La Cantalera 1, Josa: Early/Lower Barremian, Spain
collected 1997–2000

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
unclassified
Hemiclavator adnatus
Canudo et al. 2002
Clavatoraxis sp.
Canudo et al. 2002
Ostracoda - Podocopida - Cyprididae
Cypridea soriana
C. (Ulwellia) soriana
Gastropoda - Architaenioglossa - Viviparidae
Viviparidae indet. Gray 1847
Gastropoda - Basommatophora
Basommatophora indet. Keferstein 1864
Actinopteri
Actinopterygii indet. Cope 1887
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
    = Teleostei indet. Müller 1846
Canudo et al. 2010
Vertebra
Albanerpetontidae
Albanerpetontidae indet. Fox and Naylor 1982
Canudo et al. 2010
Two right humeri (incl. CAN 1-1626) and four dentaries (incl. CAN 1-1627)
Salientia - Discoglossidae
Anura indet. (Fischer von Waldheim 1813)
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
    = Discoglossidae indet. Günther 1859
Canudo et al. 2010
One right humerus and 20 fragments of tibiofibulae
Reptilia - Testudines - Pleurosternidae
Chelonia indet. (Latreille 1800)
"Chelonii indet."
    = ? Pleurosternidae indet. Cope 1868
Canudo et al. 2010
small peripheral plates tentatively referred to Pleurosternidae
? Pleurosternidae indet. Cope 1868
Canudo et al. 2004
Reptilia - Dinosauria
Dinosauria indet. Owen 1842
including eggshell, coprolites
Reptilia - Prismatoolithidae
Prismatoolithidae indet. Hirsch 1994
Canudo et al. 2010 347 specimens
CAN1-1620; MPZ 2012/428 to MPZ 2012/868
    = Trigonoolithus amoae n. gen., n. sp. Moreno-Azanza et al. 2014
Moreno-Azanza et al. 2014
Prismatoolithus sp. Zhao and Li 1993
Canudo et al. 2010
CAN1-1619
Reptilia
Camarasauridae indet. Cope 1877
2 specimens
MPZ 97/464, 465
    = Euhelopodidae indet. Romer 1956
Canudo et al. 2002
    = Somphospondyli indet. Wilson and Sereno 1998
Díez Díaz et al. 2012
Reptilia - Theropoda
Theropoda informal indet. A Marsh 1881
2 specimens
MPZ 97/466-467
Theropoda informal indet. B Marsh 1881
1 specimen
MPZ 97/468
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Carcharodontosauridae
? Carcharodontosauridae indet. Stromer 1931
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-963
Reptilia - Avetheropoda
Coelurosauria indet. Huene 1914
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
Maniraptora informal indet. 1 Gauthier 1986
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-1031
Maniraptora informal indet. 2 Gauthier 1986
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-1043
Maniraptora informal indet. 3 Gauthier 1986
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, MPZ2003/232
? Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
    = ? Avialae indet. Gauthier 1986
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Dromaeosauridae
Dromaeosauridae indet. Colbert and Russell 1969
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
Velociraptorinae indet. Barsbold 1983
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-1029
Dromaeosaurinae informal indet. 1 Matthew and Brown 1922
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN10979
Dromaeosaurinae informal indet. 2 Matthew and Brown 1922
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-1001
Dromaeosaurinae informal indet. 3 Matthew and Brown 1922
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-1058
Reptilia - Avetheropoda
aff. Paronychodon sp. Cope 1876
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth, CAN1-1035
Reptilia
"Prodeinodon" sp. Osborn 1924
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2003
nomen dubium belonging to Tetanurae
Teeth
Reptilia - Baryonychidae
Baryonychinae indet. (Charig and Milner 1986)
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
CAN1-957
    = Baryonychidae indet. Charig and Milner 1986
Canudo and Ruiz-Omeñaca 2003
spelled with current rank as Baryonychinae
Reptilia - Elongatoolithidae
Elongatoolithidae indet. Zhao 1975
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
CAN1-1618
Reptilia
Thyreophora indet. Nopcsa 1915
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
Reptilia - Polacanthidae
Nodosauridae indet. Marsh 1890
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001 2 specimens
MPZ 2002/926, 297
    = Polacanthidae indet. Wieland 1911
Canudo et al. 2004
Reptilia - Hypsilophodontidae
Hypsilophodontidae indet. Dollo 1882
11 specimens
MPZ 97/491-501
Reptilia
Ornithopoda indet. Marsh 1881
23 specimens
MPZ 97/477-484, 504-518; including (possibly) coprolites
