Anonymous. 1947. Earliest dinosaurs. Life 23(6):49-50, 52 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14440ETE J. M. Clark, H.-D. Sues, and D. M. Berman. 2000. A new specimen of Hesperosuchus agilis from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico and the interrelationships of basal crocodylomorph archosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683-704 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
52402 E. H. Colbert. 1947. The search for fossils in northern New Mexico. El Palacio 54:209-212 [M. Carrano/A. Murch]
15654ETE E. H. Colbert. 1989. The Triassic dinosaur Coelophysis. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 57:1-174 [M. Carrano/K. Maguire/M. Carrano]
13578ETE E. H. Colbert. 1990. Variation in Coelophysis bauri. In K. Carpenter and P. J. Currie (eds.), Dinosaur Systematics: Perspectives and Approaches, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 81-90 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14700ETE D. S. G. Covey. 1993. Ontogenetic changes in hind limb proportions within the Ghost Ranch population of Coelophysis bauri. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13(3, suppl.):31A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14846ETE A. Downs and J. Davidge. 1997. A choristodere from the Ghost Ranch Coelophysis quarry. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17(3, suppl.):43A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
54100 D. D. Gillette. 1986. A new place for old bones. Ghost Ranch Journal 1(1):2-6 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
31994 J. D. Harris and A. Downs. 2002. A drepanosaurid pectoral girdle from the Ghost Ranch (Whitaker) Coelophysis Quarry (Chinle Group, Rock Point Formation, Rhaetian), New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(1):70-75 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
24941ETE A. B. Heckert and S. G. Lucas. 2006. Micro- and small vertebrate biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group, southwestern USA. In J. D. Harris, S. G. Lucas, J. A. Spielmann, M. G. Lockley, A. R. C. Milner, J. I. Kirkland (eds.), The Triassic-Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 37:94-104 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/P. Wagner]
27834ETE A. B. Heckert, S. G. Lucas, L. F. Rinehart and A. P. Hunt. 2008. A new genus and species of sphenodontian from the Ghost Ranch Coelophysis Quarry (Upper Triassic: Apachean), Rock Point Formation, New Mexico, USA. Palaeontology 51(4):827-845 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
5928ETE 1709A. P. Hunt and A. G. Lucas. 1989. Late Triassic vertebrate localities in New Mexico. In S. G. Lucas and A. P. Hunt (eds.), Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs in the American Southwest, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque 72-101 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Carrano]
13902ETE A. P. Hunt and S. G. Lucas. 1991. Rioarribasaurus, a new name for a Late Triassic dinosaur from New Mexico (USA). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 65(1/2):191-198 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/J. Alroy]
31825 A. P. Hunt and S. G. Lucas. 1993. Triassic vertebrate paleontology and biochronology of New Mexico. In S. G. Lucas & J. Zidek (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 2:49-60 [R. Butler/R. Butler/M. Carrano]
28127ETE A. P. Hunt and S. G. Lucas. 1993. A new phytosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) genus from the uppermost Triassic of the western United States and its biochonological significance. In S. G. Lucas and M. Morales (eds.), The Nonmarine Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 3:193-196 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
13904ETE A. P. Hunt and S. G. Lucas. 1993. Stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology of the Chinle Group (Upper Triassic), Chama Basin, north-central New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 2:61-69 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
66249 S. E. Jasinski. 2011. Biomechanical modeling of Coelophysis bauri: possible feeding methods and behavior of a Late Triassic theropod. In R. M. Sullivan, S. G. Lucas, & J. A. Spielmann (eds.), Fossil Record 3. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 53:195-201 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14122ETE R. A. Long and P. A. Murry. 1995. Late Triassic (Carnian and Norian) tetrapods from the southwestern United States. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 4:1-254 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
36695ETE S. G. Lucas. 1993. The Upper Triassic Chinle Group, western United States. In S. G. Lucas & M. Morales (ed.), The Nonmarine Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 3:G2-G12 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
44702 S. G. Lucas. 1993. The Chinle Group: revised stratigraphy and biochronology of Upper Triassic nonmarine strata in the western United States. In M. Morales (ed.), Aspects of Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Colorado Plateau. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 59:27-50 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
66842 S. G. Lucas, J. A. Spielmann, and L. F. Rinehart. 2013. Juvenile skull of the phytosaur Redondasaurus from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico, and phytosaur ontogeny. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 61:389-400 [A. Dunhill/B. Allen]
