Crato (AMNH collection): Late/Upper Aptian, Brazil
collected by Herbert Axelrod

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Arachnida - Scorpiones - Protoischnuridae
Protoischnurus axelrodorum de Carvalho and Lourenço 2001
de Carvalho and Lourenço 2001 5 specimens
AMNH SF-Chel1(2a), SF-Chel2(2b), SF-Chel3(3), SF-Chel4(4), SF-Chel6(7)
Insecta - Diptera - Therevidae
? Therevidae indet. Newman 1834
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43511
Insecta - Diptera - Asilidae
Araripogon informal sp. 2? Grimaldi 1990
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43512
Araripogon axelrodi n. gen., n. sp. Grimaldi 1990
Grimaldi 1990 2 specimens
AMNH 43514,43507
Insecta - Diptera - Bibionidae
? Bibionidae indet. Fleming 1821
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43504
Insecta - Diptera
Sciaroidea indet. Billberg 1820
Grimaldi 1990 2 specimens
AMNH 43505,43506
Insecta - Diptera - Mycetophilidae
Mycetophilidae indet. Newman 1834
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43502
Insecta - Diptera
? Tipulomorpha indet.
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43501
Insecta - Diptera - Tipulidae
Tipulidae indet. (Latreille 1802)
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
original and current combination Tipulariae
AMNH 43500
Leptotarsus grimaldii n. sp. Ribeiro and Lukashevich 2014
Ribeiro and Lukashevich 2014 2 specimens
AMNH SA 46358, 46366 (3 measurements)
Leptotarsus cretaceus n. sp. Ribeiro and Lukashevich 2014
Ribeiro and Lukashevich 2014 1 specimen
AMNH SA 46354 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Diptera
Chironomoidea indet. Macquart 1838
Grimaldi 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43503
Insecta - Odonata - Protoneuridae
Eoprotoneura hyperstigma n. gen., n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 3 specimens
AMNH 44201-44203 (6 measurements)
Insecta - Odonata - Thaumatoneuridae
Euarchistigma atrophium n. gen., n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 44204 (9 measurements)
Insecta - Odonata - Aeschnidiidae
Wightonia araripina n. gen., n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 7 specimens
5 in Bechly, 1998 (7 measurements)
Insecta - Odonata - Nothomacromiidae
Pseudomacromia sensibilis n. gen., n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 1 specimen
recombined as Nothomacromia sensibilis
larva
Insecta - Odonata - Gomphaeschnidae
Gomphaeschna obliqua n. sp. Wighton 1987
Wighton 1987 1 specimen
recombined as Gomphaeschnaoides obliquus
AMNH 43257 (1 measurement)
Insecta - Odonata - Proterogomphidae
Cordulagomphus fenestratus n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 1 specimen
(5 measurements)
Cordulagomphus tuberculatus n. gen., n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 1 specimen
(3 measurements)
Insecta
Cretereisma sp. Willmann 2007
Martill et al. 2007 1 specimen
Figured by Grimaldi & Engel (2005, fig 6.13)
Insecta - Ephemeroptera
Ephemeroptera informal incertae sedis sp. 1
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
larva
Ephemeroptera informal incertae sedis sp. 2
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
larva
Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Hexagenitidae
Siphgondwanus occidentalis n. gen., n. sp. McCafferty 1990
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
synonym of Protoligoneuria limai
larvae
Protoligoneuria limai Demoulin 1955
McCafferty 1990 77 specimens
larvae
    = Palaeobaetodes costalimai Brito 1987
Martins-Neto 1996
synonym of Protoligoneuria limai
Hexagenitidae indet. Lameere 1917
Storari et al. 2020 1 specimen
AMNH 43499 (adult paratype of Colocrus indivicum) (3 measurements)
    = Protoligoneuria heloisae n. sp. Storari et al. 2021
Storari et al. 2021
Insecta - Ephemeroptera
Ephemeroidea informal sp. 1 Latreille 1810
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (adult) (1 measurement)
Ephemeroidea informal sp. 2 Latreille 1810
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (? adult female) (2 measurements)
Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Australiphemeridae
Microphemera neotropica n. gen., n. sp. McCafferty 1990
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
adult (2 measurements)
Australiphemera revelata n. gen., n. sp. McCafferty 1990
McCafferty 1990 2 specimens
adult (2 measurements)
Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Siphlonuridae
