Cenozoic Subepochs

The interval definitions in this timescale are derived from the following sources:

  • W. B. Harland, R. L. Armstrong, A. V. Cox, L. E. Craig, A. G. Smith and D. G. Smith. 1990. A Geologic Time Scale 1989. view
  • F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, and A. G. Smith. 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004 1-589 view
  • F. J. Prevosti, C. O. Romano, A. M. Forasiepi, S. Hemming, R. Bonini, A. M. Candela, E. Cerdeño, M. C. Madozzo Jaén, P. E. Ortiz, F. Pujos, L. Rasia, G. I. Schmidt, M. Taglioretti, R. D. E. MacPhee, and U. F. J. Pardiñas. 2021. New radiometric 40Ar–39Ar dates and faunistic analyses refine evolutionary dynamics of Neogene vertebrate assemblages in southern South America. Scientific Reports 2021(11):9830 view
  • J. J. Flynn and C. C. Swisher, III. 1995. Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages: correlation to global geochronology. Geochronology Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation, SEPM Special Publication 54:317-333 view

There are 13 timescales which overlap this one. show

Interval boundaries marked with * have been interpolated based on the differences between the ages for international timescale boundaries quoted in the source and the currently accepted ages for those boundaries.

Interval names marked with † are no longer in current use.

This timescale is used in the definition of 13285 collections

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International Chronostratigraphic TimescaleCenozoic SubepochsSouth American Land Mammal Ages
QuaternaryPleistoceneLate PleistoceneLate PleistoceneLujanian0.0117
ChibanianMiddle Pleistocene0.129
Ensenadan0.3 *
CalabrianEarly Pleistocene0.774
SanandresianUquian †1.7 *
NeogenePliocenePiacenzianLate PlioceneVorohuean2.58
Chapadmalalan2.9 *
ZancleanEarly Pliocene3.6
Montehermosan3.7 *
Huayquerian4.9 *
MioceneMessinianLate Miocene5.333
Chasicoan7.9 *
Mayoan9.9 *
Laventan10.9 *
SerravallianMiddle Miocene11.63
Colloncuran13.7 *
Friasian15.4 *
BurdigalianEarly Miocene15.98
Santacrucian16.2 *
Colhuehuapian17.4 *
Deseadan20.9 *
PaleogeneOligoceneChattianLate Oligocene23.03
RupelianEarly Oligocene27.82
Tinguirirican28.9 *
EocenePriabonianLate Eocene33.9
Divisaderan35.9 *
BartonianMiddle Eocene37.71
Mustersan41.9 *
YpresianEarly Eocene47.8
Casamayoran47.9 *
PaleoceneThanetianLate PaleoceneRiochican56
Itaboraian56.9 *
Peligran58.9 *
SelandianMiddle Paleocene59.2
DanianEarly Paleocene61.6
Tiupampan62.4 *