Cenozoic Subepochs

The interval definitions in this timescale are derived from the following sources:

  • W. B. Harland, R. L. Armstrong, A. V. Cox, L. E. Craig, A. G. Smith and D. G. Smith. 1990. A Geologic Time Scale 1989. view
  • F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, and A. G. Smith. 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004 1-589 view
  • A. D. Barnosky, M. Holmes, R. Kirchholtes, E. Lindsey, K.C. Maguire, A.W. Poust, M.A. Stegner, J. Sunseri, B. Swartz, J. Swift, N.A. Villavicencio and G. Wogan. 2014. Prelude to the Anthropocene: Two new North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMAs). The Anthropocene Review I(3):225-242 view

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This timescale is used in the definition of 13285 collections

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International Chronostratigraphic TimescaleCenozoic SubepochsNorth American Land Mammal Ages
QuaternaryHoloceneMeghalayanSaintaugustinean0
Santarosean0.0004
Northgrippian0.0042
Greenlandian0.0082
PleistoceneLate PleistoceneLate Pleistocene0.0117
Rancholabrean0.014
ChibanianMiddle Pleistocene0.129
Irvingtonian0.21
CalabrianEarly Pleistocene0.774
Blancan1.4
Gelasian1.8
NeogenePliocenePiacenzianLate Pliocene2.58
ZancleanEarly Pliocene3.6
Hemphillian4.7
MioceneMessinianLate Miocene5.333
Tortonian7.246
Clarendonian9.4
SerravallianMiddle Miocene11.63
Barstovian12.5
Langhian13.82
BurdigalianEarly Miocene15.98
Hemingfordian16.3
Arikareean18.5
Aquitanian20.44
PaleogeneOligoceneChattianLate Oligocene23.03
RupelianEarly Oligocene27.82
Whitneyan29.5
Orellan31.8
EocenePriabonianLate EoceneChadronian33.9
Duchesnean37
BartonianMiddle Eocene37.71
Uintan39.7
Lutetian41.2
Bridgerian46.2
YpresianEarly Eocene47.8
Wasatchian50.5
Clarkforkian54.9
PaleoceneThanetianLate Paleocene56
Tiffanian56.2
SelandianMiddle Paleocene59.2
Torrejonian60.9
DanianEarly Paleocene61.6
Puercan63.8
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