? Siphlonuridae informal sp. 1 (Albarda 1888)
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (adult) (1 measurement)
? Siphlonuridae informal sp. 2 (Albarda 1888)
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (adult) female (2 measurements)
? Siphlonuridae informal sp. 3 (Albarda 1888)
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (?adult) (3 measurements)
Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Leptophlebiidae
? Leptophlebiidae informal sp. 1 (Banks 1900)
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
larva
? Leptophlebiidae informal sp. 2 (Banks 1900)
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (? adult female) (2 measurements)
? Leptophlebiidae informal sp. 3 (Banks 1900)
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
alate (? adult female) (3 measurements)
Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Euthyplociidae
Pristiplocia rupestris n. gen., n. sp. McCafferty 1990
McCafferty 1990 3 specimens
adult (3 measurements)
Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Oligoneuriidae
Colocrus indivicum n. gen., n. sp. McCafferty 1990
McCafferty 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43484
Insecta - Neuroptera - Chrysopidae
Limaia adicotomica n. sp. Martins-Neto 1997
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
AMNH 44402 (1 measurement)
Insecta - Neuroptera - Mesochrysopidae
Karenina breviptera n. gen., n. sp. Martins-Neto 1997
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
AMNH 44411 (1 measurement)
Insecta - Neuroptera - Myrmeleontidae
Pseudonymphes ponomarenkoi Martins-Neto 1992
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
AMNH 44401
Blittersdorffia polyplusia n. sp. Martins-Neto 1997
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
AMNH 43288 (2 measurements)
Blittersdorffia pleoneura Martins-Neto and Vulcano 1989
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
AMNH 44410
Insecta - Neuroptera - Araripeneuridae
Caririneura damianii Martins-Neto 1992
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
recombined as Araripeneura damianii
AMNH 43289
Insecta - Neuroptera - Palaeoleontidae
Neurastenyx polyhymnia n. sp. Martins-Neto 1997
Martins-Neto 1997 1 specimen
recombined as Baisopardus polyhymnia
AMNH 44412 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Raphidioptera
Raphidioptera indet. (Handlirsch 1908)
Oswald 1990 1 specimen
original and current combination Raphidioidea
AMNH 44406 (1 measurement)
Insecta - Raphidioptera - Baissopteridae
Baissoptera brasiliensis n. sp. Oswald 1990
Oswald 1990 2 specimens
AMNH 43287,44400/44407 (4 measurements)
Insecta - Coleoptera - Mastigocoleidae
Mastigocoleus rhinoceros Tihelka and Cai 2022
Tihelka et al. 2022 1 specimen
AMNH SA43296 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
? Paederinae indet. (Fleming 1821)
Chatzimanolis 2018 1 specimen
AMNH SA46246
Cryptobiina indet. (Casey 1905)
Chatzimanolis 2018 1 specimen
AMNH SA46271
Insecta - Coleoptera - Nemonychidae
Belidae indet. Schoenherr 1826
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 1 specimen
AMNH 43316 (1 measurement)
    = Brasilnemonyx zherichini n. gen., n. sp. Legalov 2009
Legalov 2009
Cratomacer immersus n. gen., n. sp. Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 7 specimens
AMNH 43313, 43291, 43311, 43314, 44150, 44159, 73631 All complete bodies (1 measurement)
Cratomacer ephippiger n. sp. Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 2 specimens
AMNH 73630, 73629 (2 measurements)
Cratomacer cf. ephippiger Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 1 specimen
AMNH 43317
Insecta - Coleoptera - Brentidae
Axelrodiellus ruptus n. gen., n. sp. Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 1 specimen
AMNH 43312 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Coleoptera - Caridae
Martinsnetoa dubia n. gen., n. sp. Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 1 specimen
AMNH 43315 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Coleoptera - Belidae
Davidibelus cearensis n. gen., n. sp. Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004
Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 1 specimen
AMNH 73628 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Sepulcidae
Prosyntexis gouleti n. gen., n. sp. Sharkey 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43270 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Hymenoptera
Aculeata indet. (Latreille 1802)
