Santa Cruz Formation: Santacrucian, Argentina

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Reptilia - Theropoda
Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Reptilia - Theropoda - Anatidae
Eoneornis australis Ameghino 1894
Degrange et al. 2012 1 specimen
BMNH-A595, distal end of radius
Eutelornis patagonicus Ameghino 1894
Degrange et al. 2012 1 specimen
BMNH-A596, distal end of humerus and proximal tibiotarsus
Reptilia - Theropoda
Anisolornis excavatus
Degrange et al. 2012 1 specimen
BMNH-A 594, distal tarsometatarsus
Reptilia - Theropoda - Phorusrhacidae
Psilopterus sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Diederle and Noriega 2019
MPM-PV 18901 (postcranial elements; fragments of tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus)
Psilopterus lemoinei (Moreno and Mercerat 1891)
Diederle and Noriega 2019
MPM-PV 18897 (postcranial elements including long-bone fragments)
Psilopterus australis n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Psilopterus lemoinei
Psilopterus intermedius n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Psilopterus communis n. gen., n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Patagornis bachmanni n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
recombined as Psilopterus bachmanni
Phororhacos longissimus Ameghino 1887
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
recombined as Phorusrhacos longissimus
Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Owenornis affinis n. gen., n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Darwinornis socialis n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Darwinornis zitteli n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Stereornis rollieri n. gen., n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Darwinornis copei n. gen., n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Phorusrhacos longissimus
Patagornis marshi n. gen., n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
BMNH-A516, partial skeleton (ref. 58178)
Palaeociconia cristata n. sp. Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
synonym of Patagornis marshi
originally stated to be from the Eocene, but almost certainly Miocene
Reptilia - Theropoda - Tinamidae
Tinamidae gen
Diederle and Noriega 2019
MPM-PV 18900, (postcranial elements; proximal end of left carpometacarpus)
Reptilia - Theropoda - Rheidae
Opisthodactylus patagonicus Ameghino 1891
Degrange et al. 2012 3 specimens
BMNH-A 586, distal tarsometatarsi and phalanges; BMNH-A 587, symphysis, distal tibiotarsi; BMNH-A 588, distal tarsometarsus fragments
Opisthodactylus patagonicus Ameghino 1891
Diederle and Noriega 2019
MPM-PV 18903 and MPM-PV 18904 (postcranial elements; distal ends of left tibiotarsi)
Reptilia - Theropoda - Threskiornithidae
Protibis cnemialis Ameghino 1891
Degrange et al. 2012 1 specimen
BMNH-A598, distal end of right tibiotarsus
Reptilia - Theropoda - Anhingidae
Liptornis hesternus Ameghino 1894
Degrange et al. 2012 1 specimen
recombined as Anhinga hesterna
BMNH-A 509, cervical vertebra
Reptilia - Theropoda - Spheniscidae
Palaeospheniscus antarcticus Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Moreno and Mercerat 1891
recombined as Paraptenodytes antarcticus
Reptilia - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811
Mammalia - Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis Ameghino 1887
Abello et al. 2012
MACN-A 2031, dentary m2; 2032, dentary m2-4; 2033, dentary m2-4; 2034, dentary m1-3; MLP 11-109, dentary m1-2; 11-133, dentary m2-3; 55-XII-13-144, dentary m2; MACN 11651, dentary p3-m4
