Podlesice: MN 14, Poland

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
unclassified
cf. Vormela petenyii Kretzoi 1942
Kowalski 1959 7 specimens
I3, C, P2, M1, and three detached bullae ossea
"Trilophomys" canterranensis Michaux 1976
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Reptilia - Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacerta sp. Linnaeus 1758
Mlynarski 1962
Reptilia - Squamata - Anguidae
Anguis cf. fragilis Linneaus 1758
Mlynarski 1962
Ophisaurus sp. Daudin 1803
Mlynarski 1962
probably O. pannonicus
    = Ophisaurus pannoicus
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Reptilia - Squamata - Viperidae
Viperidae informal indet "B"
Szyndlar 1984 2 specimens
Reptilia - Squamata - Colubridae
Colubrinae informal indet. "D" Oppel 1811
Szyndlar 1984 16 specimens
Colubrinae indet. Oppel 1811
Mlynarski 1962
    = Elaphe sp. Wagler 1833
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Mammalia - Rodentia - Anomalomyidae
Anomalomys sp. Gaillard 1900
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Mammalia - Rodentia - Muridae
Parapodemus coronensis Schaub 1938
Epimeriones progressus n. sp.
Kowalski 1974 19 specimens
m1, 5M1, 6m1, 2m2, 4I
Mammalia - Rodentia - Cricetidae
Baranomys loczyi
    = Baranomys kowalskii
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Mimomys cf. pusillus
    = Promimomys insuliferus n. sp. Kowalski 1958
Kowalski 1958
    = Prosomys insuliferus
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Kowalskia polonica n. gen., n. sp. Fahlbusch 1969
Fahlbusch 1969 43 specimens
recombined as Neocricetodon polonicus
Kowalskia magna n. sp. Fahlbusch 1969
Fahlbusch 1969 17 specimens
re-ID of Cricetus sp. from Kowalski, 1964
Cricetus informal sp. 1 Leske 1779
Fahlbusch 1969 3 specimens
? re-ID of Cricetus sp. from Kowalski, 1964
Cricetus informal sp. 2 Leske 1779
Fahlbusch 1969 1 specimen
? re-ID of Cricetus sp. from Kowalski, 1964
Mammalia - Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciurus cf. warthae
Black and Kowalski 1974 5 specimens
P4, L/RM1or2, m1or2, m3
Blackia polonica n. sp.
Black and Kowalski 1974 8 specimens
4M1or2, 3m1or2, p4
cf. Sciurotamias sp. Miller 1901
Black and Kowalski 1974 16 specimens
P4,2 M1-2, M1or2, 2M3, p4,3m1-2, m3
Pliopetes hungaricus
Black and Kowalski 1974 6 specimens
P4,3M1or2, M3, m1or2
Tamias cf. orlovi
Black and Kowalski 1974 1 specimen
m1or2
? Pliopetaurista dehneli
Black and Kowalski 1974 4 specimens
M1or2, 2p4, m1or2, m3
Pliopetaurista sp. Kretzoi 1962
Black and Kowalski 1974 2 specimens
2m1or2,
Mammalia - Rodentia - Gliridae
Glirulus pusillus (Heller 1936)
Kowalski 1963 1 specimen
original and current combination Amphidyromys pusillus
isolated right m1
Muscardinus pliocaenicus Kowalski 1963
Kowalski 1963 12 specimens
isolated teeth: 4m1, m2, m3, P4, 4M1, M3
Muscardinus aff. dacicus Kormos 1930
Kowalski 1963 6 specimens
maxillary fragment with M1; also isolated M1, 3m2, M2 (or m2, badly worn)
Glis sackdillingensis Heller 1930
Kowalski 1958
G. sackdillingensis minor (n. subspecies)
    = Glis minor Kowalski 1963
Kowalski 1963
mandibular fragment (holotype) and an isolated M1; new material includes: p4, 9m1, 5m2, 4m3, 3P4, 8M1, 2M2, M3
Mammalia - Rodentia - Eomyidae
Leptodontomys aff. catalaunicus
Fahlbusch 1978 19 specimens
jaw fragment with p4-m1, jaw fragment with p4-m1, 6p4, 3m1or2, 3P4, 4M1or2, D4?