27232ETE S. G. Lucas, K. E. Ziegler, A. B. Heckert and A. P. Hunt. 2003. Upper Triassic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, Chama Basin, north-central New Mexico. In K. E. Ziegler, A. B. Heckert, & S. G. Lucas (eds.), Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Triassic (Revueltian) Snyder Quarry, New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 24:15-39 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
35983 S. J. Nesbitt. 2011. The early evolution of archosaurs: relationships and the origin of major clades. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 353:1-292 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
16546ETE S. J. Nesbitt and M. A. Norell. 2006. Extreme convergence in the body plans of an early suchian (Archosauria) and ornithomimid dinosaurs (Theropoda). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
31327 S. J. Nesbitt, M. R. Stocker, B. J. Small and A. Downs. 2009. The osteology and relationships of Vancleavea campi (Reptilia: Archosauriformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 157:814-864 [R. Butler/R. Butler/R. Butler]
66007 A. C. Pritchard and S. J. Nesbitt. 2017. A bird-like skull in a Triassic diapsid reptile increases heterogeneity of the morphological and phylogenetic radiation of Diapsida. Royal Society Open Science 4:170499 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
32240 S. Renesto, J. A. Spielmann, S. G. Lucas and G. T. Spagnoli. 2010. The taxonomy and paleobiology of the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian: Adamanian-Apachean) drepanosaurs (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha: Drepanosauromorpha). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 46:1-81 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
14813ETE L. Rinehart, A. P. Hunt, S. G. Lucas, A. B. Heckert, and J. Smith. 2005. New evidence of cannibalism in the Late Triassic (Apachean) dinosaur, Coelophysis bauri (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(3, suppl.):105A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14438ETE L. F. Rinehart, A. B. Heckert, S. G. Lucas and A. P. Hunt. 2004. Taphonomic implications of the microstratigraphy and fauna of a single block from the Late Triassic Whitaker (Coelophysis) Quarry (Rock Point Formation: Chinle Group), north-central New Mexico. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 36(5):64 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14439ETE L. F. Rinehart, A. B. Heckert, and S. G. Lucas. 2004. Ostracodes and conchostracans from the Upper Triassic Whitabker Quarry, Rock Point Formation, Chinle Group, north-central New Mexico. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 36(4):6 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
58658 L. F. Rinehart, S. G. Lucas, A. B. Heckert and A. P. Hunt. 2004. Vision characteristics of Coelophysis bauri based on sclerotic ring, orbit, and skull morphology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(3, suppl.):104A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
24961ETE L. F. Rinehart, S. G. Lucas, and A. P. Hunt. 2007. Furculae in the Late Triassic theropod dinosaur Coelophysis bauri. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift 81(2):174-180 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
32134 L. F. Rinehart, S. G. Lucas, A. B. Heckert, J. A. Spielmann, and M. D. Celeskey. 2009. The paleobiology of Coelophysis bauri (Cope) from the Upper Triassic (Apachean) Whitaker quarry, New Mexico, with detailed analysis of a single quarry block. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 45:1-260 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
25845ETE B. T. Roach and D. L. Brinkman. 2007. A reevaluation of cooperative pack hunting and gregariousness in Deinonychus antirrhopus and other nonavian theropod dinosaurs. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 48(1):103-138 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
43410 B. Schaeffer. 1967. Late Triassic fishes from the western United States. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135(6):285-342 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
5706ETE 1462H. L. Schwartz and Gillette, D.D. 1994. Geology and Taphonomy of the Coelophysis Quarry, Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Ghost Ranch, New Mexico. Journal of Paleontology 68(5):1118-1130 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/J. Alroy]
28931ETE D. K. Smith and A. Merrill. 2006. Facial variation in Coelophysis bauri and the status of Megapnosaurus (Syntarsus). In J. D. Harris, S. G. Lucas, J. A. Spielmann, M. G. Lockley, A. R. C. Milner, & J. I. Kirkland (eds.), The Triassic-Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 37:592-598 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
35814 H.-D. Sues, S. J. Nesbitt, D. S. Berman and A. C. Henrici. 2011. A late-surviving basal theropod dinosaur from the latest Triassic of North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:3459-3464 [R. Butler/R. Butler/M. Carrano]
37966 S. P. Welles. 1972. Fossil-hunting for tetrapods in the Chinle Formation: a brief pictorial history. In C. S. Breed & W. J. Breed (ed.), Investigations in the Triassic Chinle Formation. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 47:13-18 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]