? Hadrosauridae indet. Cope 1869
Ruiz-Omeñaca 2000 2 specimens
MPZ 97/477, CAN1-925
    = ? Hadrosauroidea indet. Huene 1954
Canudo et al. 2010
Reptilia - Spheroolithidae
cf. Spheroolithidae informal indet. 1 Zhao 1979
Canudo et al. 2010
CAN1-1622
cf. Spheroolithidae informal indet. 2 Zhao 1979
Canudo et al. 2010
CAN1-1621
Macroolithus turolensis Amo Sanjuán et al. 2000
Canudo et al. 2010 334 specimens
recombined as Guegoolithus turolensis
CAN1-1617, MPZ 2013/ 868 to MPZ 2013/1200
Reptilia
Iguanodontidae indet. Bonaparte 1850
13 specimens
MPZ 97/473-476, 485-490, 502-503
    = Iguanodontoidea indet. Hay 1902
Gasca et al. 2008
morphotype D
Iguanodon sp. Mantell 1825
46 specimens
MPZ 97/469-472
    = Iguanodontoidea indet. Hay 1902
Gasca et al. 2008
morphotype A
Reptilia - Rhabdodontidae
? Rhabdodontidae indet. Weishampel et al. 2003
Canudo et al. 2010 1 specimen
Tooth, CAN1-1616
Reptilia - Istiodactylidae
Pterosauria indet. Kaup 1834
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
    = ? Istiodactylidae indet. Howse et al. 2001
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth
Reptilia - Ornithocheiridae
? Ornithocheiridae indet. Seeley 1870
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth
Reptilia
cf. Lisboasaurus sp. Seiffert 1975
Canudo et al. 2010
nomen dubium belonging to Crocodyliformes
Teeth
Reptilia - Bernissartiidae
Bernissartiidae indet. (Dollo 1883)
Teeth
Reptilia - Goniopholididae
Goniopholidae indet. (Cope 1875)
1 specimen
original and current combination Goniopholididae
Teeth
Reptilia
Atoposauridae indet. (Gervais 1871)
    = cf. Theriosuchus sp. Owen 1878
Canudo et al. 2010
Teeth
    = aff. Theriosuchus sp. Owen 1878
Tennant et al. 2016
Reptilia - Krokolithidae
Krokolithes sp. Hirsch 1985
Canudo et al. 2010
CAN1-1623
Reptilia - Squamata - Paramacellodidae
Lacertilia indet. Owen 1842
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
    = ? Paramacellodidae indet. Estes 1983
Canudo et al. 2010
two fragments of dentaries, two indeterminate tooth-bearing fragments (incl. CAN1-1629) and one fragment of a vertebra
Mammalia - Multituberculata
? Plagiaulacidae indet. Gill 1872
Badiola et al. 2007 1 specimen
    = Plagiaulacida indet. Ameghino 1889
Badiola et al. 2008
'Plagiaulacidae or Eobaataridae indet.' left P1 ⁄ 3, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 936), and fragment of a right p4, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 937)
Plagiaulacida indet. (Ameghino 1889)
Badiola et al. 2007 2 specimens
Fragment of an I2, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 939), and fragment of a ?ix, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 938) (Badiola et al 2008)
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Pinheirodontidae
Pinheirodontidae indet. Hahn and Hahn 1999
Badiola et al. 2007 2 specimens
    = Cantalera abadi n. gen., n. sp. Badiola et al. 2008
Badiola et al. 2008
Holotype left M1, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 1609); paratype left P4 ⁄ 5, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 934); A fragment of right M1, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 1610)
Mammalia - Multituberculata
Iberica hahni n. gen., n. sp. Badiola et al. 2011
Badiola et al. 2011 1 specimen
FCPT (CAN 1/936), left P1/3 (holotype)
? Iberica hahni Badiola et al. 2011
Badiola et al. 2011 1 specimen
FCPT (CAN 1/937), fragment of a right p4
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Eobaataridae
Eobaataridae indet. Kielan-Jaworowska et al. 1987
Badiola et al. 2007 2 specimens
    = Eobaatar sp. Kielan-Jaworowska et al. 1987
Badiola et al. 2008
Left P5, FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 935), and other left P5 partially worn FCPT (CAN 1 ⁄ 1611)
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Albionbaataridae
Multituberculata indet. Cope 1884
Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo 2001
    = Albionbaataridae indet. Kielan-Jaworowska and Ensom 1994
Canudo et al. 2004
Charophyceae - Charales - Clavatoraceae
Pseudoglobator sp. Grambast 1969
Atopochara trivolvis Peck 1938
A. trivolvis triquetra
see common names

Geography
Country:Spain State/province:Aragón County:Teruel
Coordinates: 41.0° North, 0.8° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:30.9° North, 9.4° East
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Altitude:280 meters
Geographic resolution:small collection
Time