Keramidomys mohleri Engesser 1972
Fahlbusch 1978 5 specimens
1 jaw fragment without teeth, 2p4, 2m1
Estramomys sp. Janossy 1969
Fahlbusch 1978 6 specimens
2p4, P4, M1, M1or2, M2
Mammalia - Rodentia - Zapodidae
Sminthozapus sp. Sulimski 1962
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Mammalia - Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Leporidae indet. Fischer de Waldheim 1817
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Mammalia - Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonidae indet. Thomas 1897
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Mammalia - Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Desmana nehringi Kormos 1913
5 specimens
mandibular and maxillary fragments with teeth: p2, p4, m2, P2, P4, M1, fragment of a cranial vault
Parascalops fossilis n. sp. Skoczen 1993
Skoczen 1993
Type series includes material from the type series of Scapanulus agrarius
Scapanulus agrarius n. sp. Skoczen 1980
Skoczen 1980
Talpa minor Freudenberg 1914
Mammalia - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814
Rzebik-Kowalska 1991 10 specimens
author recognizes 8 forms from this region, all forms except 5,6 and7 are found in this collection
Sorex cf. praearaneus Kormos 1934
    = Sorex informal sp. 3 Linnaeus 1758
Rzebik-Kowalska 1991
2 fragmentary mandibles with broken i1, a1-m3 and all processes, other with m1-m2 and the coronoid and condyloid processes
Sorex informal sp. 1 Linnaeus 1758
Rzebik-Kowalska 1991 1 individual
fragmentary mandible with m1-m2 and the coronoid and condyloid processes
Sorex informal sp. 2 Linnaeus 1758
Rzebik-Kowalska 1991 1 individual
fragmentary mandible with p4-m1 and the coronoid and condyloid processes
Sorex sp. Linnaeus 1758
    = Sorex runtonensis Hinton 1911
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
unsure whether S. runtonensis or S. minutus are the re-ID species
    = Sorex minutus Linnaeus 1766
Rzebik-Kowalska 1991
9 individuals, 2 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 20 fragmentary mandibles and lower teeth
Sorex minutus Linnaeus 1766
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
unsure whether S. runtonensis or S. minutus are the re-ID species
Sorex bor Reumer 1984
Rzebik-Kowalska 1991 3 individuals
5 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Deinsdorfia reumeri n. sp.
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 12 individuals
19 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 37 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Deinsdorfia insperata n. sp.
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 4 individuals
4 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 9 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Petenyia hungarica Kormos 1934
Blarinella dubia
Rzebik-Kowalska 1989 23 individuals
41 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 29 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth, originally listed by unknown author as Petenyia dubia
Episoriculus borsodensis
Rzebik-Kowalska 1981 88 individuals
5 maxillary fragments with A1-M3 (L) and P4-M1 (R), 20 isolated I1, and 226 mandibular halves or fragments, with all teeth and processes except the angular process represented
Soriculus kubinyi Kormos 1934
Sorex alpinoides n. sp. Kowalski 1956
    = Neomysorex n. gen. alpinoides
Rzebik-Kowalska 1981
58 individuals. 11 cranial fragments of which 5 nearly complete rostral parts and 6 fragments of the rostrum with teeth, 153 lower jaws whole and fragments with teeth A3-M3, and all lower teeth i1-m3
Paenelimnoecus pannonicus
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 10 individuals
17 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 1 fragmentary maxilla and detached upper teeth