Mammalia - Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
Microbiotherium tehuelchum n. sp. Ameghino 1887
Marshall 1982 4 specimens
MLP 11-36, right dentary with p2-m, neotype; PU 15038, maxilla M2-3, dentary c-m3, postcrania, skull fragment; MLP 11-35, dentary p2-m3; MLP 58-IX-3-4, partial skull
Mammalia - Sparassodonta
Acyon tricuspidatus Ameghino 1887
Prevosti et al. 2012
MACN-A 9
Sipalocyon gracilis Ameghino 1887
Marshall 1981 4 specimens
MLP 11-105, c and m1-2; MLP 11-76, dentary m2; MLP 11-77, dentary m3; MLP 11-41, dentary p1, p3
Cladosictis patagonica Ameghino 1887
Marshall 1981 5 specimens
MLP 11-100, dentary p2; MLP 11-13, dentary p1-m4; MLP 11-63, dentary m1-4; MLP 11-68, dentary p1; MLP 11-87, maxilla M2-3
Prothylacynus patagonicus Ameghino 1891
Marshall 1979 2 specimens
BM(NH) M8075, partial maxilla with teeth; MACN 11540, dentary left and right m2-4
Arctodictis munizi Mercerat 1891
Forasiepi et al. 2004 3 specimens
MLP 11-65, skull and mandible; MLP 11-81, left m4; MLP 11-89, right m2
Borhyaena tuberata Ameghino 1887
Prevosti et al. 2012
Ref. 58202: YPM-VPPU 15701, from "South of Río Coyle". Ref. 58303: MACN A 6238, partial skull, mandible, and postcrania; 9342-3, jaw fragments; 9344, skull; MACN unnumbered, maxillary fragment; MACN unnumbered, both hemimandibles
Borhyaena zitteli n. sp. Ameghino 1894
Forasiepi et al. 2004 1 specimen
synonym of Borhyaena tuberata
MACN A 6238, skull fragment, holotype
Mammalia - Panameriungulata - Proterotheriidae
Tetramerorhinus fortis n. sp. Ameghino 1894
Cassini et al. 2012
MACN-A 5971, cranium, type
Diadiaphorus majusculus Ameghino 1887
Cassini et al. 2012
AMNH 9196, mandible; 9291, cranium, mandible
Mammalia - Rodentia
Acarechimys sp. Patterson 1965
Arnal et al. 2017
MACN-A 1895
Acarechimys minutus Patterson and Pascual 1967
Arnal et al. 2017
MACN-A 237 (syntype of Acaremys minutus) MACN-A 238 (syntype of Acaremys minutus), MACN-A 4082, , MLP 82-XII-1-31
Acarechimys minutissimus Ameghino 1887
Arnal et al. 2017
MACN-A 256 (syntype of Acaremys minutissimus) MACN-A 257 (syntype of Acaremys minutissimus) MACN-A 258 (syntype of Acaremys minutissimus), MLP 15-1, MLP 15-1, MACN-A 4089, MACN-A 4088, MACN-A 4079 MACN-A 4080 MACN-A4081 MACN-A 4083 MACN-A 4084 MACN-A 4085 MACN-A 4086 MACN-A 4087, MACN-A 4076 MACN-A 4077
Acarechimys constans (Ameghino 1887)
Arnal et al. 2017
MLP 15-57 (syntype of Stichomys constans), MACN-A 247 (syntype of Stichomys constans)
Mammalia - Primates - Homunculidae
Homunculus patagonicus Ameghino 1891
Kay et al. 2012 2 specimens
MLP 66-V-2-2, mandibular fragment with i2, c, p2-3 roots, broken p4, broken m1; MLP 11-121, left dp4-m1, unerupted p4
Anthropops perfectus n. gen., n. sp. Ameghino 1891
Kay et al. 2012 1 specimen
synonym of Homunculus patagonicus
MACN-A 635, symphysis with roots of left and right i1-2 and right p2-3, alveoli for left and right canines, right p4 in situ, holotype. Ref. 58226 state that the specimen comes from one of the coastal localities of the Santa Cruz Fm; ref. 47173 lists it as from near the city of Río Gallegos
Mammalia
Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen., n. sp. Ameghino 1904
McDonald et al. 2008 1 specimen
MLP 69-IX-5-16, left astragalus
Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen., n. sp.
McDonald et al. 2008 1 specimen
MACN A-11687, left astragalus
Mammalia - Myrmecophagidae
Myrmecophagidae indet.
