Aivaliki: Early/Lower Pleistocene, Greece
collected by N. Symeonidis, R. Seemann , V. Giannopoulos, S. Giannopoulou and N. Diafas - 2003

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus cf. etruscus (Falconer 1868)
see common names

Country:Greece State/province:Macedonia County:Serres
Coordinates: 41.0° North, 24.0° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:40.9° North, 24.0° East
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Period:Quaternary Epoch:Pleistocene
10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
Key time interval:Early/Lower Pleistocene
Age range of interval:2.58800 - 0.78100 m.y. ago
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:gray,green,yellow silty,carbonaceous claystone
Lithology description: The sediment directly adherent to the surface of the fossil bones is a rather inhomogeneous and poorly sorted deposit. At a first glance it looks like a compact and uniform finegrained matrix. In fact, it is a heterogeneous mixture of minor amounts of completely unsorted mm-sized grains (sub-rounded to angular quartz and local rock fragments) set in a matrix of fine silt and clay. The colour is greenish grey to yellowish, depending on the stage of oxidation. The general mineral composition of the dominating finegrained part of the sediment is characterized by: Calcite (CaCO3): about 50-60% Chlorite (clinochlore) ([Mg,Fe,Al]3 [(OH)2/AlSi3O10]. Mg3(OH)6): about 20-30% Quartz (SiO2) and Biotite (mainly chloritized): about 1-5% Mineral composition and chemistry classify the sediment as carbonate rich silty clay (marl). Remarkable are small brownish to black dendriditic formations (Fe-and Mnoxihydrates), typical for weak diagenetic processes. The enrichment zones are close to the surface of the embedded fossil bones. In addition, small nodular phosphate concretions (dahllite: carbonate-hydroxyapatite) were formed by secondary processes nearby or even on the bone fragments. The fine grained sediment is typical for a shallow-water deposit or flood plain deposit. The much less abundant coarse grained part of the matrix sediment consists mainly of debris of quartz (vein quartz), feldspar, mica flakes, in part oxidized ore (hematite, pyrite, magnetite), and of fragments of local rocks (quartzite, gneiss and mica schists). Given the shape and low degree of roundness (sphericity) of fragments the distance to the source area cannot be very far. The only possible source material close enough for discussion is the pre-Mesozoic Rhodope Chrystalline –either in shortest distance from the Pangeon/Simvolon Mountains in the South or, assuming a former exposure, with more probability from the North, from the Menikion or Phalakron Area. The available rocks from both sides are mainly marble, quartzites, gneisses, mica schists, amphibolites as well as granites and granodiorites.
Geology comments: The peculiarity of this inhomogeneous sedimentation seems to be a result of rhythmic deposition of thin layers of coarse and fine grained material in a flood plain in basins in-between the southern spurs of the Rhodope Massif. An area influenced by river activity and in part with shallow water.
Modes of preservation:body,replaced with calcite,replaced with silica,replaced with other
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Articulated whole bodies:none
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:field collection
Collection size:4 specimens
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:AMPG
Collectors:N. Symeonidis, R. Seemann , V. Giannopoulos, S. Giannopoulou and N. Diafas Collection dates: 25-30 August 2003
Database number:195881
Authorizer:E. Vlachos Enterer:P. Kampouridis
Research group:vertebrate
Created:2018-08-29 13:44:14 Last modified:2018-08-29 13:44:14
Access level:the public Released:2018-08-29 13:44:14
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

66685. N. Symeonidis, I. Giaourtsakis, R. Seemann and V. Giannopoulos. 2006. Aivaliki, a New Locality with Fossil Rhinoceroses near Alistrati (Serres, Greece) . Beiträge zur Paläontologie 30:437-451 [E. Vlachos/P. Kampouridis]