Paranourosorex gigas n. gen., n. sp. Rzebik-Kowalska 1975
Rzebik-Kowalska 1975 15 specimens
4 mandubular halves (2L/2R) with complete dentition and processes other than processus angularis, fragments of mandibles and maxillae, isolated teeth
Blarinoides mariae Sulimski 1959
Rzebik-Kowalska 1976 1 specimen
fragmentary mandible with teeth
Sorex dehneli n. sp. Kowalski 1956
    = Mafia dehneli
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990
minimum 44 individuals; 73 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 121 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Mafia cf. csarnotensis
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 5 individuals
8 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 1 fragmentary maxilla and detached upper teeth
Sulimskia kretzoii (Sulimski 1962)
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 2 individuals
4 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 2 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth
Blarinella europaea Reumer 1984
Rzebik-Kowalska 1989 4 individuals
recombined as Alloblarinella europaea
7 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 9 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth
Suncus cf. pannonicus
Petenyiella gracilis
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
Petenyia robusta n. sp. Rzebik-Kowalska 1989
Rzebik-Kowalska 1989 9 individuals
recombined as Cokia robusta
18 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth; 22 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth
Zelceina podlesicensis n. sp. Rzebik-Kowalska 1990
Rzebik-Kowalska 1990 35 individuals
14 fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth; 96 fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth
Mammalia - Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelidae indet. Fischer 1817
    = Baranogale helbingi Kormos 1934
Kowalski 1959
nearly complete right half of mandible with damaged p2-p3 and m1
Mustela sp. Linnaeus 1758
Kowalski 1959 3 specimens
two fragments of mandible without dentition, one maxillar canine
Mammalia - Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis podlesicensis n. sp.
Myotis cf. aemulus
Myotis danutae n. sp.
Myotis cf. exilis
Myotis dasycneme Boie 1825
M. dasycneme subtilis (n. subspecies)
Plecotus crassidens Kormos 1930
Miniopterus schreibersi Natterer 1819
Mammalia - Chiroptera - Rhinolophidae
Rhinolophus grivensis Depéret 1892
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
unsure whether R. delphinensis or R. grivensis are the re-ID sp.
Rhinolophus cf. ferrumequinum (Schreber 1774)
    = Rhinolophus delphinensis Gaillard 1899
Agadjanian and Kowalski 1978
unsure whether R. delphinensis or R. grivensis are the re-ID sp.
see common names

Geography
Country:Poland County:Olkusz
Coordinates: 50.6° North, 19.5° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:50.7° North, 19.1° East
Basis of coordinate:stated in text
Geographic resolution:outcrop
Time
Period:Neogene Epoch:Pliocene
Stage:Zanclean 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
*Period:Tertiary
Key time interval:MN 14
Age range of interval:4.90000 - 4.20000 m.y. ago
* legacy (obsolete) database fields
Stratigraphy
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: Pliocene-Pleistocene, unit corresponds to Gunz-Mindel Interglacial (in early refs), the bone breccia includes both in-situ and specimens from a dump-pile, no stratigraphy is discernable, but the in-situ bed is only 4m in thickness. Kowalski, 1962 (Ref 8869), revises age to just Pliocene, so not from the interglacial. Later authors put age at Middle Pliocene (from 1963 on). Assigned to mammalian zone MN 14 (Ref 9172, 1989).