Darling and Sharkey 1990 2 specimens
original and current combination Aculeati
AMNH 43274,44100
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Thynnidae
Architiphia rasnitsyni n. gen., n. sp. Darling 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43265 (3 measurements)
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Angarosphecidae
Cretosphex magnus Darling 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 2 specimens
recombined as Angarosphex magnus
AMNH 43267,44107 (3 measurements)
Cretosphex parvus n. sp. Darling 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 3 specimens
recombined as Angarosphex parvus
AMNH 43264,44104,44106 (3 measurements)
Mesorhopalosoma cearae n. gen., n. sp. Darling 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 4 specimens
AMNH 43266,43276,44103,44109 (6 measurements)
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Ampulicidae
? Ampulicinae indet. Shuckard 1840
Darling and Sharkey 1990 1 specimen
original and current combination Ampulicidae
AMNH 44108
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Ephialtitidae
Karataus kourios n. sp. Sharkey 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 2 specimens
recombined as Cratephialtites kourios
AMNH 43268,43269 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Mesoserphidae
Mesoserphidae indet. Kozlov 1970
Darling and Sharkey 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 43272 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Hymenoptera - Proctotrupidae
Protoprocto asodes n. gen., n. sp. Sharkey 1990
Darling and Sharkey 1990 1 specimen
AMNH 44101 (1 measurement)
Insecta - Hemiptera
Megaleurodes megocellata n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Achilidae
Acixiites costalis n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(3 measurements)
Acixiites immodesta n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 4 specimens
(2 measurements)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Lalacidae
Carpopodus informal sp. A Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
Carpopodus informal sp. B Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
Carpopodus difficilis n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(2 measurements)
Vulcanoia sp. Martins-Neto 1988
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Vulcanoia apicalis n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(2 measurements)
Vulcanoia acuceps n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(2 measurements)
Psestocixius fuscus n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(2 measurements)
Psestocixius delphax n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Lalax sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
Lalax mutabilis n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 4 specimens
(1 measurement)
? Patulopes sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Patulopes setosa n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(2 measurements)
Patulopes myndoides n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(2 measurements)
? Kinnarocixius sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Kinnarocixius quassus n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(2 measurements)
Ancorale sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(1 measurement)
Ancorale aschemon n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(2 measurements)
Ancorale flaccidum n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 4 specimens
(2 measurements)
Protodelphax sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(1 measurement)
Protodelphax chamus n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
(1 measurement)
Protodelphax miles n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(2 measurements)
Protodelphax rhinion n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Protodelphax macroceps n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Cixiidae
? Cixiidae indet. Spinola 1839
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Cercopionidae
Cercopion reticulata n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Tettigarctidae
Architettix compacta n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 3 specimens
Includes one nymph questionably assigned (2 measurements)
Insecta - Hemiptera
Ovojassus minor n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Ovojassus concavifer n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 4 specimens