Period:Cretaceous Epoch:Early/Lower Cretaceous
Stage:Barremian 10 m.y. bin:Cretaceous 2
Key time interval:Early/Lower Barremian
Age range of interval:130.00000 - 125.45000 m.y. ago
Stratigraphy
Formation:Blesa Member:Cabezo Gordo
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: "Calizas y Margas de Blesa"; facies C
Lowest part of the lower Blesa Formation (Badiola et al 2012)
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:paleosol/pedogenic,gray carbonaceous claystone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "a wide outcrop of grey clays with very abundant vegetal remains, carbonate nodules formed in paleosols, and reelaborated marine fossils. The site was formed in a palustrine environment with no permanent water and abundant vegetation in the surrounding area"
Environment:mire/swamp
Geology comments: "non-permanent water marshy area"
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils,microfossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Associated major elements:some
Disassociated major elements:many
Disassociated minor elements:many
Fragmentation:occasional
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:selective quarrying,surface (float),surface (in situ),mechanical,sieve,field collection
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Collection dates:1997–2000
Taxonomic list comments:Among the microfossils, ostracods and charophytes are abundant, forming the greater part of the residue of the screen washing over 50 micro-m. Also frequent are plant fragments, microvertebraes remains (mainly teeth), and continental gastropods.
Metadata
Database number:53921
Authorizer:M. Carrano, P. Mannion, R. Benson Enterer:K. Maguire, P. Mannion, R. Benson, M. Carrano
Modifier:M. Carrano Research group:vertebrate
Created:2005-09-16 12:28:58 Last modified:2019-11-15 12:49:58
Access level:the public Released:2005-09-16 12:28:58
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

19727.ETE J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 1997. Primera evidencia de un área de alimentación de dinosaurios herbívoros en el Cretácico Inferior de España (Teruel) [First evidence of a feeding area of herbivorous dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of Spain (Teruel)]. Monografias de la Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas, Quimicas y Naturales de Zaragoza 10:1-48 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

17696ETE M. Aurell, J. I. Canudo, and J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 2004. Evolución tectosedimentaria de la Fm. Blesa (Cretácico Inferior) en el entorno del yacimiento de vertebrados de La Cantalera (Josa, Teruel) [Tectosedimentary evolution of the Blesa Fm. (Lower Cretaceous) in the region of the La Cantalera vertebrate locality (Josa, Teruel)]. Geogaceta 35:11-13 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
25752ETE A. Badiola, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2007. Multituberculate fossils from the Early Cretaceous of La Cantalera (Teruel, Spain). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(3, suppl.):42A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
28224ETE A. Badiola, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2007. Los fósiles de multituberculados del Hauteriviense y Barremiense de la Península Ibérica [The multituberculate fossils from the Hauterivian and Barremian of the Iberian Peninsula]. IV Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontología de Dinosaurios y su Entorno, Salas de los Infantes, Spain 47-48 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
39714 A. Badiola, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2008. New multituberculate mammals from the Hauterivian/Barremian transition of Europe (Iberian Peninsula). Palaeontology 51(6):1455-1469 [R. Benson/R. Benson/M. Carrano]
39717 A. Badiola, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2011. A systematic reassessment of Early Cretaceous multituberculates from Galve (Teruel, Spain). Cretaceous Research 32(1):45-57 [R. Benson/R. Benson/M. Carrano]
42710 A. Badiola, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2012. New Early Cretaceous multituberculate mammals from the Iberian Peninsula. In P. Godefroit (ed.), Bernissart Dinosaurs and Early Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems 409-433 [R. Benson/R. Benson]