Bargo et al. 2012
MLP 69-IX-8-8a, left humerus
Protamandua rothi n. gen., n. sp. Ameghino 1904
McDonald et al. 2008 1 specimen
MACN-A 10901b, calcaneum
Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen., n. sp. Ameghino 1904
McDonald et al. 2008 1 specimen
synonym of Protamandua rothi
MACN-A 11530, astragalus
Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp. Ameghino 1904
McDonald et al. 2008 1 specimen
synonym of Protamandua rothi
MLP ? right astragalus (now lost), cast = MACN A-4621b
Mammalia - Megalonychidae
Eucholoeops ingens Ameghino 1887
Bargo et al. 2012
MACN-A 11614, left half of skull and dentary
Mammalia - Cingulata
Peltephilus pumilus Ameghino 1887
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 7784–7791, skull, mandible, postcrania
Mammalia - Cingulata - Propalaehoplophoridae
Propalaehoplophorus australis (Moreno 1882)
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
original and current combination Hoplophorus australis
MLP 16–15, skull, mandible, skeleton
Metopotoxus laevatus Ameghino 1889
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 1042, fragment of carapace
Cochlops muricatus Ameghino 1889
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 2120, mandible, right femur
Mammalia - Cingulata - Chlamyphoridae
Prozaedyus proximus (Ameghino 1887)
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 2201, partial carapace
Proeutatus sp. Ameghino 1891
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 1063, humerus; MLP 69-IX-8-11, near-complete skeleton
Stenotatus sp. Ameghino 1891
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MLP 69-IX-5-11, femur
Stenotatus patagonicus (Ameghino 1887)
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 898–900, osteoderms
Stenotatus hesternus Ameghino 1889
Vizcaíno et al. 2012
MACN-A 871–878, osteoderms
Mammalia - Notoungulata - Homalodotheriidae
Homalodotherium cunninghami Flower 1884
Cassini et al. 2012
YPM-VPPU 15747, ulna
Mammalia - Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Adinotherium sp. Ameghino 1887
Cassini et al. 2012
AMNH 9532, cranium
Adinotherium sp. Ameghino 1887
Townsend and Croft 2008
P13229, P13232, P13245
Adinotherium ovinum (Owen 1846)
Townsend and Croft 2008
P12066, P13098, P13104, P13107, P13108, P13110, P13231, UC1508, YPM-PU 16033
Adinotherium robustum Ameghino 1891
Cassini et al. 2012
synonym of Adinotherium ovinum
AMNH 9497, cranium
Nesodon sp. Owen 1846
Cassini et al. 2012
AMNH 9128, cranium, mandible
Nesodon imbricatus Owen 1846
Cassini et al. 2012
AMNH 9192, mandible, humerus, ulna; YPM-VPPU 15132, ulna; 15141, cranium; 15256, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna; 15260, mandible
Mammalia - Notoungulata
Hegetotherium mirabile Ameghino 1887
Cassini et al. 2012
AMNH 9159, cranium and mandible; YPM-VPPU 15298, mandible, tibia; 15395, tibia
Mammalia - Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
Protypotherium sp. Ameghino 1882
Cassini et al. 2012
MACN-A 9657–63, humerus
Protypotherium praeutilium
Townsend and Croft 2008
P12058
Protypotherium australe (Moreno 1882)
Cassini et al. 2012
AMNH 9149, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
Protypotherium australe (Moreno 1882)
Townsend and Croft 2008
YPM-PU 15203, 15350, 15551
Interatherium robustum Ameghino 1891
Cassini et al. 2012
synonym of Interatherium extensus
YPM-VPPU 15100, cranium, mandible; 15108, humerus, ulna, tibia; 15554, mandible; 15401, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
see common names

Geography
Country:Argentina State/province:Santa Cruz
Coordinates: 50.0° South, 70.0° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:50.6° South, 64.4° West
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Geographic resolution:basin
Time
Period:Neogene Epoch:Miocene
Stage:Burdigalian 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 5
*Period:Middle - Late/Upper Tertiary - Middle - Late/Upper Tertiary *Epoch:Middle Miocene - Middle Miocene
Key time interval:Santacrucian
Age range of interval:17.40000 - 16.20000 m.y. ago
* legacy (obsolete) database fields
Stratigraphy
Formation:Santa Cruz
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: not reported
Environment:terrestrial indet.
