International Chronostratigraphic Timescale

The interval definitions in this timescale are derived from the following sources:

  • K. M. Cohen, S.C. Finney, P.L. Gibbard and J.-X. Fan. 2023. The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart v2023/09. view
  • W. B. Harland, R. L. Armstrong, A. V. Cox, L. E. Craig, A. G. Smith and D. G. Smith. 1990. A Geologic Time Scale 1989. view
  • F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, and A. G. Smith. 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004 1-589 view

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This timescale is used in the definition of 126002 collections

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International Chronostratigraphic TimescaleCenozoic Subepochs
NeogenePliocenePiacenzianLate Pliocene2.58
ZancleanEarly Pliocene3.6
MioceneMessinianLate Miocene5.333
SerravallianMiddle Miocene11.63
BurdigalianEarly Miocene15.98