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:shelly/skeletal argillaceous breccia
Lithology description: fossils collected in a bone breccia filling a small karstic hole inside a cave in Jurassic limestone, fossils occur in clay matrix representing the floor of the cave
Environment:cave
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils,microfossils
Disassociated major elements:many
Disassociated minor elements:many
Temporal resolution:time-averaged
Collection methods and comments
Collection excludes:some genera
Collection methods:salvage,surface (float),surface (in situ),chemical,mechanical,field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Collection method comments: 500 kg of rock collected
Metadata
Database number:32240
Authorizer:J. Alroy, L. van den Hoek Ostende, J. Head Enterer:E. Leckey, L. van den Hoek Ostende, J. Head
Modifier:J. Alroy Research group:vertebrate
Created:2003-06-16 16:46:46 Last modified:2008-12-16 21:18:00
Access level:the public Released:2003-06-16 16:46:46
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

8865. K. Kowalski. 1956. Insectivores, bats and rodents from the Early Pleistocene bone breccia of Podlesice near Kroczyce (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 1(4):331-393 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]

Secondary references:

86835% 34140A. K. Agadjanian and K. Kowalski. 1978. Prosomys insuliferus (Kowalski 1958) (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Poland and the European part of the USSR. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 31(3):29-53 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8887 C. Black and K. Kowalski. 1974. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 19(19):461-486 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8885 V. Fahlbusch. 1969. Pliozane und Pleistozane Cricetinae (Rodentia, Mammalia) aus Polen. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 14(5):99-138 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8888 V. Fahlbusch. 1978. Pliozane und Pleistozane Eomyidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) aus Polen. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 23(2):13-28 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8762 K. Kowalski. 1958. An early Pleistocene fauna of small mammals from the Kadzielnia Hill in Kielce (Poland). 3(1):1-48 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8867 K. Kowalski. 1959. Baranogale helbingi Kormos and other Mustelidae from the bone breccia in Podlesice near Kroczyce (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 4(1):61-69 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/M. Uhen]
8869 K. Kowalski. 1962. Fauna of Bats from the Pliocene of Weze in Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 7(3):1-51 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8884 K. Kowalski. 1963. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Gliridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 8(14):533-567 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8886 K. Kowalski. 1974. Remains of Gerbillinae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Poland. Bulletin de L'Academie Polonaise des Sciences 22(9):591-595 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/M. Uhen]
8882 M. Mlynarski. 1962. Notes on the amphibian and reptilian fauna of the Polish Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 7(2):177-194 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8999 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1975. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivores (Mammalia) of Poland. II. Soricidae: Paranourosorex and Amblycoptus. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 20(6):167-184 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
8929 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1971. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivores (Mammalia) of Poland I. Erinaceidae and Desmaninae. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 30(10):435-462 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/J. Alroy]
8998 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1976. The Neogene and Pleistocene Insectivores (Mammalia) of Poland. III. Soricidae: Beremendia and Blarinoides. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 21(12):359-386 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
9129 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1981. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivora (Mammalia) of Poland IV. Soricidae: Neomysorex n. gen. and Episoriculus Ellerman er Morrison-Scott 1951. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 25(8):227-250 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
91725% 17300B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1989. Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivora (Mammalia) of Poland. V. Soricidae: Petenyia Kormos, 1934 and Blarinella Thomas, 1911. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 32(11):521-546 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
9290 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1990. Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivora (Mammalia) of Poland. VI. Soricidae: Deinsdorfia Heller, 1963 and Zelceina Sulimski, 1962. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 33(4):45-77 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
9173 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1990. Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivora (mammalia) of Poland. VII. Soricidae: Mafia Reumer, 1984, Sulimskia Reumer, 1984 and Paenelimnoecus Baudelot, 1972. Acta Zoologia Cracoviensia 33(14):303-327 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]
9224 B. Rzebik-Kowalska. 1991. Pliocene and Pleistocene Insectivora (Mammalia) of Poland. VIII. Soricidae: Sorex Linnaeus, 1758, Neomys Kaup, 1829, Macroneomys Fejfar, 1966, Paenelimnoecus Baudelot, 1972 and Soricidae indeterminata. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 34(2):323-424 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/J. Alroy]
25535 S. Skoczen. 1980. Scaptonychini Van Valen, 1967, Urotrichini and Scalopini Dobson, 1883 (Insectivora, Mammalia) in the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviense 24(9):411-448 [L. van den Hoek Ostende/L. van den Hoek Ostende]
25536 S. Skoczen. 1993. New records of Parascalops, Neurotrichus and Condylura (Talpinae, Insectivora) from the Pliocene of Poland. Acta Theriologica 38(2):125-137 [L. van den Hoek Ostende/L. van den Hoek Ostende]
12914 Z. Szyndlar. 1984. Fossil snakes from Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 28(1):1-156 [J. Head/J. Head/J. Head]