17666ETE J. L. Barco, J. I. Canudo, J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca and R. Royo-Torres. 1999. Bones, teeth and tracks: about sauropod dinosaur remains from Aragón (northeastern Spain). In J. I. Canudo & G. Cuenca-Bescós (eds.), IV European Workshop on Vertebrate Paleontology, Albarracin, Spain. Universidad de Zaragoza 22-23 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17662ETE J. I. Canudo. 2004. Reconstrucción ambiental y paleogeografía de la Cantalera: un yacimiento con dinosaurios de Teruel [Environmental reconstruction and paleogeography of La Cantalera: a dinosaur locality of Teruel]. Fundamental 26:47-54 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17654ETE J. I. Canudo, M. Aurell, J. L. Barco, A. Cobos, G. Cuenca-Bescós, C. Martín-Closas, X. Murelaga, X. Pereda-Suberbiola, R. Royo-Torres and J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 2002. La Cantalera: un resumen de los dinosaurios del tránsito Hauteriviense-Barremiense (Cretácico Inferior) de la Cordillera Ibérica (Josa, Teruel) [La Cantalera: a summary of the dinosaurs from the Hauterivian-Barremian transition (Lower Cretaceous) of the Iberian Cordillera (Josa, Teruel)]. XVIII Jornadas de Paleontología, Salamanca, Spain [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
53564 J. I. Canudo, J. L. Barco, R. Royo-Torres and J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 2001. Los saurópodos (Dinosauria) del Tithónico (Jurásico Superior) y del Cretácico de Aragón []. I Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontología de Dinosaurios y Su Entorno, Salas de Los Infantes, Burgos, Spain, September 1999 Actas:309-318 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
42977 J. I. Canudo, J. M. Gasca, M. Aurell, A. Badiola, H.-A. Blain, P. Cruzado-Caballero, D. Gómez-Fernández, M. Moreno-Azanza, J. Parrilla, R. Rabal-Garcés, and J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 2010. La Cantalera: an exceptional window onto the vertebrate biodiversity of the Hauterivian-Barremian transition in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Iberian Geology 36(2):205-224 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion/M. Carrano]
17677ETE J. I. Canudo, J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca, J. L. Barco and R. Royo-Torres. 2002. Saurópodos asiáticos en el Barremiense inferior (Cretácico Inferior) de España? [Asian sauropods in the lower Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of Spain?]. Ameghiniana 39(4):443-452 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17647ETE J. I. Canudo and J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 2003. Los restos directos de dinosaurios teropódos (excluyendo Aves) en España [Direct remains of theropod dinosaurs (excluding Aves) in Spain]. Ciencias de la Tierra 26:347-373 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17692ETE J. I. Canudo, J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2004. Los primeros dientes de anquilosaurio (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) descritos en el Cretácico Inferior de España [The first ankylosaurian teeth (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) described from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain]. Revista Española de Paleontología 19(1):33-46 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
41617 M. T. Carrano, R. B. J. Benson, and S. D. Sampson. 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10(2):211-300 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
54616 G. Cuenca-Bescós, O. Amo, J. L. Barco, J. I. Canudo, R. Royo-Torres and J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 1999. Dinosaurios de Aragón [Dinosaurs of Aragon]. Zubía 17:235-257 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17652ETE G. Cuenca-Bescós and J. I. Canudo. 2004. Los mamíferos del Cretácico inferior de España [Lower Cretaceous mammals from Spain]. Geo-Temas 6(5):35-38 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
43435 V. Díez Díaz, X. Pereda Suberbiola, and J. L. Sanz. 2012. Juvenile and adult teeth of the titanosaurian dinosaur Lirainosaurus (Sauropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Iberia. Geobios 45:265-274 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