(2 measurements)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Cicadellidae
Paracarsonus aphrodoides n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 4 specimens
(2 measurements)
Platyjassites sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Platyjassites inflatifrons n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
? Proerrhomus informal sp. A Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 2 specimens
? Proerrhomus informal sp. B Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
Proerrhomus rugosus n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Hallex xestocephalus n. gen., n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 17 specimens
(1 measurement)
Hallex gracilior n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 7 specimens
(1 measurement)
Hallex laticeps n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 1 specimen
(1 measurement)
Hallex brevipes n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 3 specimens
(1 measurement)
Hallex gongrogony n. sp. Hamilton 1990
Hamilton 1990 6 specimens
(1 measurement)
Insecta - Hemiptera - Hydrometridae
Cretaceometra brasiliensis Nel and Popov 2000
Nel and Popov 2000 1 specimen
Insecta - Dermaptera - Anisolabididae
Cretolabia cearae n. gen., n. sp. Popham 1990
Popham 1990 2 specimens
(2 measurements)
Kotejalabis goethitica n. gen., n. sp. Engel and Chatzimanolis 2005
Engel and Chatzimanolis 2005 2 specimens
(1 measurement)
Insecta - Dermaptera
Cordulagomphus santanensis n. sp. Carle and Wighton 1990
Carle and Wighton 1990 1 specimen
recombined as Caririlabia santanensis
Insecta - Orthoptera - Locustopsidae
Cratozeunerella godoii Martins-Neto 2003
Martins-Neto 2003 1 specimen
AMNH-43868 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Orthoptera - Baissogryllidae
Cearagryllus cf. perforatorius Martins-Neto 1991
Martins-Neto 1991 1 specimen
recombined as Cearagrylloides perforatorius
AMNH-43892
Insecta - Orthoptera - Elcanidae
Cratoelcana damianii Martins-Neto 1991
Martins-Neto 1991 9 specimens
(18 measurements)
Cratoelcana zessini Martins-Neto 1991
Martins-Neto 1991 2 specimens
AMNH-43878, 43883 (4 measurements)
Insecta - Mantodea - Santanmantidae
Santanmantis axelrodi n. gen., n. sp. Grimaldi 2003
Grimaldi 2003 1 specimen
AMNH 1956, 1957 (4 measurements)
Insecta - Blattodea - Blattulidae
Elisama americana n. sp. Vršanský 2002
Vršanský 2002 1 specimen
synonym of Elisama brevis
AMNH XX (1 measurement)
Insecta - Blattodea - Cratomastotermitidae
Cratomastotermes wolfschwenningeri Bechly 2007
Grimaldi et al. 2008 1 specimen
AMNH Sa-11 (2 measurements)
Insecta - Blattodea
Meiatermes hariolus n. sp. Grimaldi 2008
Grimaldi et al. 2008 1 specimen
AMNH Sa-122 (2 measurements)
Meiatermes araripena n. gen., n. sp. Krishna 1990
Krishna 1990 16 specimens
AMNH 43901-3; 13 in Grimaldi et al. AMNH Sa-17,8,11,12,14,15,16,21,25,27,28,29,30 (15 measurements)
Mariconitermes talicei Fontes and Vulcano 1998
Grimaldi et al. 2008 2 specimens
AMNH Sa-12, 15
Insecta - Alienoptera - Umenocoleidae
Ponopterix axelrodi n. gen., n. sp. Vršanský and Grimaldi 1999
Vršanský 1999 12 specimens
AMNH 43800, 405, 434, 451, 498, 43306, 43360, 43801, 43803, 43963, 43999, 1*-6*, 8*-11* (2 measurements)
Insecta - Chresmodidae
Chresmoda neotropica Engel and Heads 2008
Delclòs et al. 2008 1 specimen
AMNH SA-46446
see common names

Geography
Country:Brazil State/province:Ceará
Coordinates: 7.1° South, 39.7° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:8.6° South, 8.0° West
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Geographic resolution:local area
Time
Period:Cretaceous Epoch:Early/Lower Cretaceous
10 m.y. bin:Cretaceous 2-3
Key time interval:Late/Upper Aptian
Age range of interval:119.50000 - 113.00000 m.y. ago
Stratigraphy
Geological group:Santana Formation:Crato
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: lithified "carbonate"
Environment:lacustrine - large Tectonic setting:rift
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:adpression
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:medium
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:surface (in situ)
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:AMNH
Collectors:Herbert Axelrod
Collection method comments: Holotypes and some voucher specimens have been returned to Brazil. They are deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo.
