Baza-1 (Pliocene of Spain)

Where: Guadix, Spain (37.5° N, 2.8° W: paleocoordinates 37.6° N, 3.1° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Early/Lower Pliocene (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)

• The sedimentary context of the early Pliocene deposits, in which the Baza-1 site is located, corresponds to alluvial fans (Guadix Formation) originated at the base of the high reliefs of Sierra de Baza mountains. Towards the east, these deposits are distally connected with a lacustrine environment where the limestone-marly member of the Baza Formation was deposited. The shallowing-upward cycles are conditioned by periodic changes in the water table of the lake.

Environment/lithology: alluvial fan; mudstone

• The Baza-1 site is located in the limestone-marly member, which is ≥ 80 m thick in the studied sector. The first 25 m are composed of massive marlstones interspersed with levels of marly limestones, limestones and dark levels. Part of this section is covered by hillside debris. The following 10m are composed of nine lacustrine shallowing-upward cycles, consisting of marls at the bottom and limestone-marls or limestones at the top. The next interval (15 m thick) is composed of seven shallowing- upward cycles and is very similar to the previous section, although in this case there are some fine detrital facies intercalated (brown or grey laminate clays and marly-silts). The upper interval, where the site is located, shows four dark levels with abundant remains, which are not reactive to hydrochloric acid, and several brown laminated clay levels. The lower dark level, 50 cm thick, corresponds to the Baza-1 site.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• The fossils are housed in the “Museo Arqueológico de Granada”

Primary reference: S. Ros-Montoya, B. Martinez-Navarro, M.-P. Espigares, A. Guerra-Merchan, J. M. Garcia-Aguilar, P. Pinero, A. Rodriguez-Rueda, J. Agusti, O. Oms and P. Palmqvist. 2017. A new Ruscinian site in Europe: Baza-1 (Baza basin, Andalusia, Spain). Comptes Rendus Palevol [E. Vlachos/E. Vlachos]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 186699: authorized by Evangelos Vlachos, entered by Evangelos Vlachos on 01.07.2017

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Alephis sp.
Skull with both horn cores (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 15); left P3 (BA-1 2015 O11 No. 22); two mandibles (BA-1 2001 O10 No. 7 and BA-1 2015 N9 No. 13); two right and one left pyramidals (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 23, BA-1 2015 N14 No. 1 and BA-1 2015 O12 No. 41); right pisiform (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 5); left scaphoid (BA-1 2015 O12 No. 6); two right unciforms (BA-1 2015 O12 No. 9 y BA-1 2015 P11 No. 1); sesamoid (BA-1 2015 O11 No. 27); right astragalus (BA-1 2015 O11 No. 27); metapodial fragment (BA-1 2015 O11 No. 20); and one first phalanx (BA-1 2015 O11 No. 14).
Testudinae indet.
Thirty-eight carapace fragments of chelonians were unearthed in 2015 and ten in 2016. Most of the fragments have small dimensions. The taxonomical study of these fragments is not finished and they have been preliminarily attributed to Testudinae indet.
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
Thirty-eight carapace fragments of chelonians were unearthed in 2015 and ten in 2016. Most of the fragments have small dimensions. The taxonomical study of these fragments is not finished and they have been preliminarily attributed to Testudinae indet.
Mammalia
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus cf. jeanvireti rhinoceros
right m2 (BA-1 2001 O10 No. 8); right m3 (BA- 1 2015 N9 No. 35) and Mtt. II (BA-1 2000 sn1)
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
cf. Hipparion sp. de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
one lunar (BA-1 2015 O12 No. 5B). The mea- surements of this bone are 28.9 mm (H), 28.4 mm (MLD) and 16.8 mm (APDMAX )
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus arvernensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 gomphothere
Maxilla with left M2-M3 and right M3 (BA-1 2000 sn2)
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut borsoni Hays 1834 mastodon
two left and right m1 (BA-1 2000 O11 No. 4A, andBA-12000O11No.4B),twoleftm2(BA-12000N ̃11 No.12andBA-12000N ̃12No.1A)andoneleftM3(BA-1 2000N ̃12No.1B).
 Ungulata - Bovidae
cf. Antilope sp. Pallas 1766 antelope
two left m1 (BA-1 2015 O12 No. 50 and BA-1 2015 N9 No. 24A); right m2 (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 24B); right p2-m3 and left p2-p4, m2-m3 (BA-1 2015 O12 No. 42); right p3-p4 and right m3 (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 6B); left scaphoid (BA-1 2015 O12 No. 46); right astragalus (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 11); right calcaneus (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 4); metapodial fragment (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 2); two proximal phalanges (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 12 and BA-1 2015 N9 No. 1); and two middle phalanges (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 28 and BA-1 2015 N9 No. 3).
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervinae indet. Goldfuss 1820 deer
left p2 (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 18), right p3 (BA- 1 2015 P11 No. 4), left p2–p3 (BA-1 2015 N9 No. 6A) and tooth fragment (BA-1 2015 O11 No. 25).