31341ETE J. M. Gasca, J. I. Canudo, and M. Moreno-Azanza. 2008. Revisión de morfotipos dentales de los iguanodontoideos del Cretácico Inferior de Teruel [Revision of dental morphotypes of the iguanodontoids from the Lower Cretaceous of Teruel]. In J I Ruiz-Omeñaca, L Piñuela and J C García-Ramos (eds), XXIV Jornadas de la Sociedad Española de Paleontología, 15-18 October 2008, Museo del Jurásico de Asturias (MUJA), Colunga, Spain, Libro de Resúmenes 127-128 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
70941 M. Moreno-Azanza, J. I. Canudo, and J. M. Gasca. 2014. Spheroolithid eggshells in the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Implications for eggshell evolution in ornithischian dinosaurs. Cretaceous Research 51(1):75-87 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
70942 M. Moreno-Azanza, J. I. Canudo, and J. M. Gasca. 2014. Unusual theropod eggshells from the Early Cretaceous Blesa Formation of the Iberian Range, Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 59(4):843-854 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
19749ETE J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca. 2000. Dientes de ornitópodos extraños en el Barremiense inferior (Cretácico Inferior) de Teruel (Cordillera Ibérica, España) [Strange ornithopod teeth from the lower Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of Teruel (Iberian Range, Spain)]. 5th European Workshop on Vertebrate Palaeontology, Karlsruhe. Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Geowissenschaften Abteilung, Program. Abstracts. Excursion Guides 68-69 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
29947ETE J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 1998. Sobre las especies de Iguanodon (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) encontradas en el Cretácico inferior de España [On the species of Iguanodon (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) found in the Lower Cretaceous of Spain]. Geogaceta 24:275-278 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14802ETE J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca and J. I. Canudo. 2001. Dos yacimientos excepcionales con vertebrados continentales del Barremiense (Cretácico Inferior) de Teruel: Vallipón y La Cantalera [Two exceptional localities with continental vertebrates in the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of Teruel: Vallipón and La Cantalera]. Naturaleza Aragonesa 7:8-18 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
55492 J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca, J. I. Canudo, and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2002. Los dinosaurios del Jurásico y del Cretácico de la Cordillera Ibérica aragonesa [The Jurassic and Cretaceous dinosaurs of the Aragonese Iberian Cordillera]. Actas del I Encuentro Nacional de Estudios sobre la Cordillera Ibérica (ciencias de la naturaleza) 119-130 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14675 J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca and J. I. Canudo. 2003. Un nuevo dinosaurio terópodo ("Prodeinodon" sp.) en el Cretácio Inferior de La Cantalera (Teruel) [A new theropod dinosaur ("Prodeinodon" sp.) from the Lower Cretaceous of La Cantalera (Teruel, Spain)]. Geogaceta 34:111-114 [M. Carrano/K. Maguire/M. Carrano]
55500 J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca and J. I. Canudo. 2003. Dinosaurios (Saurischia, Ornithischia) en el Barremiense (Cretácico Inferior) de la península Ibérica [Dinosaurs (Saurischia, Ornithischia) in the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of the Iberian peninsula]. In F. Pérez Lorente (ed.), Dinosaurios y Otros Reptiles Mesozóicos de España 269-312 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14532ETE J. I. Ruiz-Omenaca, J. I. Canudo, P. Cruzado-Caballero, P. Infante, and M. Moreno-Azanza. 2005. Baryonychine teeth (Theropoda: Spinosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of La Cantalera (Jose, NE Spain). Kaupia 14:59-63 [M. Carrano/K. Maguire/M. Carrano]
16791ETE J. I. Ruiz-Omeñaca and G. Cuenca-Bescós. 2004. Ornithopod dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Iberian peninisula (Spain and Portugal). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(3, suppl.):106A [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
59838 J. P. Tennant, P. D. Mannion, and P. Upchurch. 2016. Evolutionary relationships and systematics of Atoposauridae (Crocodylomorpha: Neosuchia): implications for the rise of Eusuchia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 177:854-936 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]