Metadata
Database number:122352
Authorizer:M. Clapham Enterer:M. Clapham, J. Karr
Modifier:G. Varnham Research group:paleoentomology
Created:2011-12-22 03:34:56 Last modified:2022-03-15 07:08:15
Access level:the public Released:2011-12-22 03:34:56
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

5836.ETE 1602D. A. Grimaldi. 1990. Insects from the Santana formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:1-191 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Clapham]

Secondary references:

35354 F. L. Carle and D. C. Wighton. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Chapter 3: Odonata. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:51-68 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
67782 S. Chatzimanolis. 2018. A review of the fossil history of Staphylinoidea. In O. Betz, U. Irmler, J. Klimaszewski (eds.), Biology of Rove Beetles (Staphylinidae): Life History, Evolution, Ecology and Distribution 27-45 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
38947 D. C. Darling and M. J. Sharkey. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Chapter 7: Order Hymenoptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:123-153 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
49630 M. G. P. de Carvalho and W. R. Lourenço. 2001. A new family of fossil scorpions from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 332:711-716 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
41244 X. Delclòs, A. Nel, D. Azar, G. Bechly, J. A. Dunlop, M. S. Engel, and S. W. Heads. 2008. The enigmatic Mesozoic insect taxon Chresmodidae (Polyneoptera): new palaeobiological and phylogenetic data, with the description of a new species from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 247:353-381 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
40428 M. S. Engel and S. Chatzimanolis. 2005. Early Cretaceous earwigs (Dermaptera) from the Santana Formation, Brazil. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 74:219-226 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
38951 D. Grimaldi. 1990. Insects from the Santana formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil - Chapter 9. Diptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:164-183 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
40188 D. Grimaldi. 2003. A revision of Cretaceous mantises and their relationships, including new taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera: Mantodea). American Museum Novitates 3412:1-47 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
45425 D. A. Grimaldi, M. S. Engel, and K. Krishna. 2008. The species of Isoptera (Insecta) from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation: a revision. American Museum Novitates 3626:1-30 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
35358 K. G. A. Hamilton. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Chapter 6: Homoptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:82-122 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
35357 K. Krishna. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Chapter 5: Isoptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:76-81 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
39573 A. A. Legalov. 2009. Contribution to the knowledge of the Mesozoic Curculionoidea (Coleoptera). Amurian Zoological Journal 1:283-295 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
40729 D. M. Martill, G. Bechly, and R. F. Loveridge. 2007. The Crato Fossil Beds of Brazil: Window into an Ancient World 1-625 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
47962 R. G. Martins-Neto. 1991. Sistemática dos Ensifera (Insecta, Orthopteroida) da formação Santana, Cretáceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil. Acta Geologica Leopoldensia 14(32):5-160 [M. Clapham/J. Karr/M. Clapham]
5844ETE 1610R. G. Martins-Neto. 1996. New Mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from the Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Revista Española de Paleontologia 11:177-192 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Clapham]
55909 R. G. Martins-Neto. 1997. Neurópteros (Insecta, Planipennia) da Formação Santana (Cretáceo Inferior), Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil. X - descrição de novos táxons (Chrysopidae, Babinskaiidae, Myrmeleontidae, Ascalaphiidae e Psychopsidae). Revista da Universidade de Guarulhos, Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas 2(4):68-83 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
35353 W. P. McCafferty. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Chapter 2: Ephemeroptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:20-50 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
48722 A. Nel and Y. A. Popov. 2000. The oldest known fossil Hydrometridae from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha). Journal of Natural History 34:2315-2322 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
38950 J. D. Oswald. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Chapter 8: Raphidioptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:154-163 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
35356 E. J. Popham. 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Chapter 4: Dermaptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:69-75 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham/R. Day]
50631 G. C. Ribeiro and E. D. Lukashevich. 2014. New Leptotarsus from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil and Spain: the oldest members of the family Tipulidae (Diptera). Zootaxa 3753:347-363 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
81770 A. P. Storari, R. J. Godunko, F. F. Salles, A. A. F. Saraiva, A. H. Staniczek and T. Rodrigues. 2021. An overview of the Hexagenitidae (Ephemeroptera) from the Crato Formation (Aptian, Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil, with the description of a new species. Historical Biology 34:875-884 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
74173 A. P. Storari, T. Rodrigues, A. A. F. Saraiva and F. F. Salles. 2020. Unmasking a gap: A new oligoneuriid fossil (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) from the Crato Formation (upper Aptian), Araripe Basin, NE Brazil, with comments on Colocrus McCafferty. PLoS One 15(e0240365) [M. Clapham/M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
81748 E. Tihelka, M. A. Jäch, R. Kundrata, Y. D. Li, M. S. Engel, J. Lozano-Fernandez, D. Y. Huang and C. Y. Cai. 2022. Mastigocoleidae fam. nov., a new Mesozoic beetle family and the early evolution of Dryopoidea (Coleoptera). Insect Systematics and Diversity 6(3:3) [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]
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