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Articulated whole bodies:none
Associated major elements:none
Disassociated major elements:some
Disassociated minor elements:some
Collection methods and comments
Collection size:5
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Metadata
Database number:27313
Authorizer:J. Head, M. Uhen, J. Zijlstra, P. Mannion Enterer:J. Head, E. Medeiros, J. Zijlstra, M. Uhen, M. Kouvari
Modifier:M. Kouvari
Collections that are a subset of this one:176564, 176565, 176566, 176567, 176568, 176569, 176570, 176571, 176572, 176573, 176574, 176575, 176576, 176577, 176578, 176580, 176581, 176582, 176583, 176584, 176585, 176586, 176587, 176588, 176589, 176590, 176591, 176592, 176593, 176594, 176595, 176596, 176597, 176598, 207030, 206239, 206240, 206241, 206244, 206245, 206246, 207742
Created:2002-12-01 19:11:02 Last modified:2020-11-30 09:54:21
Access level:the public Released:2002-12-01 19:11:02
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

7545. A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part II: The Colubroidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 200(3):353-360 [J. Head/J. Head/J. Alroy]

Secondary references:

58179 M. A. Abello, E. Ortiz-Jaureguizar, and A. M. Candela. 2012. Paleoecology of the Paucituberculata and Microbiotheria (Mammalia, Marsupialia) from the late Early Miocene of Argentina. In S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 156-172 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
72683 M. Arnal, M. G. Vucetich, D. A. Croft, M. S. Bargo, J. C. Fernícola and S. F. Viscaino. 2017. Systematic revision and evolutionary history of Acarechimys Patterson in Kraglievich 1965 (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Octodontoidea). Ameghiniana 54(3):307-330 [P. Mannion/M. Kouvari]
58223 M. S. Bargo, N. Toledo, and S. F. Vizcaíno. 2012. Paleobiology of the Santacrucian sloths and anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa). In S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 216-242 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58224 G. H. Cassini, E. Cerdeño, A. L. Villafañe and N. A. Muñoz. 2012. Paleobiology of Santacrucian native ungulates (Meridiungulata: Astrapotheria, Litoptera and Notoungulata). In S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 243-286 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58178 F. J. Degrange, J. I. Noriega, and J. I. Areta. 2012. Diversity and paleobiology of the Santacrucian birds. In S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 138-155 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
82834 J.M. Diederle and J.I. Noriega. 2019. New records of birds from the Santa Cruz Formation (Early-Middle Miocene) at the Río Santa Cruz Valley, Patagonia. Asociación Paleontológica Argentina 19(2):55-61 [M. Uhen/E. Medeiros]
85306 M. Fernández, J. C. Fernicola, and E. Cerdeño. 2023. Systematic revision of the species of Protypotherium (Notoungulata: Interatheriidae) from the Santa Cruz Formation (Early–Middle Miocene), Argentinian Patagonia: a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the Interatheriidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society zlad043:1-28 [J. Carrillo/K. Pino]
58303 A. Forasiepi, F. J. Goin, and A. A. Tauber. 2004. Las especies de Arctodictis Mercerat, 1891 (Metatheria, Borhyaenidae), grandes carnívoros del Mioceno de América del Sur. Revista Española de Paleontología 19(1):1-22 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58226 R. F. Kay, J. M. G. Perry, M. Malinzak, K. L. Allen, E. C. Kirk, J. M. Plavcan, and J. G. Fleagle. 2012. Paleobiology of Santacrucian primates. In S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 306-330 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
57760 L. Marshall. 1982. Systematics of the South American marsupial family Microbiotheriidae. Fieldiana Geology 10:1-75 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58324 L. G. Marshall. 1979. Review of the Prothylacyninae, an extinct subfamily of South American "dog-like" marsupials. Fieldiana Geology 3:1-50 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58306 L. G. Marshall. 1981. Review of the Hathlyacyninae, an extinct subfamily of South American "dog-like" marsupials. Fieldiana Geology 7:1-120 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58233 H. G. McDonald, S. F. Vizcaíno, and M. S. Bargo. 2008. Skeletal anatomy and the fossil history of the Vermilingua. In S. F. Vizcaíno, W. J. Loughry (eds.), The Biology of the Xenarthra 64-78 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
29788 F. P. Moreno and A. Mercerat. 1891. Catálogo de los pájaros fósiles de la República Argentina conservados en el Museo de La Plata [Catalogue of the fossil birds from the Argentine Republic housed in the Museo de La Plata]. Anales del Museo de La Plata. Paleontología Argentina 1:7-71 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]
73133 R. Pascual, A. A. Carlini, M. Bond and F. J. Goin. 2002. Mamíferos Cenozoicos. In M. J. Haller (ed.), Geología y Recursos Naturales de Santa Cruz. Relatorio del XV° Congreso Geológico Argentino II-11:1-12 [P. Mannion/G. Varnham]
58202 F. J. Prevosti, A. M. Forasiepi, M. D. Ercoli and G. F. Turazzini. 2012. Paleoecology of the mammalian carnivores (Metatheria, Sparassodonta) of the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene). In S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 173-193 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
70729 K. E. B. Townsend and D. A. Croft. 2008. Diets of notoungulates from the Santa Cruz Formation, Argentina: new evidence from enamel microwear. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(1):217-230 [P. Mannion/M. Kouvari]
58206 S. F. Vizcaíno, J. C. Fernicola, and M. S. Bargo. 2012. Paleobiology of Santacrucian glyptodonts and armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata). In S. F. Vizcaí­no, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 194-215 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]
58167 S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, and M. S. Bargo. 2012. Background for a paleoecological study of the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene) on the Atlantic Coast of Patagonia. In S. F. Vizcaí­no, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 1-22 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]